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EVALUATION OF WAREHOUSE OUTSOURCING PROCESS Case Safeplast Oy

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EVALUATION OF WAREHOUSE OUTSOURCING PROCESS Case Safeplast Oy
EVALUATION OF WAREHOUSE
OUTSOURCING PROCESS
Case Safeplast Oy
Sipriina Jenna Kuitunen
Bachelor’s thesis
December 2013
International Business
Tampere University of
Applied Sciences
2
ABSTRACT
Tampereen Ammattikorkeakoulu
Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Degree Programme in International Business
Green Supply Chain Management
Sipriina Jenna Kuitunen
Evaluation of warehouse outsourcing process: Case Safeplast Oy
Bachelor's thesis
55 pages, appendices 7 pages
Supervisor: Dr. Anasse Bouhlal
This final thesis is partly based on a study conducted within practical training and
summer job placements at Safeplast Oy. The thesis was created for Safeplast Oy that
specializes in producing plastic spirals and textile products to protect all types of hoses
and cables. The study comprises the process of establishing warehouse and in more
detail evaluates the outsourcing process of a warehouse to be established in Central
Europe. The focus of the thesis is to find out how the establishing of outsourced
warehouse in Czech Republic would impact on freight costs, delivery times and what
would be the effects in terms of expenses. In addition to show by case study what to
take into account of when planning warehouse in general.
The research was done using mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative
research approaches. Theoretical basis for this research lies in background research on
literature and articles in logistics and supply chain management in general and in more
details of fundamentals of warehousing and outsourcing. Furthermore interviews within
the company, correspondence with external parties, method of comparison and analysis
were used.
Based on findings in the case study the volume of activity is not large enough yet that
the outsourcing of warehousing would increase Safeplast Oy’s operational flexibility in
terms of great improvement in fast respond to customer requirements. The delivery
times would not become shorter significantly and the freight costs would remain the
same to current market area. The outsourced warehouse would cause extra expenditure
that would lead to price increase without significant improvement in the customer
service level.
Due to Safeplast Oy being fast growing firm the outsourcing and redesign of their
supply chain will become timely. This final thesis offers a guideline to plan the process
to ensure all important elements are considered, the objectives are clear and the process
is adequately resourced to avoid disappointment in expected reduction in costs, business
benefits and customer service levels that is expected to be achieved by outsourcing.
Based on the Safeplast Oy’s will and confidentiality agreement, parts of the final thesis
are excluded from the published version on the commissioner’s request.
____________________________________________________________________
Key words: outsourcing, evaluation, logistics, warehouse, supply chain, third party
logistics
3
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 6
1.1 Objectives and purpose of the thesis.................................................................... 6
1.2 Research problems ............................................................................................... 7
1.3 Research process and methods ............................................................................ 8
2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .............................................................................. 9
2.1 Logistics and Supply Chain Management ........................................................... 9
2.2 Warehouse ......................................................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Reasons for warehousing ........................................................................ 11
2.2.2 Warehouse alternatives ........................................................................... 12
2.2.3 Warehouse location ................................................................................. 15
2.2.4 Warehouse size........................................................................................ 16
2.2.5 Product mix consideration....................................................................... 17
2.2.6 Warehousing costs .................................................................................. 18
2.3 Outsourcing ........................................................................................................ 19
2.3.1 Third party logistics ................................................................................ 20
2.3.2 Selection process in outsourcing ............................................................. 21
2.3.3 Pricing structure in outsourcing .............................................................. 25
2.3.4 To avoid risks in outsourcing .................................................................. 26
3 COMPANY DESCRIPTION .................................................................................... 27
3.1 Safeplast Oy ....................................................................................................... 27
3.1.1 Product line ............................................................................................. 27
3.1.2 Sales ........................................................................................................ 27
3.1.3 Supply chain ............................................................................................ 27
4 WAREHOUSE EVALUATION PROCESS............................................................. 28
4.1 Warehouse evaluation criteria ........................................................................... 28
4.1.1 Scope for outsourcing ............................................................................. 28
4.1.2 Warehouse alternative ............................................................................. 28
4.1.3 Warehouse location ................................................................................. 28
4.1.4 Product-mix consideration ...................................................................... 28
4.1.5 Warehouse size........................................................................................ 28
4.2 Cost analysis ...................................................................................................... 28
4.2.1 Warehousing costs .................................................................................. 29
4.2.2 Freight costs ............................................................................................ 29
5 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS .................................................................................. 30
4
6 CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................... 31
REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 32
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................ 37
Appendix 1. Samples of Safeplast products .............................................................. 37
Appendix 2. Customer Locations in Europe ............................................................. 38
Appendix 3. Map of the Czech motorway network .................................................. 39
Appendix 4. Sales forecast by product category in Europe, 2013-2015 ................... 40
Appendix 5. Packaging of coils ................................................................................. 41
Appendix 6. Comparison of freight prices and delivery times .................................. 41
Appendix 7. Price offer from Ahola Transport Oy Ab 25.10.2013 .......................... 41
5
ABBREVIATIONS
DC
Distribution Centre
3PL
Third-Party Logistics
2PL
Second-Party Logistics
RFI
Request for Information
RFP
Request for Proposal
KPI
Key Performance Indicator
JIT
Just-In-Time
FTL
Full Truck Load
IPREG
Innovative Policy Research for Entrepreneurship and Growth
SME
Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
6
1
INTRODUCTION
In certain stage most firms are bound to modify their business operations in order to
continue to quickly respond customer and market demands in their customary manner.
