...

I In Tribute to V.V.

by user

on
Category: Documents
935

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

I In Tribute to V.V.
Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol:5, p.417-427, 1981-82
I
Number
Current Contents, #8, p.5-15, February 22, 1982
In Tribute to V.V.
Nalimov:
Renaissance Scholar and
Scientometrician
Par Excelkmce
8
Februarv ,. 22.1982
Several years ago at the first Moscow
Book Fair, I met Vasilii Vasil’evich
Naliiov,
the highly respected
Soviet
statistician and information
scientist. I
knew that he had published important
works in the fields of applied statistics
and scientometncs.
But he asked me to
consider some of his newest work in the
philosophy of science for publication by
1S1 [email protected] Of course I was immediately
captivated by Nalimov’s personal charm
and charisma.
Later, as I read the
manuscripts,
I realized that his work
was scholarship of the highest order. I
felt that the worldwide scientific community needed exposure to Naliov’s
novel way of viewing science and the exchange of scientific information.
Since
the primary mission of 1S1 Press has
been to publish materials dealing with
the process of scholarly communication, the Nalimov manuscripts were well
suited to our goals. So we decided to introduce to English-spetilng
readers two
of Nalimov’s most original works: In the
Labyrinths of Language: A Mathematician’s Journey 1 and Faces of Science. 2
These books celebrate the marriage
of Nafimov’s lifelong interest in experimental science and philosophy. At the
same time, they represent the culndnation of Naliov’s
50 years of work in
chemistry, physics, statistics, and other
scientific fields.
Nalimov was born in 1910, and in his
chifdhood witnessed the upheavals and
uncertainties
of World War I, the Rus-
sian Revolution, and civif war. Both of
Nalimov’s parents were strong figures in
his early life. His father, a professor of
anthropology at Moscow State University, maintained a wide range of interests
in the sciences and the humanities. Nalimov’s mother was a dedicated surgeon.
She worked
vigorously
throughout
World War I, and died whfle treating
the ill during the postwar epidemics.
Nalimov’s interest in science and philosophy fmt surfaced during his high
school years. The school he attended
specialized
in chemistry,
and
his
teachers were scientists who also taught
at the university level. Under their guidance, Naliiov became fascinated by the
elegance of chemical structures. At the
same time, he studied the novels of
Fyodor Dostoevsky
and grew curious
about
the philosophical
aspects
of
Dostoyevsky’s work. These early interests in philosophy and science were to
become the two main threads in Nalimov’s intellectual
Me, but they would
not become intertwined until the 1970s.
Naliiov continued his formal training
in the sciences at Moscow State University, while meeting
informally
with
friends to discuss philosophy.
He did
not graduate from the university, however, but instead during his senior year
in 1931 began working at the All-Union
Electro-Technical
Institute in Moscow.
There he performed
studies in high
vacuum physics, the photoelectric
effect, and quantum electrodynamics.
In
417
Professor V. V.
Nalimov
and Dr.
Eugene Garfield
researchers
were just
those
years,
beginning to investigate quantum mechanics, and working on the cutting
edge of sciersttilc research had a strong
romantic appeal for Nalimov, During
this period, he began publishing in scientific journals.
While performing experiments at the
institute, Nalimov noticed that science
was shifting from a world in which experimental findings could be described
in terms of clear, antecedent causes, to
a world in which experimental
events
often occurred at random, with uncertain results. Seeing conventional scientflc explanations
overturned,
Nalimov
began to pose fundamental
questions
scientific
and
about
terminology
methodology.
In 1943, Nalimov was appointed director of a chemical laboratory in a metallurgy plant, overseeing
the quality
control of afl aspects of production,
including various spectral analyses. Required to make crucial decisions in constantly changing
situations,
Nalimov
at the Moscow
Book
Fair
made ample use of his broad background in physics.
After World War II, Nahmov participated in the geological survey of the
USSR, bringing his knowledge of physical and mathematical
methods to the
study of geology.
This experience
piqued his interest in the application of
mathematical
statistics
to research
methodology—a
subject of several of
his later publications.
In the mid- 195CS, Nalimov returned
to Moscow to join VINITI, the AllUnion Institute
for Scientific
and
Tecti~cal Information of the Academy
of Sciences.
