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RR1001 Flammable mists from accidental hydrocarbon releases offshore
Health and Safety
Executive
Flammable mists from accidental
hydrocarbon releases offshore
Prepared by the Health and Safety Laboratory
for the Health and Safety Executive 2014
RR1001
Research Report
Health and Safety
Executive
Flammable mists from accidental
hydrocarbon releases offshore
Graham Burrell and Stuart Jagger
Health and Safety Laboratory
Harpur Hill
Buxton
Derbyshire SK17 9JN
The report investigates offshore hydrocarbon releases in an attempt to identify whether mists of hydrocarbon
droplets were formed, and if these presented a flammability hazard. Scientific literature has been searched for
the present state of knowledge of the physics of two-phase mist generation. An empirical correlation has been
used to model the reported hydrocarbon releases for a five year period and estimate whether flammable mists
could have been generated.
It was found that ninety-five percent of reported liquid releases (forty-five percent of total reported releases)
could have formed flammable mists. It was also noted that there were thirty-five cases of high flash point diesel
and machine oils igniting as flash fires in five years.
Having established that flammable mists are being generated, the state of computational modelling and its
validity has been reviewed to identify whether industry is able to characterise this risk in order to enact measures
to control it. This found that computer programs existed to model both mechanical and flashing mist generation
although the ability of these programs to model subsequent dispersion and rainout was limited. Validation
studies of jet breakup are continuing but are focused on characterisation of single component flashing releases,
not mechanical breakup of multiple component mixtures.
This report and the work it describes were funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents,
including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily
reflect HSE policy.
HSE Books
© Crown copyright 2014
First published 2014
You may reuse this information (not including logos) free
of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the
Open Government Licence. To view the licence visit
www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/,
write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew,
London TW9 4DU, or email [email protected]
Some images and illustrations may not be owned by the
Crown so cannot be reproduced without permission of the
copyright owner. Enquiries should be sent to
[email protected]
ii
CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 1
2
DEFLAGRATION OF FLAMMABLE MISTS/AEROSOLS .......................... 3
3 PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE FLUIDS OFFSHORE ............................. 5
3.1
Pressure Liquefied Gases ........................................................................ 5
3.2
Flammable liquids under pressure ............................................................ 5
3.3
Multicomponent fluids ............................................................................... 6
3.4
Two-phase fluids ....................................................................................... 6
4
INCIDENT DATA ......................................................................................... 7
5 PREDICTIVE MODELS ............................................................................. 13
5.1
PHAST .................................................................................................... 13
5.2
SHELL Shepherd .................................................................................... 14
5.3
EJECT .................................................................................................... 15
5.4
RELEASE ............................................................................................... 15
5.5
Dunbar .................................................................................................... 16
5.6
TNO ........................................................................................................ 17
5.7
SuperChems ........................................................................................... 18
6 EXPERIMENTS .......................................................................................... 19
6.1
CCPS ...................................................................................................... 19
6.2
STEP ...................................................................................................... 19
6.3
Von Karman Institute .............................................................................. 19
6.4
Mobil ....................................................................................................... 20
6.5
HSL ......................................................................................................... 20
6.6
Work on multi-component releases ........................................................ 20
7
FLASHING LIQUID JET JIP ...................................................................... 23
8 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................. 25
8.1
Conclusions ............................................................................................ 25
8.2
Recommendations .................................................................................. 26
9
10
APPENDICES ............................................................................................ 27
REFERENCES ..................................................................................... 131
iii
iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Objectives
•
Examine the OSD hydrocarbon release database and attempt to determine the number of
incidents that may have generated two-phase mists.
•
Identify any relevant models and assess their range of validity.
•
Review literature for experimental trials suitable as validation studies for the identified
models.
•
Assess whether flammable risks from two-phase mists are being identified, analysed
and reduced to ALARP.
•
Identify if any areas require further validation.
Main Findings
•
The combustion behaviour of fuel mists have been summarised and the burning
properties of droplets sizes less than 30 µm have been highlighted as particularly
hazardous.
•
Between April 2000 and December 2005, there have been thirty-five flash-fires of nonprocess diesel and oils and three flash-fires of process hydrocarbons.
•
Of ignited releases, 78 % of non-jet fires occurred as explosions or flash-fires rather
than pool fires demonstrating that realistic release conditions favour significant airborne
dispersion over rainout.
•
An analysis of ignited and un-ignited releases found that 45% (96% of liquid releases)
occurred under conditions that could have formed droplets within the flammable size
range.