One of the solutions for firms is to redesign their supply chain management which
basically involve re-configuration of their logistics activities. These include
transportation, warehousing, freight forwarding and value added services.
Warehousing is important part in most logistic systems and a link in supply chain
between the supplier and the customers and can be involved in various stages before the
goods end up to the end-customer. In terms of cost and service the warehouse is one of
the most crucial elements in the supply chain and that is why the effective management
is important. To ensure the cost –efficient service outsourcing the warehouse functions
to be contracted out to a third party has been one of the most popular logistics decisions.
This final thesis is based on a study conducted for Safeplast Oy. Safeplast Oy is a fast
growing Finnish company specialized in producing and distributing hose protectors for
all kinds of hoses and purposes. Their vision is to become a global supplier in hydraulic
industry. The geographical location of Finland, customer’s reductions of inventories and
requirements for short lead times in addition to growing number of customers and
expanding product line have raised the need to look for an option to enlarge its supply
chain in order to remain responsive to customer and market demands.
1.1
Objectives and purpose of the thesis
Main Objective of the thesis is to evaluate the outsourcing process of a warehouse that
can be used as basis under consideration. Warehouse costs and competition has caused
businesses to reduce inventories but the need for short lead time has not disappeared.
The geographical location of Finland being apart from the rest of the Europe leads to
longer delivery times and more expensive freight costs.
7
The purpose is to formulate a clear plan and evaluation what to take into consideration
in establishing contract warehouse in Check Republic for Safeplast Oy. The goal of the
thesis is to explain the purpose of effective planning establishing warehouse and put in
action establishing outsourced warehouse by using Safeplast Oy as an example. In
addition to show by case study what to take into account of when planning warehouse in
general. Purpose is to find out if establishing the contract warehouse in Check Republic
would impact to freight costs, delivery times and what would be the effects in terms of
expenses.
Objectives and goals:
Main objective is to come up with plan that can be used as a basis when
establishing warehouse
Evaluate the outsourcing process of contract warehouse to Czech Republic in
Safeplast Oy and the warehouse’s impact in terms of expenses and customer
service level
1.2
Research problems
The increasing popularity of just-in-time (JIT) deliveries with short lead-times, wide
product range and limited space in the warehouse are major promoting factors in
outsourcing for Safeplast Oy. Also in the future Safeplast wants to continue to quickly
respond to customer and market demands in their customary manner. Also smaller
orders are consuming a lot of time of more than one person in comparison to its rather
small financial profit and Safeplast Oy is hoping that the time saved because of
outsourcing could be used in more profitable areas. Additionally because of the
geographical location of Finland the freight delivery times are relatively long.
8
1.3
Research process and methods
To draw up the theoretical framework research on correspondent literature and articles
will be studied. Practical issues are based on observations within practical training
placement and summer job in Safeplast Oy, interviews within the employees in the
company and external parties. Method of comparison, analysis and evaluation will be
used.
The study uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative study
refers to in-depth examination of the phenomenon how outsourcing process will be
practiced in Safeplast Oy. On the other hand quantitative studies point out existing relationships between different variables under investigation.
9
2
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This part of the thesis explains important concepts that are considered important to
understand and clarify in order to ease to conduct the actual study of evaluation of
establishing of contract warehouse in Czech Republic. The chapter is divided into three
parts: logistics in general, fundamentals of warehousing and outsourcing. The first part
shortly defines logistics and the meaning of the term. The second part treats
warehousing. Warehousing plays essential part in logistics. The thesis studies
establishing contract warehouse in Czech Republic in terms of costs and delivery times
and it is meaningful to understand the issues concerning warehousing. The last part of
this chapter deals with outsourcing and describes the step by step selection process in
outsourcing and introduces different pricing structures.
2.1
Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Logistics can be explained by the management of resources that can refer either to
goods or services from the point of origin (supply) to the point of consumption in
desired condition in a most cost effective way by making greatest contribution to the
firm and achieving a target level of customer service. (Rushton, Croucher, Baker, 2006,
4-7.)
