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Mikko Ollanketo Where should we go today?
Mikko Ollanketo
Where should we go today?
WHERE SHOULD WE GO TODAY?
Social-driven Event Calendar for Finnish consumers
Mikko Ollanketo
Bachelor’s thesis
Fall 2013
Business Information Technology
Oulu University of Applied sciences
ABSTRACT
Oulu University of Applied Sciences
Degree Programme in Business Information Technology
Mikko Ollanketo
Where should we go today?:Social-driven Event Calendar for Finnish
consumers
Teppo Räisänen
Fall 2013
Number of pages: 28
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this thesis was to introduce a new form of designing principles
to web designing. There are new and more fluid designing methods, which are
replacing old, cumbersome methods.
Objective was not to dismiss proven practices in the web designing field, but to
complement the existing ones with theories of persuasive design and
responsive web design. Those two new theories were added to guidelines of
user interface to create a new social media application. Using the persuasive
design as the stepping stone to create new web applications will prove useful in
reducing marketing costs and bring more dedicated users. Responsive web
design provides means to create cross platform applications, and using these
two theories while creating a new application should prove fruitful.
Socially driven event calendar is build using guidelines for user interface,
theories about persuasive designs and made available with cross platform
devices with responsive web designing. That resulted into some interesting yet
predicted outcomes.
Main goal of this thesis was to introduce new forms of designing principles and
try to give out practical examples how it could be done. The problem with
persuasive design is that it is still in theory mostly and with responsive web
designing has the opposite problem of being foremost practical.
Keywords: social media, responsive web design, persuasive design, user
interface planning
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5
2
WEB 2.0 IN GENERAL ................................................................................ 6
3
2.1
What is Web? ..................................................................................... 6
2.2
960 Grid System & Blueprint (CSS framework) .................................. 6
THEORIES ABOUT DESIGN ...................................................................... 8
3.1
The importance of user interface ........................................................ 8
3.2
Guidelines for user interface ............................................................... 8
3.3
4
5
3.2.1
Scenarios ................................................................................ 9
3.2.2
Requirements ....................................................................... 10
3.2.3
Envisionment ........................................................................ 10
3.2.4
Prototyping ........................................................................... 11
3.2.5
Evaluation ............................................................................. 11
3.2.6
Conceptual and Physical Design .......................................... 12
Persuasive technology ..................................................................... 12
3.3.1
Tools of Persuasive Technology ........................................... 13
3.3.2
Persuasive Design Model ..................................................... 14
3.4
Responsive Web Design .................................................................. 18
3.5
Responsive Web Design with PSD-Model ........................................ 18
SOCIAL EVENT CALENDAR .................................................................... 20
4.1
Vision ................................................................................................ 20
4.2
Business idea behind Social Event Calendar ................................... 21
4.3
Functional requirements ................................................................... 21
4.3.1
Users .................................................................................... 21
4.3.2
Categories ............................................................................ 22
4.3.3
Submitting an event .............................................................. 23
4.3.4
Searching for events ............................................................. 25
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION ........................................................... 26
REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 29
4
1 INTRODUCTION
Challenge today when creating a web application is how to get people to using
it. Marketing might do the trick, but how to proceed, when there are limitations
to the budget and labor force. The answer might lie in influencing the users
through persuasive design.
The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to examine theories about web-design
and persuasive technology and then utilize these findings to create a visual
template of country wide event calendar, which aims to persuade users to
check all the public events which are near to them from this web-based event
calendar.
Using theories from Persuasive Technology and Responsive Web Design, as
well as few theses from the psychology field the final result of the actual visual
template should be something of a textbook example how design can persuade
you to use new technologies and applications.
First theory to be examined will be the theory behind Persuasive Technology.
From this perspective the seven types of persuasive Technology Tools by B.J.
Fogg will be explained in detail. Then through elimination process some of
these tools are used as the carrying force in the design.
Second part of the theory will explain the connection between responsive web
design and persuasive design, and show that even though they have
similarities, they are totally different fields of study.
Thirdly the theories are combined to produce a unique way of looking web site
designs and to lay out some guidelines what needs to be taken into
consideration when designing new services.