There he worked as a
branch editor of an abstract journal in
physics, and wrote hk fiist book, The
Application
of Mathematical
Statistics
in
to Chemical A naiysis. 3 Published
Russian in 1960, thk textbook was so
well received that it was translated into
English, and appeared both in England
and the US in 1963.
Whale working at VINITI, Nalirnov
defended hk doctoral thesis at the Insti-
418
tute of Metrology in Leningrad. In 1957,
he earned his Candidacy for a Doctorate
in Technical Sciences, a degree prerequisite to earning a doctorate
in the
USSR.
During these years, Nalirnov also became familkir with the work of Derek J.
de Solla Price in the sociology of science, and began doing research in information science. In 1958, Nalimov published hu fnt article in this field, with
coauthors N.I. Styazhkin and George
Vladutz,d who is now manager of basic
research in ISP’s research and development department.
The prestige Nalimov gained from the
success of his textbook on statistical
methods earned him an appointment
at
the Research Institute of Rare Metals.
There he continued his investigations
into mathematical statistics and the theory of experimental design, while working as a consultant to the metallurgical
industry. Despite hk research obligations, Nafirnov continued to work on his
doctoral thesis, and in 1964 he received
his Doctorate
in Technical
Sciences.
His publication
record
was so impressive that his professors allowed hlm
to defend his thesis without ever having
obtained an undergraduate
degree.
One year later, Nalimov returned to
Moscow State University to join the interfaculty
Laboratory
of Statistical
Methods, headed by the famous Soviet
Andrey
Nikolaevich
mathematician,
Kolmogorov.
Awarded the title of professor, Nalimov held the Chair of Probability Theory and Mathematical
Statistics. As Kohnogorov’s deputy, Naliiov
devoted himself full-time to studying experimental design and the philosophical
implications
of hm own work
in
statistical methods.
For ten years Nalimov worked with
Kolmogorov, one of the founders of the
modem theory of probability. s During
thk time, Nalirnov helped launch the
Soviet field of scientometncs
with the
publication
of Naukometnya
(Sciento-
419
metn”cs) in 1969.6 This proved to be the
theoretical
foundation for the work of
many other Soviet and East European
scholars studying the structure of scientific research. Indeed, the term he invented has been adopted by the journal
Scientometn”cs, for which he serves as
consulting editor.
In 1975, the Laboratory of Statistical
Methods was reorganized and Nalimov
was selected to head the new laboratory, now associated with the department
of biology, and called the Laboratory of
Mathematical
Theory of Experiment.
Nafimov has continued
to investigate
the theory of experimental
design, the
logical and philosophical foundations of
science, and the larger philosophical
relationships
between science and culture. Over the past 15 years, these interests have intensified and he has pr~
duced a number of scholarly articles as
welf as the two books published by 1S1
Press. In all of these publications,
Naliiov has shown a unique capacity to
synthesize large amounts of literature
from highly varied sources.
He is
thoroughly familiar with Western scholarship in the philosophy of science, for
and fuses this information
example,
with his intimate knowledge of Soviet
science in the twentieth century.
Nalimov has published so many books
and papers that we could only include a
selected bibliography in Table 1. Since
1933, he has published 12 books and 113
papers. There is no doubt that Nalimov’s work has had a strong impact on
other scient~lc research. According to
Science Citation Index” (SCF’), Nalimov was cited 1,912 times from 1961 to
1980. His books have been especially influential.
The Application
of lWathematical Statistics to Chemical Analysis,
for example, received 670 citations during these years.
As you can see from this brief biography, Nalimov’s scienttilc career has
been varied and prolific. He is in many
ways a Renaissance
man, bridging the
TAfe
1: Selected
bibliography
of V. V. Naliiov
Tfsmsfeev P V & Naffmov V V. Tbe influence of oxygen and sulphur on the photuelecwic effect from
alkaliie metafs. (In Russian. ) Zh. Tekh. Fiz. SSSR 3:(02-9, 1933.
SMpalov M S & Nafhnov V V. Pho/o voltaic cells—reference manual, (In Russian. )
MOSCOW:ONTf, 1936.122 p.
Nafhssov V V & Ionova K L Statistical study of the fluctuations of parameters of graduating charts.
(In ~ussian. ) Matenal.v 10-go Vsesoyuznogo Soveshchaniya PO Spekfrnskopii 2:528-33, 1958.
W4dutx G E, Naffmov V V & Styazhkln N L Scientific and tecfuical information as one nf the
problems of cybernetics. Sou. Phys. f/$pekhi-(Engl.
trans. of Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk SSSR)
2:637-’781, 1959.