Figure 1: Supply Chain
10
Logistics combines the different functions of the organization considering capital,
material, service and information flow into a together functioning process and enables
the organization to combine different components into a logistics management. The
logistics management can be described as a value chain and by effective management
and efficient combining of different logistic activities, shown in the Figure 2; it creates
the logistics service mix that becomes proprietary asset of the organization and
competitive advantage among other organizations in the same market. Logistics cause
great expenditures for businesses and the goal of the organization should be to reduce
the total cost of logistics activities rather than focusing in each of them separately.
(Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram, 2006, 3-11.)
Supply chain is an efficient integration and management of relationship concerning all
stakeholders in order to improve operating efficiency. It logically and logistically links a
firm and its distributive and supplier network to customers. In practice logistics is the
work required in detailed coordination of complex operations involving people,
facilities and supplies to continuously move through supply chain. (Bowersox, Closs,
Cooper, 2007, 4-6.)
Figure 2: Components of Logistics Management (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram, 4)
11
2.2
Warehouse
Warehouse is only a part but one very quintessence in most logistics systems.
Warehouse is the place where manufactured and purchased items are stored until they
are used, needed or sold. Warehousing can be considered important link in supply chain
between the supplier and the consumer even though warehousing can be involved in
various stages before the goods end up to the end-customer. Warehouses are also one of
the most crucial elements in terms of costs and service and that is why effective
management is very important.
Even though improvements in technology and
increased competition have led companies to reduced inventories the focus have moved
towards rapid and efficient fulfilling of orders and have not removed the requirement of
warehouses. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 229)
2.2.1
Reasons for warehousing
The integral aim of businesses to hold warehouses is to ease the movement of goods
through the supply chain to the end customer and to enable a rapid reaction on the
demand changes and to reduce lead time. Proper selection in stock increases the sales
and customer satisfaction because it makes it easier to the firm to match supply to
variations and seasonal fluctuations in demand and to respond to unexpected customer
demands.
Other meaning of warehouse is to support manufacturing. Material or
component shortage can lead to delay in production, added cost and shortage in finished
goods. Inventory can also cover for planned or breakdown production shutdown for
example in case there are a need for maintenance. In addition reasons for holding
inventory can be savings in acquisition cost because of price and quantity discounts in
large purchases together with hedge against the price increases. (Rushton, Croucher,
Baker, 2006, 255-257)
12
2.2.2
Warehouse alternatives
When choosing the best alternative for the warehousing it is important to consider
factors such as company’s capability and willingness to capital investment, storage
space criteria, operating criteria in terms of customer service and level of control in
other words categories covering cost, service, organizational and physical factors.
Private warehouse
Private warehouse involves substantial corporate fixed investment in land, building and
materials handling equipment as well as hiring suitable personnel. Private warehouses
are operated by the company who owns the product that is stored in the warehouse. It
does not necessarily mean that the company has to own the building but owns the
product that comes in and goes out and therefore the company has the total control of all
aspects of the operation. From inventory control, optimum space utilization,
maintenance and equipment, internal material flow, handling routines, supervision, and
associated cost control, the firm has a direct control and clear visibility for the product
until the customer takes possession or delivery. All in all private warehouse can provide
better familiarity of the firm’s product, customers and market. There are depreciation
allowances on buildings and equipment reduces tax payable if the company owns its
warehouses. On the other hand in some countries firm can have advantage if it does not
own property in foreign country because ownership can result in national taxes. Private
warehouse can be less expensive over the long term but the downside is that it can end
up very costly because of its fixed size costs. There is also the risk if company cannot
adapt to rapid changes such as the volume of business, location or changes in
technology that can lead to a loss of valuable business opportunity or make the facility
obsolete. When a firm distributes its products through a private warehouse
communication is effective, it gives the customer a sense of permanence and continuity
of business operations. The customer perceives the company as a stable, dependable,
and lasting supplier of products but in the end it is the on-time deliveries and level of
customer service that will count and can provided regardless of the ownership. (Grant,
Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 239-242)
13
Public Warehousing
In public warehousing the distinct advantage is that no capital investment is needed.
There is no investment required neither in land, building or materials handling
equipment nor starting up the operation and hiring training personnel. In addition from
the accounting perspective the fixed costs of can be turned into variable costs. Another
major advantage is the flexibility. Company does not have to make long term
commitments. It can be very beneficial for companies in terms of expanding because it
provides economical and practical means to reach out to new markets and enables to
switch to another facility of time which may have lower costs in a short period. Because
the storage costs vary directly with volume, it enables the company to adjust for
seasonality and peak requirements. In general public warehouses can operate as a
warehouse for multiple customers’ product at a same time and the space is available for
hire on variable terms. More often the warehouse is specialized to deal with specific
items or functions.