5
2 WEB 2.0 IN GENERAL
2.1 What is Web?
Usually word “Web” is used as a synonym to Internet. In essence Web is the
end-user part of Internet. Comprising of servers linked together, Internet
provides the means for publishing web-sites, which are regarded with the term
“Web”. Intranets and extranets are also thought to be part of the web. (Korpela,
J, Linjamo, T, 2005 5)
Current trend of the Web is Social media, which is in essence was spawned by
Web 2.0; users making content to websites offered by companies or individuals.
Social media has resulted into some design patterns that offer a different view
in contrary the “normal” patterns of doing business:
1. Responsiveness beats planning
2. Communities beat audiences
3. Reputation beats branding
4. Sociality beats media-mentality
Responsiveness in this context means that companies that try to harness social
media, should be readied for faster communication inside and outside of the
company. One failure will result in the loss of reputation, which in essence
“warns” new users to stay away. (Ross, J-M, 2013)
2.2 960 Grid System & Blueprint (CSS framework)
Blueprint and 960 grid system were created to cut down development time on
web projects. Both of these frameworks have their advantages, but one thing
6
remains in both: you need to decide the pixel width of your page. (Smith, N,
2008)
960 grid system uses 960 pixels width with different column layouts. Web
developer can now choose their, which suits to them the best. It is not supposed
to be a perfect solution nor complete. (Smith, N, 2008)
Picture 1 Example of 12 Column Grid
Blueprint CSS framework offers more tools for every step of the workflow.
Aiming for eliminating discrepancies between browsers via CSS, this framework
offers more flexibility in deciding the width of the page. ( www.blueprintcss.org,
2013).
7
3 THEORIES ABOUT DESIGN
3.1 The importance of user interface
Having a user friendly, easy to use user interfaces in application, whether the
application being an website or custom-made account software, gives an
important edge in business and enhances competitiveness (Jokela, T. 2010,
11).
It is application and case related, how much usability will bring advantages over
competitors and what benefits are deemed to be the most important. When
designing new application or software, resources should be balanced to bring
out the needed usability level in reasonable ratio to the actual resources at hand
(Jokela, T. 2010, 11)
According to Jokela, there are two main levels in user interface. These are
called visual and interaction levels. Visual level consists of the visual image,
color scheme etc. The interactive level is the logic behind the user interface and
it is split in two levels, which are called the interactive elements and architecture
levels. (Jokela, T. 2010, 17)
This thesis will focus on both of the main levels as well as in the two sublevels
in order, which are then enhanced by the theories presented below.
3.2 Guidelines for user interface
There are six aspects of systems designing which can be adapted to user
interface design as well. These are scenarios, requirements, envisionment,
prototyping, evaluation and conceptual and physical design. Using these six
aspects can a more human-centred user interface to be designed. (Benyon, D.
& Co. 2005, 190-192)
8
3.2.1 Scenarios
Scenario-based design has emerged as an important approach to design of
interactive systems. According to Carrol scenarios are used to deal with the
inherent difficulty of doing design. There are five points which he addresses.
(Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 192)
There are often external factors that constrain the design, such as time
constraints, having to fit in with existing designs and lack of resources to name
few. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 192)
Design moves have many effects and create many possibilities. A single design
decision can have a huge impact in many areas of usability and these need to
be explored and evaluated. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 192)
Scientific knowledge and generic solutions lag behind specific situations. There
are some generalities, but because of the pace of the technology moving
forward, these become obsolete even before they have been discovered.
(Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 193)
While viewing the design by the eyes of end user, it often evokes, and should
evoke reflection about design issues. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 193)
Last point is that by nature design problems are slippery. Designers may find
solutions which bring out more problems and a problem in designers’ point of
view might be a solution to the end user (Carrol, 2000, 69).
9
3.2.2 Requirements
According to Robertson and Robertson, a requirement is something the product
must do or a quality that the product must have. Creating a systems
requirement calls for understanding of PACT.
