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27 Maggio 2011 Se dovessi ideare ex novo l`Assistenza

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27 Maggio 2011 Se dovessi ideare ex novo l`Assistenza
10 LUGLIO 2015
Tra vent’anni: Il Futuro delle
Residenze Sanitarie Assistenziali
per anziani.
Corrado Carabellese
Regione Lombardia:
DGR 1765 del 8.5.2014
IL SISTEMA DEI CONTROLLI IN AMBITO SOCIOSANITARIO:
DEFINIZIONE DEGLI INDICATORI DI APPROPRIATEZZA IN
ATTUAZIONE DELLA DGR X/1185 DEL 20/12/2013.
La presente DGR definisce un set minimo di indicatori
“generali” e “specifici” finalizzati a favorire nell’ambito
del sistema sociosanitario lombardo l’uniformità
metodologica per l’attuazione del processo assistenziale
e del relativo sistema di controllo.
DGR 1765 del 8.5.2014
INDICATORI SPECIFICI PER LE RSA
Cadute
Contenzione fisica
Dolore
Lesione da pressione
Nutrizione/idratazione
Psicosociale
Cognitiva
Attività motoria
DGR 2022 del 1.7.14
Allegato 1
Procedure e Protocolli:
approvvigionamento, conservazione e smaltimento Farmaci, tracciabilità
della somministrazione farmaci,
modalità di prelievo, conservazione e trasporto materiali organici,
modalità di pulizia, lavaggio, disinfezione e sterilizzazione degli strumenti ed
accessori,
pulizia ambientale,
modalità di conservazione FASAS
Procedure e Protocolli di nuova emanazione:
La sorveglianza e la prevenzione delle infezioni correlate all’assistenza, ivi
compresa l’adozione di adeguate strategie vaccinali ove clinicamente
ritenute opportune.
L’Identificazione, la segnalazione e la gestione degli eventi avversi e degli
eventi sentinella.
Polizza assicurativa
DGR 2989 DEL 23/12/2014
Costi Standard per le RSA:
I costi standard sono un importante elemento per la revisione, nel
rispetto dei LEA, della remunerazione oggi vigente.
Il “pacchetto base” viene assunto a partire dal 2015 per la definizione
del costo standard.
I servizi da garantire agli ospiti delle RSA lombarde sono:
- Dotazione infrastrutturali minimi e servizi generali.
- Lo standard gestionale di 901 minuti settimanali per ospite.
- Servizi essenziali:
a) Consulenza dietologica, rendicontata nei 901 minuti,
b) Assistenza infermieristica 24 ore per 7 gg, ricorso al servizio di
reperibilità di personale infermieristico,
c) Assistenza medica 24 ore per 7 gg, ricordo al servizio di reperibilità
medica,
DGR 2989 DEL 23/12/2014
- Servizi essenziali:
d) Fornitura di presidi e materiale sanitario (non inclusi nel
nomenclatore tariffario) e per incontinenza,
e) Fornitura di farmaci e gas medicali ad esclusione dei farmaci del File
F.,
f) Servizio di ristorazione (colazione, pranzo, merenda, cena, vino,
acqua filtrata),
g) Servizio di pulizia della struttura, igienizzazione del comodino,
armadietti e letti a carico del personale assistenziale e ricompreso
nei 901 minuti settimanali.
h) Servizio lavanderia per biancheria piana e intima ospiti. Escluso gli
indumenti ospiti.
i) Tre gite in giornata durante il corso del’anno
DGR 2989 DEL 23/12/2014
• 5.2.6 Applicazione sistema vendor rating RSA
• Nel 2015 viene avviato un importante percorso di revisione delle
modalità di acquisto di prestazioni dalle RSA, coerentemente con
quanto definito nella DGR n. 1185/2013, introducendo il concetto di
vendor rating e di indicatori di fabbisogno.
• Nel 2016 sarà messo a regime il modello di vendor rating, andando
a superare la logica del budget storico, per andare verso un
meccanismo di acquisto del posto letto presso gli operatori
maggiormente qualificati.
• Ogni indicatore assegna alla struttura una classificazione parziale su
5 livelli che, partendo dal livello più basso al più alto, è così
strutturata: C, B, A, AA, AAA. Il rating complessivo della struttura
sarà dato dalla somma dei rating parziali sui singoli indicatori, che
avranno così uguale peso nella determinazione del rating finale.
DGR 2989 DEL 23/12/2014
• Le ASL provvederanno, sulla base degli indicatori descritti, alla
valorizzazione del sistema di vendor rating per le RSA presenti sul
proprio territorio.