Public warehousing is often the most expensive, making the
ownership more attractive. Because public warehouses handle the requirements of a
number of firms, their volumes are bigger and permits freight to move lower rates and
allows them to pay consolidated freight rates. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006,
239-242)
Contract warehousing
Contract warehousing is a variation of public warehousing but the significant difference
is that the company have committed to the service provider typically for longer term
outlined in the agreement instead of month-by-month basis. It is a contract between two
parties: the user and the provider of the warehousing service and they share the risk
associated with the operation. Warehouse is owned and operated by a third-party
logistics (3PL) service provider that offer
a number of
specialized services and
equipment that can be tailor-made to suit the needs of the client and that’s why require
more significant commitment from the user compared to public warehousing. The longterm commitment results in competitive total cost compared to public warehouse. The
rate is commensurate of the number and specialty of services required from the provider
and the focus is more on productivity, service and efficiency rather than in the fee and
rate structure itself. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 234)
14
Distribution centre (DC)
Distribution centre is sometimes used as equal to warehouse but the terms are not
identical. A warehouse is a place to store inventory and handle most products in four
cycles including receiving, storing, shipping and picking whereas DCs holds minimum
inventories and predominantly high demand items handling them mostly in two cycles:
receiving and shipping. In contrast DC also performs high percentage of value adding
activity compared to warehouse. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 229)
Cross-docking
Cross-docking refers to an activity whereby the goods arrive to the warehouse or DC
and are dispatch within 24 hours without putting them into stock. The idea in crossdocking is that the goods arriving already have a customer assigned. The benefits
gained from cross-docking are cost reduction in inventory- holding functions including
the skipping of put away and retrieval picking. Furthermore affecting to labour costs
reduction in the rime from production to the customer which helps improve customer
satisfaction and in the need for warehouse space requirements. (Rushton, Croucher,
Baker, 2006, 321)
Figure 3: Cross-Docking
15
2.2.3
Warehouse location
The location of the warehouse should be based on company’s need and follow corporate
strategy that recognizes trade-offs such as land supply and prices, labour costs, transport
density and congestion together with site-selection decision. In addition the firm should
take into consideration the existence of many non-quantitative and political factors and
requirements before determination. The site-selection decision can be approached from
macro and micro perspective whereas macro perspective addresses the issue of where to
locate warehouse geographically within a general area to improve service and/or reduce
costs considering sourcing of materials and the firm’s market offering and micro
perspective addresses to factors that stand for a specific locations within the large
geographic areas. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 247-249)
Macro approaches
Identification based on American location theorist Edgar M. Hoover there are three
types of location strategy. When the factors that influence the placement of warehouse
near the market area served include transportation cost, order cycle time, the sensitivity
of the product, order size, local transportation availability and levels of customer service
offered the issue at stake is market-positioned strategy. In practice the warehouse is
located nearest to the final customer to maximize customer service level and to enable
utilisation of transportation economies. Whereas in production-positioned strategy the
key issue is to locate the warehouse in close proximity to sources of supply or
production facilities with a cost of customer service level. The third option
intermediately positioned strategy combines the two previously mentioned strategies
and locates the warehouse at a midpoint location between the final customer and the
producer. Customer service level is an important factor and the achieved service level is
somewhere between the production-positioned and market-positioned facilities. Also
many other macro theories exist and include factors such as distance, cost
considerations, minimization of transportation expenditures, demand and profitability
that should be considered due to determination of the warehouse location. (Grant,
Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 247-249)
16
Micro Approaches
In micro perspective approach the site-selection factors are examined more specific
within the large geographic areas. There are different factors to be considered
depending on the firm’s choice of warehouse alternative:
Private warehousing:
quality and variety of transportation carriers serving the site
quality and quantity of available labour, labour rates
cost and quality of industrial land, construction
potential for expansion
tax structure and regulations
building recommendations
Public warehousing:
facility characteristics
warehouse services
availability and proximity to motor carrier terminals
availability of local haulage
other companies using the facility
availability of computer services and communications
type and frequency of inventory reports
(Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 247-249)
2.2.4
Warehouse size
Maximizing efficiency and productivity should be the main drivers when defining the
size and layout of a warehouse and requires projection of expected total volume to move
through the warehouse during a given period. A failure in consideration of utilization
rates can lead to unsuccessful estimation of warehouse size requirements. It is essential
that all available space is utilized as fully and efficiently because overbuilding has the
impact on the cost level. Nevertheless it is beneficial to allow certain rational additional
space to account if service level increase and requires higher levels of inventory due to
increase in market, volume, new products and business opportunities.