PACT stands for people, activities, context and technologies. Designer must
have a extensive understanding about people using the system to be designed
as well as the activities that are the focus of the design. Activities in the system
must be made in context and finally the designer must know the limitations or
possibilities that technologies bring to the system. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 194)
3.2.3 Envisionment
Envisionment is all about bringing ideas visible. Bill Verplank gives three main
things for easing the designing process for user interfaces. These are "How do
you do?" , "How do you feel?" and "How do you know". (Benyon, D. & Co.
2005, 236)
"How do you do?" in terms of usability is how do you interact with the user
interface. Are you using a keyboard, mouse or your finger as a input device.
(Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 237)
"How do you feel?" is about users making sense of the world and how are they
affected emotionally by designing and can they be influenced. It is also about
how the design affects the sensory input of the end user. (Benyon, D. & Co.
2005, 238)
"How do you know?" is about designers wanting users to think in certain way.
Verplank gives an example of paths and maps. For beginners, a path through
an application provides step-by-step instructions while maps give a bigger
overview and are better for expert end users. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 239)
10
3.2.4 Prototyping
Prototype is a partial representation of the application or user interface. They
are mainly used to demonstrate a concept, to test details of an concept or in
later stages of development act as an specification for the actual product. There
are two main kinds of prototyping; low fidelity (lo-fi) and high fidelity (hi-fi).
(Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 254)
Hi-fi prototypes are closer to the actual final product. They are intended to look
and feel like the finished product, yet lack they usually lack the functionality or
have partial functionality. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 254-255)
Lo-fi prototypes are often called paper prototypes and they usually are made
out of paper. They are used to clarify the broad design ideas that are not always
even visible in the final product. Lo-fi prototypes can be produced quickly and
can be discarded as fast as well. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 255-256)
Hi-fi prototypes are usually used in later stages of project, while lo-fi prototypes
are used in the earlier stages. Usually if there are underlying design problems
noticed during the project, they are returned to the lo-fi prototypes, because in
those they can be more easily solved. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 259)
3.2.5 Evaluation
Evaluation is all about getting input from the potential end users. Basic
evaluation can be handled in seven main steps starting from the recognizing
potential users to getting results back to the designers. In this thesis evaluation
will not be conducted. (Benyon, D. & Co. 2005, 268)
11
3.2.6 Conceptual and Physical Design
Abstract description of the user interface can be done with conceptual design. It
explains the logic, functions, structure and content, but does not explain the
how those can be physically realized.
Physical design on the other hand tackles the facts of who does what, how do
people and design elements communicate and how do they look and behave.
3.3 Persuasive technology
Interactive computing systems that are designed to change attitudes or
behaviors of the users through persuasion and social influence but not through
coercion are regarded as persuasive technology. Primary function of computers
and their systems is to store and process data but how this data is being
presented to the end user has changed significantly (Fogg, B.J. 2003, 1).
While the Internet is the most visual and recognizable form of persuasive
technology on itself, others are quite hard to recognize in the everyday usage.
The range of these influencing products is from “smart” toothbrushes to mobile
phones in the common household (Fogg, 2003, 2).
Persuasion with computer applications or devices has one significant advantage
over traditional media: It can be interactive. It is a general rule; persuasion
techniques are most effective when they are interactive. A brochure about
telling the ill effects of smoking is less effective than a application, which can be
tailored to the specific needs of the individual smoker, in order to help (s)he to
quit. (Fogg, 2003, 6)
According to Fogg, computers have six distinct advantages over human
persuaders. Computers can be more persistent than human beings, because
they don’t get tired. Secondly they can offer greater anonymity, which is needed
when dealing with sensitive issues, such as substance abuse or sexual
12
behavior. Another advantage is the ability to store, access and manipulate data
much greater speeds than human beings, which gives them an edge over
human persuaders. Presenting data in different modalities is the fourth
advantage. This includes presenting data in graphs, graphics itself, and video,
audio or even hyperlinked content. Fifth advantage is the scalability of
computers. You cannot clone a good human persuader, but with a good
persuasive computer software or web application you can devote more
resources for it when the need arises. The final advantage of computers as
persuaders is that they can be ubiquitous. Computer based persuasion systems
can follow you to places where human persuaders are not welcome, like
bathroom (Fogg, 2003, 7-11)
3.3.1 Tools of Persuasive Technology
The basis of PSD-Model comes from the persuasive technology tools that B.J.