• Sulla base degli esiti degli indicatori, le strutture con rating B e C
nella rideterminazione del budget annuale subiranno una riduzione
rispettivamente del 2% e del 4% del budget storico.
• Il valore economico complessivo derivante dalle riduzioni di cui sopra,
a livello di ASL, verrà ridistribuito dalla stessa ASL secondo le seguenti
priorità:
- RSA con rating AAA o AA ubicate su territori che presentano un
numero di posti letto inferiore alla media regionale
- RSA maggiormente virtuose nei territori che presentano un indice di
fabbisogno già in linea con la media regionale.
COMUNICAZIONE DELL'ASSESSORE CANTU'
ALLA GIUNTA NELLA SEDUTA DEL 5 GIUGNO 2015
OGGETTO: DETERMINAZIONI CONSEGUENTI ALLA DGR. N. 2989/2014 SULLA COMPOSIZIONE DEI COSTI A RILEVANZA
SOCIALE E SOCIOSANITARIA DELLE RSA
Con dgr n. 2989/2014 Regione Lombardia, in continuità con quanto anticipato nella dgr n.1185/2013, ha
dato ulteriori indicazioni riguardanti il percorso finalizzato dalla determinazione dei costi standard per le
RSA.
Attraverso l'analisi delle componenti di spesa riferita ai diversi fattori produttivi effettuata processando le
schede struttura delle 649 RSA operanti nel contesto regionale, con posti a contratto, è stato possibile
quantificare un costo a standard comprensivo dei costi derivanti dai servizi sanitari e socio-sanitari, ma
anche alberghieri, le dotazioni infrastrutturali e i servizi generali.
La metodologia di calcolo così organizzata ha consentito di quantificare in 83,48
euro il costo
medio a standard delle RSA lombarde in termini di Euro per giornata erogata.
Il percorso attuato non rappresenta, di fatto, un dato statico e determinato in termini assoluti ma un valore
che è sottoposto ad un monitoraggio e ad un aggiornamento con cadenza annuale, funzionale anche ai fini
della valutazione delle performance delle RSA secondo gli indicatori di rating prospettati nella già richiamata
delibera n. 2989/2014 e in via di perfezionamento.
Tra vent’anni: Futuro delle Residenze
Sanitarie Assistenziali per anziani.
Spunti ed indirizzi della letteratura
per Nursing Home anno 2015:
Le nuove specificità della Rsa
nella rete dei servizi sanitari.
Nutrizione:
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan;18(1):17-23
Malnutrition in the nursing home.
Bell CL1, Lee AS, Tamura BK.
Malnutrition in the nursing home is increasingly recognized as a major international research
priority, given the expanding geriatric populations, serious consequences, and challenges
conducting research in nursing homes. RECENT FINDINGS: Across the recent studies,
approximately 20% of nursing home residents had some form of malnutrition.
However, malnutrition definitions were variable and prevalence ranged from 1.5 to
66.5%.
J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2015;34(1):1-21..
Malnutrition and Dysphagia in long-term care: a systematic review.
Namasivayam AM1, Steele CM.
Determining the co-occurrence of malnutrition and dysphagia is important to understand the
extent to which swallowing impairment contributes to poor food intake in long-term care (LTC).
The reported frequency of participants in LTC with dysphagia ranges from 7% to
40%, while the percentage of those who were malnourished ranges from 12% to
54%. Due to discrepancies used to describe and measure these conditions, it is difficult to
determine the exact prevalence of either condition separately, or in combination. Consequently,
the impact of dysphagia on malnutrition must be considered and studied using valid definitions
and measures.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Jun 1;16(6):527
Both intravenous and subcutanous infusion can be done in nursing homes.
Zorowitz RA1.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Mar;16(3):175-6
Dehydration is difficult to detect and prevent in nursing homes.
Lima Ribeiro SM1, Morley JE2.
Int J Prosthodont. 2015 Mar-Apr;28(2):198-200. doi: 10.11607/ijp.4016.
Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulism prevents malnutrition in nursing home residents.
Andreas Zenthöfer A, Rammelsberg P, Cabrera T, Hassel A.
To investigate the association between prosthetic rehabilitation and malnutrition in
institutionalized elders, 255 nursing home residents were recruited for this study and
underwent a comprehensive dental examination. Participants with BMI < 20 kg/mc were
categorized as malnourished (n = 33), whereas all others were categorized as adequately
nourished (n = 222). The
number of teeth present and the prevalence of
prosthetic rehabilitation were significantly lower in malnourished
participants (P < .05). Malnutrition risk was 4.6 times higher for
participants who were edentulous and did not wear dentures. Adequate
replacement of teeth is important to prevent malnutrition in institutionalized older people.