Closs,Cooper, 2007, 229)
(Bowersox,
17
The size of warehouse can be defined in terms of square meters or cubic space. Because
square meters ignore the capability to store goods vertically, cubic space is much more
realistic size estimate because it takes into account the total volume of usable space
within the warehouse. The optimal design and size of warehouse will vary by the type
of product being stored, the company’s financial resources, the competitive environment
and the needs customers. Some of the important factors affecting the size of warehouse:
customer service levels
size of market(s) served
size and number of products
material handling systems used
throughput rate
production lead-time
economies of scale stock layout
space requirements
office area in warehouse
types of racks and shelves
level of pattern of demand
(Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 243-244, 249-250)
2.2.5
Product mix consideration
It is essential to conduct an analysis of products that will be distributed through the
warehouse. The product mix should be based on annual sales forecast and demand but
each product and average order to be processed through warehouse should also be
analysed in terms of weight, packaging and dimensions in order to determine the
warehouse space and other warehouse related issues. (Bowersox, Closs,Cooper, 2007,
227)
18
2.2.6
Warehousing costs
Decisions discussed in above concerning the type, location and location of the
warehouse affect to the warehousing costs. The warehouse should provide right stocks
at right times and the space in the warehouse should be utilized efficiently and
according to the predictable customer demand. On the other hand overstocks increase
costs and can reduce the profitability.
Depending on the warehouse alternative warehousing costs are paid in the form of rates
charged by an outside firm offering the service (public warehousing) or through internal
costs generated from the particular operational activity system adopted in the company
controlled warehouse (private warehousing). The costs incurred are proportional to
service and material handling facilities provided in the warehouse. Warehousing costs
can be divided into fixed or variable costs. Variable costs often but not always increase
and decrease in correlation with the sales revenue of the firm. Variable cost include
labour, material, packing, utilities, transportation and those operating expenses that
enables the business to run. Fixed costs are the expenses that remain constant regardless
of activity or production volume. Capability of separating fixed and variable cost is
essential for the company to be able to compare the costs and savings in the warehouse
alternatives. (Kapoor, Kansal, 2005, 172-174)
In case company uses a public warehouse it receives a bill each month and knows the
exact storage and handling cost that eases the forecasting of costs in different level of
activity. In comparison to company operating private warehouse it is more difficult to
determine the fixed and variable costs of warehousing. According to article
Understanding Warehouse Costs and Risks by Ph.D. Thomas W. Speh published in
Warehouse Forum (2009) all companies with warehouses incur the same elements of
cost but compile them differently depending on if the firm is whether buying or selling
warehouse services or a firm providing warehouse service for its own organization. The
article presents a model that enables to isolate and analyse costs of warehousing and to
compare price to actual value of the services rendered with another or one company to
others regardless of being about wholesale distributor or logistics service provider.
Some warehousing costs tend to be ignored or misallocated if not recognized where
they belong. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram 2006, 239; Speh, 2009, 1-2)
19
The conveyed costing system presented in the article divides warehouse costs to four
categories: handling, storage, operations administration and general administrative
expenses.
1. Handling includes all expenses associated with moving product in or out of the
warehouse, largest component being labour used to handle the product that
moves through the distribution including such as receiving, put-away, order
selection and loading not forgetting costs associated with equipment used to
handle product in the warehouse.
2. Storage expenses are costs associated with “goods at rest” and are incurred
whether any product ever moves. Storage is normally expressed as a monthly
cost because storage expenses are related to the cost of occupying the facility.
3. Operations administration are the expenses of the supporting the operation of
warehouse such as supervision, clerical effort, information technology,
insurance and taxes.
4. General administrative expenses includes the expenses that cannot be specified
to anywhere else including general management, non-operating staff and general
office expenses as an examples.
In addition the warehouse operator should make a realistic estimate of risk costs that can
be expressed as a percentage of total warehousing cost and can be based on past
experience. The article leaves the allocation of overhead costs and administrative costs
to a matter of individual judgements because no specific formula will be correct for
everyone. (Speh, 2009, 1-2)
2.3
Outsourcing
Increased competitiveness to provide effectively efficient customer-focused services
among organizations lead organizations to seek alternative ways and to activity to hire
an outside organization, a third-party, to perform activities that were previously
provided in-house is known as outsourcing. In general outsourcing means buying the
service from an outside organization that is specialist in the performance of required
specific functions in order to achieve a target level of customer service at the lowest
possible total cost. In logistics outsourcing the two traditional logistics service providers
involves third-party warehousing providers and use of transportation carriers that offer
many distribution and distribution related services. (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram
2006, 27)
20
Figure 4: Different levels of outsourcing in logistics
2.3.1
Third party logistics
The figure 4 introduces the different parties (levels) in outsourcing in logistics.