Fogg introduced in his book “Persuasive Technology, Using Computers to
change what we think and do”. According to B.J. Fogg, there are seven types of
persuasive tools (Table 1). (Fogg, 2003, 32-54)
Table 1 Seven types of Persuasive Technology tools
Principle
Explanation
Reduction
Using computing technology to reduce
complex behavior to simple tasks
Tunneling
Using computing technology to guide
users through a process provides
opportunities to persuade along the
way
Tailoring
Information provided is tailored to the
individual needs of the user
Suggestion
Offering suggestions at opportune
moments
13
Self-monitoring
Using computing technology to keep
track of individuals performance or
status
Surveillance
Applying computing technology to
increase
desired
behavior
via
observing
Conditioning
Using positive reinforcing to shape
complex behavior into habit
Seven persuasive technology tools offer designers a set of principles which to
use to design new web sites. These principles can be used as such and for that
the PSD-Model was created for.
3.3.2 Persuasive Design Model
PSD-model stands for Persuasive Design model, and it is presented by authors
Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Marja Harjumaa in the article “Persuasive Systems
Design: Key Issues, Process Model and System Features. Communications of
the Association for the Information Systems”. ( Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa
2008,1.)
In order to provide greater detail using persuasion while designing a new
computer system or web application, they introduce 28 different design
principles, which can be used as guidelines. These guidelines are divided into
four different categories of seven.
The first category, primary task support is almost the same, as introduced by
B.J. Fogg (Table 1). According to Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa, the first
category offers design principles, which primarily aim to help and support the
user to perform the primary task at hand (Table 2). Dialogue support is the
second category, and the principles of this category aim to implement the
14
computer-human dialogue support (Table 3). Third category, system credibility
support, aims to help to design a system with high credibility and high level of
persuasion (Table 4). The final category is called social support (Table 5).
Increasing the social influence of the system is used to motivate users. (OinasKukkonen, Harjumaa, 2008, 8-11)
Table 2 Primary task support
Priciple
Explanation
Reduction
System should reduce effort that is
needed for user to perform their target
behavior
Tunneling
System should guide users in the
attitude
change process providing
means which brings them closer to
target behavior
Tailoring
System
should
provide
tailored
information for its user groups
Personalization
System
should
offer
personalized
content services for its users
Self-monitoring
System should provide means for
users to track their performance or
status
Simulation
System should provide means for
observing the link between cause and
effect while regarding users behavior
Rehearsal
System should provide means to
rehearse the target behavior
Table 3 Dialogue support
Principle
Explanation
Praise
When reaching goals, that steer user
15
to the desired behavior, the system
should praise the user with words,
images symbols etc.
Rewards
System should provide virtual rewards
when user reaches target behavior
Reminders
Systems should remind users of their
target behavior during the system use
Suggestion
System should suggest that users
carry out behaviors during the system
use process
Similarity
System should imitate its users in
some way
Liking
System should have a look and feel
that appeals to its users
Social role
System should adopt a social role
Table 4 System credibility support
Principle
Explanation
Trustworthiness
System should provide non-corrupt
information
Expertise
System should provide information
which reflects knowledge, experience
and competence
Surface credibility
System should have a competent look
and feel
Real-world feel
System should provide information of
the organization and/or actual people
behind its content and services
Authority
System should refer to people in the
role of authority
Third-party endorsements
System should provide endorsements
16
from respected sources
Verifiability
Systems should provide means to
verify the accuracy of the site contents
via outside sources
Table 5 Social support
Principle
Explanation
Social learning
System should provide means to
observe
other
users
who
are
performing their target behaviors and
to see the outcomes of their behavior
Social comparison
System should provide means for
comparing
performance
with
the
performance of the users
Normative influence
System should provide means for
gathering together people who have
the same goal and make them feel
norms
Social facilitation
System should provide means for
discerning
other
users
who
are
performing the behavior
Cooperation
System should provide the means for
co-operation
Competition
System should provide mean for
competing with other users
Recognition
System
should
provide
public
recognition for users who perform
their target behavior
17
3.4 Responsive Web Design
Web designers have had a problem of doing work, which is never tangible like