INFEZIONI
Geriatr Nurs. 2015 Jun 9. pii: S0197-4572(15)
Perceived barriers to infection prevention and control for nursing home certified nursing assistants: A qualitative study.
Travers J1, Herzig CT2, Pogorzelska-Maziarz M3, Carter E4, Cohen CC5, Semeraro PK5, Bjarnadottir RI5, Stone PW5.
Healthcare-associated infections, while preventable, result in increased morbidity and
mortality in nursing home (NH) residents. Frontline personnel, such as certified nursing assistants (CNAs), are
crucial to successful implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. The purpose of this study was to
explore barriers to implementing and maintaining IPC practices for NH CNAs as well as to describe strategies used to
overcome these barriers.
Five key themes emerged as perceived barriers to effective IPC for CNAs: 1) language/culture;
2) knowledge/training; 3) per-diem/part-time staff; 4) workload; and 5) accountability.
Strategies used to overcome these barriers included: translating in-services, hands on training, on-the-spot training for perdiem/part-time staff, increased staffing ratios, and inclusion/empowerment of CNAs. Understanding IPC barriers
and strategies to overcome these barriers may better enable NHs to achieve infection
reduction goals.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015 Apr 29:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]
Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria: Inter- and Intradissemination Among Nursing Homes of Residents With Advanced
Dementia.
D'Agata EM1, Habtemariam D2, Mitchell S2.
OBJECTIVE To quantify the extent of inter and intra nursing home transmission of multidrug-resistant gram-negative
bacteria (MDRGN) among residents with advanced dementia and characterize MDRGN colonization among these residents.
CONCLUSIONS MDRGN are spread both within and between nursing homes among residents with
advanced dementia. Infection control interventions should begin to target this high-risk group
of nursing home residents.
DOLORE
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr;63(4):642-3.
Pain management in American nursing homes – a long way to go.
Hallenbeck J1.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2015;159:A7833.
[Treatment of spasticity in nursing homes: botulinum toxin type A as part of therapy].
[Article in Dutch]
Wolswijk AH1, Dirkx AE.
Complications of spasticity can severely limit daily activities and caregiving. For those who treat or provide care to patients with spasticity in nursing homes, it is
important to recognise complaints in order to prevent serious complications such as carerelated pain, contractures and pressure sores. Both patients received botulinum toxin injections
in the affected muscles, combined with an appropriate splint.
These efforts
substantially reduced care-related pain and improved social behaviour
and care options. If spasticity prohibits treatment or care, consultation of a rehabilitation
physician at an early stage is indicated.
PROSPETTIVE PER IL FUTURO DELLE RSA
Int J Nurs Stud. 2011 Jun;48(6):732-50
The relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care in nursing homes: a systematic review.
Spilsbury K1, Hewitt C, Stirk L, Bowman C.
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence-base for the relationship between nursing home nurse staffing
(proportion of RNs and support workers) and how this affects quality of care for nursing home residents and
to explore methodological lessons for future international studies.
REVIEW METHODS: Systematic search of OVID databases. A total of 13,411 references were identified.
References were screened to meet inclusion criteria. 80 papers were subjected to full scrutiny and checked
for additional references (n=3).
RESULTS: A growing body of literature is examining the relationships between nurse staffing levels in nursing
homes and quality of care provided to residents, but predominantly focuses on US nursing facilities. The
studies present a wide range and varied mass of findings that use disparate methods for defining and
measuring quality (42 measures of quality identified) and nurse staffing (52 ways of measuring staffing
identified).
CONCLUSIONS:
A focus on numbers of nurses fails to address the influence of other staffing factors (e.g., turnover, agency
staff use), training and experience of staff, and care organisation and management.
'Quality' is a
difficult concept to capture directly and the measures used focus
mainly on 'clinical' outcomes for residents. This systematic mapping review highlights
important methodological lessons for future international studies and makes an important contribution to
the evidence-base of a relationship between the nursing workforce and quality of care and resident
outcomes in nursing home settings.
R I Med J (2013). 2015 Mar 3;98(3):20-2.
The Roles and Functions of Medical Directors in Nursing Homes.
Nanda A1.