Organizations operating in physical distribution have to make the decision whether to
use a third-party distribution or logistics services (3 PL) or whether to run an in house
distribution operation. Numerous different types of third-party distribution operation
provider are available depending on organizations willingness to outsource complete or
certain parts of distribution operation and whether to apply to all of its product/service
and customer types or a part of them. The figure 5 demonstrates the different
opportunities that are available across the whole scope of outsourcing. Because a wide
range of basic and value added services are available to cover such as inbound freight,
freight consolidation, warehousing, distribution, order fulfilment and outbound freight it
is important to understand the breadth of available services and to select those that are
most appropriate for a user organization. Value added services are the services that add
a lot of additional value to the product being distributed.
21
Figure 5: Range of possible functions and services to be outsourced (Rushton, Croucher, Baker, 544)
One of the main reasons in outsourcing logistics to third-party distribution provider is
the opportunity for users to focus on their core business. The other broad categories
cover cost, service, organizational and physical factors that have been dealt in the part
2.2.2. Warehouse alternatives. Public and contract warehouse referring for and against
to use of third party and private warehousing referring for and against to keeping the
operations in-house (2 PL). Mainly it is a question of trade-off between cost and service
but also other aspects need to be considered. (Rushton, Croucher, Baker, 2006, 66–77)
2.3.2
Selection process in outsourcing
To avoid disappointment in expected reduction in costs, business benefits and customer
service levels that is expected to be achieved by outsourcing, it is important to make
careful selection and management of service providers. The selection process should be
clearly defined and planned to ensure that all important elements are considered, the
objectives are clear and the process is adequately resourced. Figure 6 introduces laid-out
process for contractor selection and will be described in detail. In practice the outlined
selection process should only be used as a guideline and to be modified based on
22
considerations to avoid resulting formal contract that can prevent both parties to work
together to develop new ideas and to make co-operative arrangements to improve
service and reduce cost.
Figure 6: Key steps of the contractor selection process (Rushton, Croucher, Baker, 543)
Key steps of the selection process:
1. Review scope for outsourcing
Organization needs:
To clarify why it is making the decision to outsource to be able to come
up with clear identifiable objectives that can be used as decision criteria
during the selection process.
To clearly define the extent of the outsourcing. What operations should
be outsourced and what should be kept in-house? Figure 5 shows a
summary of possible functions and services to be outsourced.
To compose a broad strategic review of the likely expected distribution
structure
23
2. Identify type or service required
Determination which of the many services offered by third-party
providers are likely to be required
Choice of dedicated operation or multi-user operation (resources are
shared with other user companies)
3. Identify potential service providers
Identification of preferably a long list of potential contractors to be
contacted with a brief description of the likely requirements (RFI)
4. Produce RFI
RFI, request for information is a concise document consisting key
information such as:
o introduction and confidentiality clause
o description of the company –operation and product overview
o description of opportunity:
-overview of strategy and likely requirements
-contractual relationship
o the selection process
-procurement process
-key selection criteria
o content of response
o format of response
Identification against selection criteria the ones from contacted that are
most capable to provide cost-effective and service proficient solutions
5. Prepare and issue RFP
RFP stand for request for proposal and its main objective is: 1) to
provide a specification of business requirements to selected vendors in a
standard format to facilitate objective comparison of proposals and 2) to
maintain equitable flow of information across all tendering companies
and establish confidentiality rules
The data provided in RFP should be a sufficient level of detail to allow
the contractor to undertake adequate analysis to calculate the resources
required to run the operation and to identify all the associated costs.
Precise content will vary according to the company and contract
requirements.
24
6. Tender evaluation and comparison
Comparison between the different submissions assessing relative costs of
the different solutions (costs of storage, delivery transport, information
systems, administration, overheads management..etc.) and consideration
of all relevant non-quantifiable aspects (the ones that are seen important).