normal art is. Even most of the words in the early stages of web design were
directly inherited from print design. Though recycling is part of web designing;
you are not supposed to re-invent the wheel with every new design. (Marcotte,
2011, 2-3)
The idea of canvas was also inherited to web design. This was in essence
inevitable, but it poses some problems. The final product won’t be on a fixed
canvas, rather it will be in a browser window, which can mean today anything
from computer screen to the screen in a smart phone. This creates the need for
responsive web design. (Marcotte, 2011, 3-5)
Biggest problem is the nature of Internet. It is naturally flexible, yet most of the
web sites are done with pixel constraints in mind. Mobile devices have received
these constraints as well, even though manufactures have tried to introduce
standards, in which these devices can view the full site within its viewport with
“zoom-out” feature. This presents the problem that user needs to zoom in and
out again, not able to see all the relevant information at once. (Marcotte, 2011,
4, 87)
Responsive web design, while used with the philosophy “mobile first” can serve
users with broader range. Question is that do the users with smaller screen
need the same information as the users with bigger screens? Do they want the
same information? Does the device dictate context?
3.5 Responsive Web Design with PSD-Model
Creating a user interface that uses persuasive design as basis for designing the
visual level and responsive aspects for the interactive level does not actually
18
differ from normal process of creating user interfaces. Now they are just named
and scrutinized more closely.
Question remains, is there a golden set of rules for designing a good web site or
application. While persuasive design tries to influence people to use the
application in the way it is designed to be used, responsive design on the other
hand relies on usability studies of users how they want to use it and then adapts
to the needs of the users.
Persuasive design however is not purely for influencing people to use the
application as it was designed and planned to be used, but also it tries to affect
behavior, and in the case of web sites and applications to create a habit even a
sort of an addiction to the users, so that they would return to use it.
Both approaches require extensive knowledge of the group that they are
targeted for. In responsive web design questionnaires are used to get input from
beta-testers to know which elements in the site work and which do not.
Research on the persuasive design point of view needs to be done on the
psyche of the target group. What influences them, how could the application
create the feeling of social pressure for example and how could the application
do it in the most subtle way.
19
4 SOCIAL EVENT CALENDAR
4.1 Vision
When end user creates an event this bulletin board type site, he or she can
follow how many people are interested about the upcoming event and how
many are participating to it. People joining the event can share it in popular
social media sites, such as Google+, Twitter and Facebook, and these shares
will show up on the event. They can also add the event to their own calendar
software on local computer or online calendars such as found on Gmail and
Facebook.
Mobile version of the site could offer Finnish domestic tourists to find and to
plan their summer vacation in order to reach small events which are usually
marketed only by grapevine.
Social event calendar (referred as SEC from now on) offers an opportunity to
give out discount to people who show up with required amount of friends. For
example you bring 4 friends and you would get a free ticket yourself to the
event. Even strangers could pair to get discounts from events.
Picture 2 Customers vision to marketing material
20
4.2 Business idea behind Social Event Calendar
Social event calendar is aimed for every domestic tourist in Finland. There are
three kinds of end users for service. First there are the event planners and
organizers, who want to promote their event with less effort. Second group of
users consists of people looking for events to participate. Third group of users
are event or campaign promoters, who want to get the most advertisement
income from the event with less effort.
Submitting single events would be easy and free, but submitting more than 3
events a month would categorize the user as being a event organizer rather
than participant.
The profit from the social event calendar would be raised from the
advertisements on the site and offering paid services for event planners who
want a better visibility for their events.
4.3 Functional requirements
In this part different functional requirements are listed. These are dictated by the
client ordering the thesis and they are supposed to be found in the finished
product. Prototype, which is in scope of this thesis, is not supposed to have the
full functionality.
4.3.1 Users
Social event calendar is supposed to have three different types of users. These
are administrators, event organizers and event seekers. The difference between
these three user groups is that administrators are the people working behind the
SEC and event organizers and event seekers are the end users.