The medical director is an important member of the healthcare team in a nursing home, and is responsible for overall
coordination of care and for implementation of policies related to care of the residents in a nursing home. The residents in
. The medical director has an
important leadership role in assisting nursing home administration in
providing quality care that is consistent with current standards of care.
nursing homes are frail, medically complex, and have multiple disabilities
This article provides an overview of roles and functions of the medical director, and suggests ways the medical director can
be instrumental in achieving excellent care in today's nursing facilities.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Apr 7.
Physicians in Nursing Homes: Effectiveness of Physician Accountability and Communication.
Lima JC1, Intrator O2, Wetle T3.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a measure of the perceptions of nursing home (NH) directors of
nursing (DONs) on the adequacy of physician care and to examine its variation as well as its construct validity.
RESULTS: The established EPAC score is the first measure to capture specific components of the adequacy of physician care
in NHs. EPAC exhibited good construct validity: more effective practices were correlated with greater physician involvement
in discussions of do-not-resuscitate orders, the frequency with which the medical director checked on the medical care
delivered by the attending physician, the tightness of the NH's control of its physician resources, and the DON's perception
of whether or not avoidable hospitalizations and emergency room visits could be reduced with greater physician attention
to resident needs.
: As increased attention is given to the quality of care provided
to vulnerable elders, effective measures of processes of care are
essential. The EPAC measure provides an important new metric that can be used in these efforts. The goal is that
CONCLUSION
future studies could use EPAC and its individual domains to shed light on the manner through which physician presence is
related to resident outcomes in the NH setting.
PROSPETTIVE PER IL FUTURO DELLE RSA
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 May 23. pii: S1525-8610(15)00253-4.
Effect of a Novel Interdisciplinary Teaching Program in the Care-continuum on Medical Student Knowledge
and Self-Efficacy.
1
2
Lathia A , Rothberg M , Heflin M3, Nottingham K2, Messinger-Rapport B4.
OBJECTIVES: Medical students report that they receive inadequate training in different levels of care,
including care transitions to and from post-acute (PA) and long-term care (LTC). The authors implemented
the Medical Students as Teachers in Extended Care (MedTEC) program as an educational innovation at the
Cleveland Clinic to address training in the care-continuum, as well as the new medical student and physician
competencies in PA/LTC.
SETTING: The program occurs in a community facility that includes subacute/skilled nursing, assisted living,
and nursing home care.
RESULTS: Between October 2011 and December 2013, approximately 100 students participated in 20
sessions of MedTEC. All students reported improved self-efficacy and attitudes regarding care of older adults
and care transition management. Mean percentage correct on the knowledge test increased significantly
from 59.8% to 71.2% (P = .004) for the MedTEC participants but not for the comparison group students
(63.1%-58.3%, P = 47). There was no significant difference in mean percentage correct on the post-program
knowledge test between MedTEC medical students and hospitalists (71.0% versus 70.3%, P = .86). Students
led 8 in-service sessions for facility staff on various topics relating to the care of older adults in PA/LTC.
The MedTEC program appears to be a successful innovation
in medical student education on levels of care. It could serve as a model for
CONCLUSION:
building competency of health professionals on managing care transitions and determining appropriate
levels of care for older adults.
PROSPETTIVE PER IL FUTURO DELLE RSA
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Jul 1;16(7):603-6
Frailty Index and Mortality in Nursing Home Residents in France: Results From the INCUR Study.
Tabue-Teguo M1, Kelaiditi E2, Demougeot L2, Dartigues JF3, Vellas B4, Cesari M4.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether the capacity of an age-related deficit
accumulation index (the so-called Frailty Index [FI] proposed by Rockwood) to predict mortality in a
nursing home population.
MEASUREMENTS:
The FI was computed as the ratio between actual and 30 potential deficits the participant might have
presented at the baseline visit (range between 0 [no deficit] and 1 [30 deficits]). Death events were
monitored and detected over a 12-month follow-up. The risk of death was estimated using Cox
proportional hazards models.
RESULTS:
Mean age of participants was 86.2 (SD 7.5) years, with a mean FI of 0.35 (SD 0.11). At the end of the
follow-up, 135 (17.4%) death events were recorded. A positive association between the FI and mortality
(per 0.01 FI increment: age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio 1.018, 95% confidence interval 1.002-1.035,
P = .03) was reported. The use of the traditional 0.25 cut-point for detecting the frailty status is
inadequate in this population.
CONCLUSION:
The FI is able to predict mortality even in very old and complex elders, such as nursing home residents.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Feb;16(2):87-9
Frailty in nursing homes: the FRAIL-NH Scale.
Kaehr E1, Visvanathan R2, Malmstrom TK3, Morley JE4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Feb;16(2):87-9.
Frailty in nursing homes: the FRAIL-NH Scale.