useful approach is to adopt a structured assessment where each major
factor and can be listed and given appropriate weighting that reflects its
importance to the company and can be then scored against all different
factors
7. Contractor selection and risk assessment
identification few preferred service providers
negotiation phase to ensure detailed elements
negotiations with preferred vendor on all functional aspects and gain
agreement on pricing
risk assessment relating to the provision of services; to the operating
company’s business requirements; to external changes that might affect
the contractor’s business
contract arrangements
final selection process and finalized contract is carried out by the ones
who have the relevant negotiating skills
8. Contract determination
contract includes detailed information and requirements including
comprehensive specification of the services that are to be provided, the
associated tariffs and obligations of the parties considering initial
contract, cost-related structure, service-related, administrative and other
issues depending on the breadth of the operational coverage and the type
of contractual arrangement
the very important parts are agreement of service level, cost structure and
cost of additional activities that are to be included as exceptional
payments, costs that are beyond the contractor (fuel price increases,
inflation etc.) and any productivity targets
9. Mobilize and implement
Identification and agreement of project plan to ensure that
responsibilities
implementation
are
clear
and
the
timetable
is
feasible
for
25
10. Manage on-going relationship
continuity to control and monitor the contractor to ensure that overall
business and operational objectives are achieved
regular reviews of
cost and service performances, operational
difficulties and to identify opportunities for the continuous
improvement of the operation
The ideal is to develop a useful strategic partnership rather than a strict contract-driven
arrangement but a well detailed agreement is needed so that the parties do not have
totally different set of expectations and understanding of the arrangement. (Rushton,
Croucher, Baker, 2006, 542-559)
2.3.3
Pricing structure in outsourcing
Several different types of pricing or charging structure can be adopted.
Unit price or fixed price agreements. An agreed unit price is paid for the
service provided is a traditional method of third party payment and common for
low volume business.
Hybrid unit price agreements are based on a unit price but also include
guarantees for specified volume throughput. It allows reducing unit price by
degrees as throughput increases. (seasonal effects)
Cost-plus arrangements. A pre-set profit margin added to agreed fee that
covers used facilities and provided services.
Open book contracts. The client company pays for the entire operation plus
management fee to the contractor and can be used only in completely dedicated
operations and is monitored against a budget agreed between both parties.
Evergreen contacts. A fixed price structure and specific performance
requirements are agreed for 12 month period and performance is monitored
against agreed key performance indicators (KPIs) (Rushton, Croucher, Baker,
2006, 548-550)
26
2.3.4
To avoid risks in outsourcing
Outsourcing will be successful and both parties will benefit of it if the deal is based on
reciprocal trust. The user and the contractor should aim to create a more positive and cooperative alliance and try to develop more of a partnership approach. The relationship
cannot be created only according to strict contract-driven arrangements. Because in
outsourcing the company relies on someone else to run certain business functions it can
bring significant risks. The risks in outsourcing should be recognized and managed
properly because otherwise the outsourcing can have negative affect on company’s
operations and customers and can cause extra costs.
The safest way to ensure success is to follow a clearly defined and planned process (see
figure 6, p. 22) to make sure that all the important aspects have been covered.
Responsibilities and liabilities for damage should be agreed in the contract in case of
risks appear and the partners should be able to negotiate openly and share also
confidential information to each other. (Jalanka, Salmenkari, Winqvist, 2003, 11-13)
An article Bringing Together Strategic Outsourcing and Corporate Strategy:
Outsourcing Motivates and Risks by Quélin B. and Duhamel F. published in 2003
identifies five outsourcing risks that have negative outcome as:
Dependence on the supplier
Hidden costs
Loss of know-how
Service provider’s lack of necessary capabilities
Social risk
27
3
COMPANY DESCRIPTION
Confidential. Not published part starts.
3.1
Safeplast Oy
Confidential. Not published.
3.1.1
Product line
Confidential. Not published.
3.1.2
Sales
Confidential. Not published.
3.1.3
Supply chain
Confidential. Not published.
28
4
WAREHOUSE EVALUATION PROCESS
4.1
Warehouse evaluation criteria
Confidential. Not published.
4.1.1
Scope for outsourcing
Confidential. Not published.
4.1.2
Warehouse alternative
Confidential. Not published.
4.1.3
Warehouse location
Confidential. Not published.
4.1.4
Product-mix consideration
Confidential. Not published.
4.1.5
Warehouse size
Confidential. Not published.
4.2
Cost analysis
Confidential. Not published.
4.2.1
Warehousing costs
Confidential. Not published.
29
4.2.2
Freight costs
Confidential. Not published.
30
5
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
Confidential. Not published.
31
6
CONCLUSIONS
Confidential. Not published.
32
REFERENCES
Ackerman K.B. 2000. Practical Handbook of Warehousing. 2nd printing: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Ballou, R.H. 2004. Business logistics/ Supply chain management: planning organizing
and controlling the supply chain. 5th edition. International edition. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bowersox D. J., Closs D. J., Cooper M. B. 2007. Supply Chain Logistics Management.
2nd edition. International Edition: McGraw Hill.
Grant D. B., Lambert D. M., Stock J. R., Ellram L. M. 2006. Fundamentals of Logistics
Management. European edition. McGrawHill.
Kapoor S. K., Kansal P. 2005. Basics of Distribution Management: A Logistics Approach. 3rd printing. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.
Rushton A., Croucher P., Baker P. 2006. The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution
Management. 3rd edition. London, GB and Philadelphia, U.S.A: Kogan Page.