21
Administrators have a possibility to make new users for the SEC and to delete
them. They have privilege of editing all event notifications and delete them.
Administrators have also the privileges to change other users from event
organizers to event planners and vice versa.
Event organizer is a user type that has the privilege of doing multiple events on
its account. They can also buy advertisement space from SEC and get their
event notification lifted in the search results.
Event seeker is a user type that can post maximum of three event notifications
simultaneously. Event seeker can save their search preferences and modify
their landing page while using SEC.
4.3.2 Categories
When user is submitting an event for the SEC, he or she must choose a
category in which the event fits. User must choose at least one and maximum of
three categories. This helps event seekers to find events that fit their interest.
Table 6 Categories for SEC
culture / music
kids and family
nightlife
fashion
sports
food
health
charity
shopping centers
pets / animals
sales /marketing
education
students
politics
outdoors
science/
technology
motorsports
neighborhood
religious
handicraft
culture / art
auction
flashmob
exhibit
22
Picture 3 Customers vision about categories
4.3.3 Submitting an event
In addition choosing a category the user submitting the event must announce
the time and place of the event. There is a possibility to create a “mother an
event”, in which smaller events occurring in the same mother event can be
nested. For example, a rock festival would be a mother event, in which concerts
from different artist would be listed.
If an event organizer notices that an event is submitted already by some other
organizer or normal user, he or she can challenge this event, and gain control of
it. Event organizer could use the information from the previous user, who
submitted the event to get more information, thus more content for the event
seekers.
Different locations are saved in the SEC database. When submitting a new
event there is the possibility to browse the locations in which previous events
were organized and in time all the popular places will be found straight away.
23
Users can give out possible open hours to an event, which lasts several days.
There is possibility to give out special opening hours for holidays which might
affect them.
An event organizer might be a representative of a sports team, which have fairly
regular timetables set before their season starts. If this is the case, user who is
submitting for a sports team, can submit their entire timetable about match
dates.
Picture 4 Customers view of exhibition event
24
Picture 5 Customers view of mother event
4.3.4 Searching for events
Events can be searched with following filters; location, time, category, opening
hours and entrance costs. If user permits the use of his or hers location, the
service uses it as is point of origin to search events by default in the radius of 10
kilometers. User can change this default radius and restrict the shown events by
category.
The search can be evolved to a route planning in mobile devices. Scenario, in
which you are driving through Finland during three week period, and you want
to listen to live music every night could be achieved easily by using SEC.
25
5 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
In retrospect the actual defining of the scope of this thesis was painful. On the
other hand there was the use logic of the service to be clarified and on the other
hand there was the actual design. Using the theories about user interfaces,
persuasive design and responsive web design I ended up in the conclusion of
doing a bit of everything.
After extensively immersing myself in theories about persuasive design and
responsive web design the restraints of time and lack of test users was
apparent. Not to be able to run everything through a punch of test users, I had
to rely on more basic things to get the job done.
I started doing the practical part of the thesis with actual paper models. After
serious trial and error, I got the usage logic in the point that could be produced
into an actual user interface, but there were still information missing. Getting all
the necessary information to fit, while trying to heed to the idea of “less is more
persuasive” was not working as planned.
Picture 6 the first draft
26
Picture 7 the first draft revised after customer input
Final products of this thesis ended up being prototypes. These design
prototypes are meant to offer some roots, in which the final SEC could be
produced. The actual working prototype was made with basic HTML, JQuery
and PHP. No SQL was used, because even though that could have helped in
describing some function logic, the decision was made, that more feeling and
emotion based prototype would be presented.
Picture 8 the simple mobile app prototype
27
There were some problems making the prototype to work as wanted, but those
problems have been hopefully solved. The prototype will show the usage of
search features, as well as the making of a basic event.
Picture 9 First draft how the search should look like
To sum it up, it was hard to get the ball rolling, but when it did, and I realized the
possible downfalls and possible gains, it was a bit smoother sailing. My sincere
hope is that, this will help the customer to get more ideas and insight, and
possibly help her to port the SEC to markets abroad.
28
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Fogg, B.J. 2003. Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What
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T,
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