Komk+amvs L N, GmnovMf Yu V, Pmtkova N M, Adfar Yu P & Naffmnv V V. Application of
mathematical
methods of experiment planning in studying the mechanism of zirconium extraction. [rid. Lab. —(Engl. trans. of Zavod. Lab. ) 29:323-9, 1%3.
NaJfmoY V V. The application of mathematical statistics to chemical analysis.
New York: Addison-Wesley,
1963.294 p,
Naffmov V V. .$m(istical methods for /he description of chemical and metallurgical
prncesres. ([n Russian. ) Moscow: Metallurgizdat,
I%3. 59 p.
Nsffmov V V & Chemovs N A. Sra tistical methods for design of “e.rtrema[” experiments,
Dayton, OH: Foreign Technology Di}ision, Wright-Patterson
US AFB, 9 Janusry 1%8,
FTD MT ZH60-67 41 9B.
KogmIovsklf I P, Kosnurnvs T G, Lepfkova E E, Nsffmov V V, Snlov’eva S S & FrekUhssr V L.
Investigation of tbe thre~dnensional
perindicity for the electric resistivity in single crystaf.s of
germanium. Ind. bb-(Engl,
trans. of Z..od. Lab. )33:62-71, 1%7.
Naffnsov V V & Muf’chemfm Z M. Memurement
of science. Study of rhe development of science a$ 4n
informa~ion procem. Washington, DC: Foreign Technology Division, US Air Force Systems
Command, 13 October 1971. 196 p.
Ntdfmov V V, Goffkova T I & M3keshfna N G. On the practical use of the concept of D-optimalit y.
Technomemics 12:799-812, 1970.
Amfmkovkh P F, Gribknv V S, Kozyrev V P, Naffmov V V & Terekhfo A T. Abstract painting
as a specific degenerate Language. A statistical apprnach to tbe problem.
Metron 29(1/2):3-30, 1971.
NaJfmov V V & Goffkova T I. Logical foundations of experimental design.
Metron 29(3/4):3-58, 1971.
Nnffmov V V. Theory of e.rpen”men~. (In Russian, ) Moscow: Nauka, 1971.207 p, Also: Theonk des
Expenmem$. (In German. ) Berlin: VEB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag,
1975. 159 p.
Nudfmov V V. Systematization
and codflcation
of the experimental designs—the survey of the works of
Scwiet statisticians. (Gani J, Sarkadi K & Vinczc 1, eds. ) Progres$ in sraristicf: European Meering
of S[ati~(icmn$, Budapes/ (Hungary), 1972. Amsterdam: North-Hoffand,
1974. Vol. 2, p. 565-81,
Nssffmnv V V & Bdrsnva Z B. Sketches of the history of cybernetics. Predecessors of cybernetics in
ancient India. Darshona Int 14:35-72, 1974.
Nslkmov V V, Kumetsssv O A & Drogaffm Zh A. Visualization of semantic fields of a verbal text in
group meditation. (In Russian. ) Bessoznatei’noe: Pn”roda, funktsii, merody isdedo wniyo
3:703-10, 1978,
NalJmov V V. Language and thinking: discontinuity versus continuity,
(In Russian.) Tbifisi: TbilM University Press, 1978.84 p.
Nnffmov V V & Meyen S V. ProbabLktic vision of tbe world. (Cohen L J, ed. ) Logm, methodology, and
philosophy of science. VI. Proceedings nf the Sixth International Congress of Logic,
Methodology,
and Philosophy of Science, H.nnow?r. Fedeml Republic of Germany, 1979.
New York: Ekcvier/North-Holland,
1980. p. 253-7.
Nalimov V V. Tbe problem of a man in modem science. (In Russian. )
Ve.tn. A kod, Nauk SSSR 6:[email protected], 1979.
N&tIov V V. Science and refigion: is there rcmm for the complementarily
principle?
4S Newsletter (Society for Social Studies of Science) 5:9-13, 198Q.
Nalfmov V V & Goffknva T L Logical foundation
of experimental de$ign, (In Russian, )
Moscow: Metaflurgizdat,
1981. 151 p.
NnJlmov V V. PossibUky of the metaphoric use of mathematical
concepts in psychology.
(In Russian. ) Psykhol. Zh, 3, 1981.