Rushton A., Walker S. 2007. International logistics and supply chain outsourcing: from
local to global. London: Kogan Page.
Sakki J. 2003. Tilaus-toimitusketjun hallinta, Logitinen B-to-B -prosessi. Espoo: Jouni
Sakki Oy
Sakki J. 2009. Tilaus-toimitusketjun hallinta, B2B -vähemmällä enemmän. Espoo, Helsinki: Jouni Sakki Oy.
Tompkins J.A., Smith J. D. 1998. The Warehouse Management Handbook. 2nd edition.
Tompkins Press.
33
Waters, D. 2009. Supply chain management: an introduction to logistics. 2nd edition.
Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Online sources:
CIA- The World Factbook. Read 16.10.2013
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ez.html
Czech Business Web Portal. Read 23.10.2013
http://www.businessinfo.cz/en/
Doing Business 2013 –Czech Republic. Read 23.10.2013
http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/czech-republic
Jalanka J., Salmenkari R., Winqvist B. 2003. Logistiikan ulkoistaminen: käsikirja ulkoistamisprosessista. Helsinki: Suomen logistiikkayhdistys. Read 21.11.2013
http://www.logy.fi/liitetiedostot/Logistiikanulkoistaminen.pdf
Ph.D. Thomas W. Speh. 2009. Understanding Warehouse Costs and Risks. Published in
Warehouse Forum: The Ackerman Company. Read 26.9.2013.
http://www.warehousingforum.com/news/KB_v24n07_June2009.pdf
Quélin B., Duhamel F., Bringing Together Strategic Outsourcing and Corporate Strategy: Outsourcing Motives and Risks. Read 21.11.2013
https://studies2.hec.fr/jahia/webdav/site/hec/shared/sites/quelin/acces_anonyme/publish
ed/2003emjQuelinDuhamel.pdf
Safeplast Oy. http://www.snt-group.fi/safeplast/
Wagnerová E., Sebestovà J. and their team.2005. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy in European Countries: Executive Summary, The Case of Czech Republic. Innovative Policy Research for Entrepreneurship and Growth (IPREG). Read 16.10.2013.
http://www.ipreg.org/www.ipreg.org/Exe_summary_czech.pdf
34
Warehousing options: Choosing the Right One for Company. Read 20.9.2013.
http://www.vendorseek.com/Warehousing-How-to-Choose-the-Best-Option.asp
35
Figure 1: Supply Chain
Read 20.11.2013
http://organizations.weber.edu/sascm/
Figure 2: Components Logistics Management (Grant, Lambert, Stock, Ellram, 2006)
Read 18.9.2013
http://www.santova.co.uk/services_1.asp
Figure 3: Cross-docking
Read 22.11.2013
http://www.brainsins.com/es/blog/crossdocking/103537
Figure 4: Different levels of outsourcing in logistics
Read 2.10.2013
http://www.lomag-man.org/3pl_supplychainsystems/3pl_mecanisme_modeles.php
Figure 5: Range of possible functions and services to be outsourced
Read 2.10.2013
http://en.calameo.com/read/00082521455df14f62039
Figure 6: Key steps of the contractor selection process
Read 2.10.2013
http://en.calameo.com/read/00082521455df14f62039
Figure 7: Structure of the group company SNT-Group Oy
SNT-Group Oy.
Figure 8: Net sales of Safeplast Oy according to product group
Conducted by author of the thesis
Figure 9: Net sales of Safeplast Oy according to sales areas
Conducted by author of the thesis
Figure 10: Basic model of Safeplast Oy supply chain
36
Conducted by author of the thesis
Figure 11: Sales forecast according total number of 25 meter safe-spiral coils in
European market, 2013-2015
Conducted by author of the thesis
Figure 12: Forecasted sales, stock level and delivery practices
Conducted by author of the thesis based on sales forecasts
Figure 13: 1 year budget estimation for contract warehousing in Prague
Conducted by author of the thesis
Figure 14: 1 year budget estimation for contract warehousing in Ceske Budejovice
Conducted by author of the thesis
37
APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Samples of Safeplast products
Source: www.snt-group.fi/safeplast
38
Appendix 2. Customer Locations in Europe
Confidential. Not published.
39
Appendix 3. Map of the Czech motorway network
Source: ceskedalnice.cz
http://www.motorway.cz/
40
Appendix 4. Sales forecast by product category in Europe, 2013-2015
Confidential. Not published.
41
Appendix 5. Packaging of coils
Confidential. Not published.
Appendix 6. Comparison of freight prices and delivery times
Confidential. Not published.
Appendix 7. Price offer from Ahola Transport Oy Ab 25.10.2013
Confidential. Not published.
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