Kaehr E1, Visvanathan R2, Malmstrom TK3, Morley JE4.
PROSPETTIVE PER IL FUTURO DELLE RSA
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Mar;16(3):181-4.
An international definition for "nursing home".
Sanford AM1, Orrell M2, Tolson D3, Abbatecola AM4, Arai H5, Bauer JM6, Cruz-Jentoft AJ7, Dong B8, Ga H9,
Goel A10, Hajjar R11, Holmerova I12, Katz PR13, Koopmans RT14, Rolland Y15, Visvanathan R16, Woo J17, Morley
JE18, Vellas B15.
There is much ambiguity regarding the term "nursing home" in the international literature. The definition of
a nursing home and the type of assistance provided in a nursing home is quite varied by country. The
International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics and AMDA foundation developed a survey to assist
with an international consensus on the definition of "nursing home."
BMC Res Notes. 2014 Dec 9;7:889.
Intermediate care in nursing home after hospital admission: a randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up.
Herfjord JK, Heggestad T, Ersland H, Ranhoff AH1.
1Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen and Kavli Research Centre for Geriatrics and Dementia, Haraldsplass Hospital,
Ulriksdal 8, 5009 Bergen, Norway. [email protected]
Intermediate care is intended to reduce hospital admissions and facilitate
early discharge. In Norway, a model was developed with transfer to intermediate care shortly after hospital admission.
Intervention group patients were transferred to a nursing home unit
with increased staff and multidisciplinary assessment, for a maximum
stay of three weeks. Patients in the control group received usual care in hospital. Blinding to group assignment was
not possible. The primary outcome was number of days living at home in a follow-up period of 365 days. Secondary outcomes were
mortality, hospital admissions, need for residential care and home care services.
RESULTS: 376 patients were included, 74% female and mean age 84 years. There was no significant differences between intervention
(n=190) and control group (n=186) for number of days living at home (253.7 vs 256.5, p=0.80) or days in hospital (10.4 vs 10.5,
p=0.748). Intervention group patients spent less time in nursing home (40.6 days vs. 55.0, p=0.046), and more patients lived
independently without home health care services (31.6% vs 19.9%, p=0.007). For orthopaedic patients (n=128), mortality was higher
in the intervention group; 15 intervention patients and 7 controls died (25.1% vs 10.3%, p=0.049). There was no significant difference
This model of rapid
transfer to intermediate care did not significantly influence number of
days living at home during one year follow-up, but reduced demand
for nursing home care and need for home health care services. In post-hoc
in one-year mortality for medical patients (n=150) or the total study population. CONCLUSIONS:
analysis mortality was increased for orthopedic patients.
JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb;175(2):296-7..
Post-acute care: who belongs where?
Jenq GY1, Tinetti ME1.
Ugeskr Laeger. 2015 Mar 16;177(12).
[Teminal care in a nursing home].
Andersen JH1, Hansen J, Rosholm JU.
This article focuses on patients with limited life expectancy who no longer benefit from preventive medication but not yet
qualify for palliative care - a time frame often referred to as End-of-Life (EOL). The purpose of this article is to identify and
assess international guidelines for prescribing in EOL. No relevant clinical trials were available, but we found advice mainly
based on logic assumptions and thoughts. Optimal prescribing for EOL patients remains mostly unexplored. Our study
revealed two pivotal questions: How do we identify EOL patients, and what specific drugs should be removed?
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 May 1;16(5):434-5.
Hospice in the nursing homes: perspectives of a medical director.
Raider M1.
Nurs Clin North Am. 2015 Jun;50(2):269-281.
Transforming Home Health Nursing with Telehealth Technology.
Farrar FC1.
Telehealth technology is an evidence-based delivery model tool that can be integrated into the
plan of care for mental health patients. Telehealth technology empowers access to health care,
can help decrease or prevent hospital readmissions, assist home health nurses provide shared
decision making, and focuses on collaborative care. Telehealth and the recovery model have
transformed the role of the home health nurse. Nurses need to be proactive and respond to
rapidly emerging technologies that are transforming their role in home care.
Gerontologist. 2015 Apr;55(2):296-301. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnv010. Epub 2015 Apr 9.
A new long-term care manifesto.
Kane RL1.
This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons.
. LTC has three
basic components: personal care, housing, and
health care (primarily chronic disease management).
Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty
They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously.
Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at
least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically,
Health care must be
proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of
chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing
some form of clustered housing may be needed.
preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both
quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline.
Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we
can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in
formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and
hence worth paying for.
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