Ndmov V V. In the Iabyn”nths of language: a mathematicians
journey.
Pbiladelphla: 1S1 Press, 1981.246 p.
Ndfmov V V. Faces of science. PhiJadelphla: 1S1 Press, 1981, 297 p,
420
“two cultures” of science and the humanities.
Because
of this, Nalimov
brings an unusual perspective to philosophy and to science in the 1980s. His
books sound a call to reexamine our assumptions about many of the most important
aspects
of
modern
culture-whether
in the East or the West.
In Faces of.$cience, published by 1S1
Press in September 1981, Nalimov presents his view of science as a means of
understanding
man. Maintaining
that
“man is revealed through h~ vision of
the world,”z Nalimov believes science is
a mirror of human natur+not
merely a
tool for describing the world around us.
He therefore believes that “the study of
the nature of science is primarily a way
of understanding
man.”z (p. xii)
Tabfe 2: Table of contents
Faces of Science is a series of thematically related papers, originally published in Russian. As shown in the table
of contents (see Table 2), each chapter
deals with a ddferent aspect of science.
What ties these papers together
is
Nalimov’s cybernetic
approach to science. Simply stated, cybernetics is the
study of self-organized
systems. Each
system functions as a specific organism—formed
from smaller parts, and
un~led by a system of control. Nalirnov
views science as a large, self-organized
information
system. He believes that
studying the rules by which this information system operates can lead to profound insights into the nature of man.
Nalimov begins Faces of Science by
analyzing these “rules” of science. He
from Faces of Science.
Foreword
Preface
1. The Structure of Science: Logic of Accepting Hypotheses (Analyzing the logical roles of science;
chaflengins the certainty of verification)
2. .%ientflc Creativity as a Manifestation of Intellectual Rebeflion: A Baycsisn Approach to the Problem
(How =ience itself cm stifle scientific creativity)
3. Mathematics as a Lsnguage of Science: Using Mathematics to Describe the External World (The sign
system, grsmrnar, snd dhlects of mathematics;
relations between pure and applied mathematics)
4. Why Do We Use Probabfitic
Concepts to Describe the World? (The inadequacy of determinism, and
the advance of probability, in describing phenomena; the need to broaden the possibdities of formsl
logic)
5. The D~tribution
Function of Probabtities
m a Way to Determine
Fuzzy Sets: Sketches for a
Metstheory
(A Dislogue with Zadeh) (A probabtitic
approach to the theory of furzy sets:
“fuzzines” in humsn semantics)
6. On Some Psrsllels Between the Bohr Complementarily
Principle and the Metaphoric
Structure of
Ordinary Language (Complementsrity
in modes of description;
bmsdening
the possibtities
of
formsl logic)
7. Science and the Biosphere: An Attempt at a Comparative
Study of the Two Systems (A cybernetic
apprwch to science and the biosphere)
8. The Problem of Complexity in Describing the World ScientW]csUy: A Formal Analysis of Difficulties in
Constructing Theoretical Biology (Is a compact description of knowledge possible in biology? The
rnle of mmputers in efforts to describe the world scientfilcally; the need for using multiple modefs
in describing the world)
9. The Penetration of the Humanities into Other Fields of Knowledge: Reflection on the Ways in Which
Science Develops (Contributions
of the humanities to the sciences; the advantages of a humanistic
education)
10. Isa Scientilc Approach to the Eschatologicsf Problem Possible? A Logical Amdyais of the Problem of
Globsl Ecology (The ecological crisis as a crisii of Western culture)
11. Geographic Distribution of ScientK1c Information (The d~tribution of scientific joumsls; the example
of the USSR)
12. On the Stock Exchange of Science: Changing Demand for Intellectuals (Trscing the fsll in demand for
physicists snd chemists, snd the rise in demsnd for biologists)
13. Instead of a Conclusion (Summary; Ionking toward new topics)
421
only a few research
centers in the
USSR. He points out that, as late as
1971, the USSR purchased only three
subscriptions
to SC1. The same is true
for other major publications. While this
situation has improved somewhat,
he
feels that the absence of such an important tool for monitoring
international
scientific activity has detrimental effects
on the scientific
“biosphere”
of the
USSR.
Having long been a teacher, Nalimov
also examines educational
aspects of
science. In chapter nine, for example,
he elegantly defends the humanistic education of the scientist. Studying the
humanities, Nalimov believes, can help
students find new approaches to problems in science.
All in all, Faces of Science presents a
truly unique series of insights into the
nature of modem science. But Nalimov
does not champion a general theory of
science. In his final chapter, he notes
that in science “humanity has created a
system whose complexity and versatility
do not yield to any all-embracing
description.” He conchtdes, “All we can
afford
is a nibblig
away at the
problem. ”z (p. 274) Even so, “nibbling
away” at the essays in this book provides
a rich and satisfying meal.
I must say a few words about the 24
fascinating
illustrations
that are contained in Faces of Science. These drawings by M&hail Zlatkovsky are sometimes humorous, sometimes frightening,
but always thought provoking. They illustrate Nalimov’s view that man’s struggle to understand the universe holds the
threat of intellectual
confinement
as
welf as the promise of new, liberating
discoveries.
One drawing,
shown in
Figure 1, provides a concise image of
how science reflects the nature of man.
The scientist appears as a bricklayer,
building a model of a bricklayer, which
itself is building a third model, perhaps
of a bricklayer also, In Figure 2, you see
challenges the logical relationship
between hypotheses and their verification
by suggesting that the philosophical
basis of science is not as stable as many
believe. In th~ methodological
critique,
science appears not as a means of securing the truth, but as a tool for mastering
nature.
Nalimov believes that the heart of science is its “creative constituent’’—the
ability of the scientist to pose profound
questions, and to formulate novel hypotheses. In chapter two, he shows how
the scientist is both indebted to, and yet
burdened by, the prevailing wisdom of
the day. In Nalimov’s view, a scientist
must rebel against the established ways
of thinking to come up with productive,
new ideas.
One of Nalimov’s ideas which I find
most interesting is his biological metaphor for science. Starting with the assumption that science is a self-governing
system, Nalimov maintains
that it is
structurally
quite similar to the biosphere. According to Nalimov, the biosphere came into existence onfy after
the emergence of the cell. Cells develop
and evolve according to certain sets of
rules. Understanding
these rules is the
main endeavor of the biologist. Similarly, science emerged with the appearance of the modern system of scientific
communication.
Its “cells” are scholarly
articles.
The
information
scientist
studies the rules which govern the
behavior of these articles. Nalimov extends hk metaphor to include citations.
Like the genetic code, which transfers
information
between
cells, citations
contain much information
in a compressed form, and help transfer this information from one scientflc article to
another.
Later in the book, Nalimov applies
this cybernetic thinking to some specific
problems in information
science. For
example, during the 1960s, foreign scientific journals were concentrated
in
422
Ftgure It Science models art= mther o simulation
of human consciousness
Zlatkovsky’s visualization of the alogical nature of scientific
creativity-a
man leaps away from his shadow.
In Faces of Science, Nalimov views
mathematics and other scienttlc methods of communication
as human languages. In fact, these ideas grew out of
Nalitnov’s earlier work, In the Lafsyrinths of Lunguage: A Mathematician’s
Journey,
published
by ISI Press in
March 1981. As you can see from the
table of contents in Table 3, this book
contains a series of forays into what a
language is, and how a language works.
In Nalimov’s cybernetic analysis, language, like science, is a self-governing
system, a metaphorical
organism.
In
chapter one of Labyrinths, Nalirnov presents a detailed analysis of language.
The small parts in the system are words,
or word segments. These parts combine
in different ways to form a hierarchical
structure. The rules of grammar are the
control system of a language, and make
communication
possible. For Nalirnov,
423
than the reality of the universe.
the primary function of a language is to
transfer information,
but a language
must also reduce, store, and retrieve information.
As mentioned
earlier, Nalimov uses
cybernetic analysis to support an opinion I’ve often expressed-that
science
can be perceived through the language
of citations.
To illustrate
the hierarchical arrangement
of the scientific
“language,” Nalimov borrows a citation
map from an article I wrote in 1970.7
(See Figure 3,) Nalimov calls the map a
“paradlgsn of references,”
and defines
the term in the following way:
Paradigm is a very polysemantic scientfilc terns. The literal translation of
the word from Greek is “example,”
“’model.” When considering an example, we usually expect that some associations are generated. For this reason, in its most general sense the terns
“paradigm” means an explanation of
elements on the basis of association,
and it is in this meaning that I shall
use the term. It is also common to
FlgssrE2: Scientific
/’
Creativity
,.
/
,,,,,, ? ‘,
/’
/’
I /
speak of a proof from paradigm,
which is based only on comparison
with a well-known example. Paradigm
as a grammatical term is a pattern of
speech formation, 1(p. 32)
tions to individual
articles
can be
grouped into larger units, and these
citation groups can be used to identify
patterns
of scientific
research.
In
Nalimov’s view, the entire hierarchy of
scientific references is stored in .SCI. Of
course, I have explained in greater detail how we form still other units, such
as co-citation clusters and cluster snaps
from our SCI data base, in my book
Like the genes in Nalimov’s biological
model of science, and like word parts in
his description of a language, citations
are the building blocks in Nalimov’s
scientific language of references.
Cita-
424
Tahfe 31 Table of contents from In
the Labyrinths
of hnguage:
A Mathematician
k Journey.
Foreword
Introduction
to Engfiah Edition
Introduction
to Russian Edition
1. What Language Is (Describing the hierarchical structure of language)
2. Probabilistic Semantics (A probabilistic model of language; computing the likefiiood of successful
communication:
the semantic scale of languages)
3. The Language of Scirmce (Problems in scicntflc terminology; the connection of terms with theory)
4. Mathematics as a Language (Mathematics as a descriptive tool for various branches of knowledge)
5. Soft Languages (Ambiguous meanings in languages-abstract
paindng and ancient Indian philosophy)
6. A Hard Language of Biological Codes (The precise language of genetic codes-building
messages with
nucleic acids)
7. The Theory of Names (Difficulty irr undemtandmg names; explanation of why names have no place on
the semantic scale; ph~osophicaf and religious explanations of names)
8. Language and TMmking: Continuity vs. Discontinuity (Infinite divisibility of word meanings as an
indicator of continuity of thinking; unusual or altered states of consciousness as a dwect
manifestation
of cnrrtinuity of timking)
9. Epilogue (Summary; questioning the new dialects of science)
Appendm 1.
CoUection of Statements About the Term “Statistics”
Appendm 2,
List of Pictures Uxed irr the Experiment (An experiment in which an alphabet of
abstract painting was created, and mathematical
models were used to study the
judgments of experts in painting)
Citation Zndexing—Zts Theory and Application in Science, Technology,
and
Humanities. 8 We use these clusters in
our ZSI/CompuMath ‘“ and ISI/BIOMED” systems to define highly specialized areas of research.
In Labyrinths,
Nalimov shows how
human culture is revealed through its
systems of language. Each language system contains a special set of symbols,
and communicates
a special kind of information. Nalimov shows, for example,
how the genetic code is a language in
which messages are built out of nucleic
acids and proteins. Nahmov draws these
ddferent
languages together,
and arranges them on a scale, ranging from
“hard” systems with precise meanings to
“soft” ones with ambiguous meanings.
“Hard languages include mathematics,
computer
programs,
and the genetic
code. “Soft” languages are such systems
as abstract painting, poetry, and ancient
Indian philosophy. In hk holistic view,
even the arts have their own self-governing language systems for communicating in the emotional arena. This language scale allows Naliiov
to survey
the entire landscape of human culture.
Toward
the end of Labyrinths,
Nalimov explores the relationship
between language and thought, and shows
how an understanding
of this relationship may reveal new, creative
ap
preaches to scientific problems.
In the epilogue to Labyrinths, Nalimov reaffirms his conviction that “science can be regarded as the develop
ment of a certain language adapted so as
to receive and mirror our knowledge of
the world.”1 (p. 202) But he also shows a
certain uneasiness with many of the new
“dialects” science has brought forth. In
our desire to invent new, ever more
precise languages,
such as computer
programs,
Nalimov believes we often
lose sight of the need for varied and
flexible responses to different kinds of
problems.
Labyrinths presents a novel series of
viewpoints on language and on science.
It challenges many of our assumptions
about the ways in which we communicate, and the ways in which we use languages to order the world about us.
Evidently, I am not alone in my enthusiasm for Nalirnov’s work. Reviews
of Nalimov’s books are just beginning to
425
Ffgwe 31 Paradigm,
formed by the net of bibliographic citations. To constmct this paradigm only those
publications have been used which are cited in a wide range of papers on DNA not less thsn five times,
Bfackened circles indicate publications most frequently cited. Numbers in circles afkow identifications of the
particulars as to place and date of publication, Paradigms of this kind can be used for practical purpmcs:
beginning studies in the new field of knowledge, the researcher worker can fix his attention on the nucleus
formed by associatively connected publications.
tled “A probabilktic
model of the unconscious.”
In this remarkable
work,
which again demonstrates
his ability to
absorb and synthesize information from
incredibly diverse sources, he probes an
area of scientific investigation
that is
both an untapped mine and a potential
source of controversy.
In this manuscript,
Nalimov states
that the study of the unconscious signifies the study of the imagination,
that
which distinguishes man from the computer. He argues that no sufficiently
meaningful theory of the imagination
has been created, since no language has
been found to describe this phenome-
appear in print. For instance, Edith A.
Moravcsik,
University
of Wisconsin,
comments that Labyrinths “abounds in
insightful analyses, ” and “will provide
useful reading for communication
scientists, linguists, philosophers,
semioticians, mathematicians,
and for anyone
who has an interest in studying language, arts, and sciences as human activities. ”g
When I went to Moscow in September 1981 to participate in the Moscow
Book Fair, and to deliver a series of lectures on scientometrics,
I had the
pleasure of meeting Nalimov again. We
discussed yet another manuscript, enti-
426
. .. .
AU three works are bonded together
by Nalirnov’s
concern
that human
knowledge is fragmenting into a multitude of technological
specialties,
and
that science may therefore have difficulty finding creative solutions to global
problems like polfution.
This is why
Nalimov takes such daring steps in prob
ing the creative heart of human discovery. By uncovering the purely human
problems which he believes underlie all
Nalimov
seeks to
other
problems,
restore to knowledge its lost unity. This
is a quest we cannot afford to ignore.
non whose very nature opposes formal
logic. Using the language of probability,
Nalimov explores th~ uncharted territory in the hope of discovering new paths
to scient~lc creativity. Nalimov believes
that thk new work forms the natural
completion
of the two books I have
discussed here. I am happy to report
that, after having received enthusiastic
responses from reviewers, 1S1 Press will
publish thk third part of the Nalimov
“trilogy” later thii year.
Even more than its predecessors,
“A
probabtitic
model of the unconscious”
reveals patterns in human knowledge
that cross the traditional boundaries between the arts and sciences. For this
reason, it deserves to be read by people
outside the world of science, as welf as by
scientists themselves.
*****
My thanks to Joe Pickett for his help
in the preparation of this essay.
~,m,,~,
REFERENCES
1. Naflrnov V V. In the labyn”nths of fanguage: a mathematician> journey.
Phtidelphia:
1S1 Press, 1981. 246p.
2. ------------------ Face$ of ~cience, Philadelphia: 1S1 Press, 1981.297 p.
3. ------------------- The application of mathematical statistics to chemical analysis.
New York: Addwn-Wesley,
1963.294 p,
4. Vf&duts G f, Ndrnov V V & .%ymhkfn N I. Scientifk and tecludcsl information as one of the
problems of cybernetics. So.. Phys. Uspekhi 2:637-781, 1959.
5. KolmogomvA N. Foundations of the theory of probability. New York: Chelsea, 19%. 84 p,
6. Noffmov V V & Mul’chertko Z M. Naukometn”ya. Izuchenie nuuki kak informatsionnogo
protsessa,
(Scientometric$,
Study of $cience m an information pmces.r.) Moscow: Nauka, 1%9, 192 p. (The
book is available in Engfish on microfilm: Measummem
of $cience. Study of the dev.[opment
of
science as an information proce.w, Washington, DC: Foreign Technology Division, US Air Force
Systems Command, 13 October 1971. 1% p.)
7. Garffeld E. Citation indexing, historio-biblio~aphy,
and the sociology of science. (Davis K E &
Sweeney W D, eds.) Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Medical Libmriamhip,
5-9 May 1%9, Amsterdsrn. Amsterdsm:
Excerpts Medlca, 1970. p., 187-204. ”
8. --------------- Citotion indexing—its theory and application in science, technology, and humanities.
New York: Wtiey, 1979. 274p.
9, Morswcsfk E A. Review of “In the Isbyrintbs of language: a mathematician’s
journey” by
V.V. Nafimov, Scientometnm
3:489-W, 1981.
“Reprinted
in: Garfield
E. Emays
of an information
scientis(.
427
Philadelphia:
1S1 Press, 1981.4
vofs.
Fly UP