•
Demonstration has been made that industry is aware of the current lack of knowledge of
aerosol generation and steps are being taken to resolve this but the focus remains on
single component, superheated gases rather than multi-component process fluids and
high flashpoint hydrocarbons.
v
Recommendations
•
Awareness of the potential hazards associated with high flashpoint fuels needs to be
raised within the process safety industry. Pressurised hydrocarbon fluids need to be
considered during risk assessments.
•
Consider revision of OIR12 form to include the presence of mist, area of pool/rainout
and more details of the released hydrocarbon, e.g. Product datasheet for non-process
hydrocarbons and compositions for process hydrocarbons.
•
Experimental work is required to validate droplet size correlations against realistic
release scenarios (high flashpoint hydrocarbons and multi-component process fluids)
instead of single phase pressurised gases and atypical polar fluids.
•
Further experimental work is needed to understand the mechanisms of accelerated
flame propagation and associated higher overpressures within preheated optically thick
fuel mixtures.
vi
1
INTRODUCTION
Off shore oil and gas installations store and process very large inventories of different
hydrocarbon mixtures. The crude oil/natural gas is pumped from the seabed and separated by
distillation at different pressures and temperatures. Therefore the installations need to heat and
pressurise the crude, which requires further non-process hydrocarbons for fuel and to act as
lubrication and heat transfer fluids.
An accidental release of any of these fluids is hazardous because of their inherent flammability.
Gaseous and two-phase releases will have at least some flash fraction that will disperse through
the installation and if ignited can form either a flash-fire or, depending on the degree of
congestion, a vapour cloud explosion. Higher flashpoint fluids, such as lubrication oils, may
form pool fires or, if atomised, flash-fires or explosions. In addition, all hydrocarbons may flash
back to the source and form a jet fire.
Any of these hazards can damage plant work around the release and lead to a domino effect.
Because of the inherent financial restraints of operating offshore, the cost increases with the size
of the installation and the distance between equipment is kept to a minimum, as is the distance
between plant work and occupied buildings.
The nature of the off shore gas and oil industry requires the facilities to be geographically
isolated and requires the workforce to remain within the vicinity of the plant work.
For all these reasons, hydrocarbon releases are closely monitored by HSE Off Shore Division
who maintain a database of all reported releases since 1993 for the use of estimating failure
rates and identifying trends.
-1-
2
DEFLAGRATION OF FLAMMABLE MISTS/AEROSOLS
For the purpose of this report the term mist shall be used to refer to droplets of liquid of any size
suspended in air. It has been previously thought that the highest flame speeds were produced by
stoichiometric vapour/air mixtures and as the droplet diameter increases the flame speeds
decrease due to the droplet vaporization energy. However, mathematical and experimental
studies into flame front progression through a flammable mist have shown that this may not be
the case.
Mists with droplet sizes of 7 µm or less evaporate ahead of the flame front due to heat and
pressure and so burn as vapour clouds. In mists with droplet sizes above 30 µm, the flame front
spreads more slowly, burning the vapour in envelopes around each droplet. The flame speed
decreases with increasing droplet size as more heat is drained from the reaction front. However,
mists with droplets within the range 7 – 30 µm have been theorised to burn with a significantly
greater burning velocity, generating higher overpressures. In experimental investigation of
tetralin mists, the flame has been seen to visually change from a pre-mixed gas burner flame to
a spray of burning droplets at a droplet size of approximately 10 µm. (1) (2) (3)
Bowen and Cameron have undertaken a review of work in this area in 1999, but they concluded
that there had not been sufficient experimental work to characterise mists with sufficient
confidence. (4) (5)
Small droplets are also more easily entrained into air streams and remain airborne for longer,
generating larger flammable mist clouds. It is for this reason that characterising droplet diameter
and distribution is important for offshore risk assessment.
-3-
3
PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE FLUIDS OFFSHORE
There are three mechanisms by which a flammable mist might be generated from an accidental
release.
3.1
PRESSURE LIQUEFIED GASES
When a fluid stored above its boiling point is released, it flash boils creating bubbles of vapour
within the jet stream. These coalesce until they shatter the jet into a distribution of droplets.
Depending on a number of factors including the fluid boiling point and entrainment of air into
the jet, these droplets may evaporate, pool on the ground or be carried along with the air stream
forming a mist.
The resulting droplet diameters will continually decrease as they evaporate. Should the jet path
impinge on a solid surface, the droplets will condense and generate a pool that will begin to
evaporate. Allen has undertaken experimental investigation of impinging jets. (6)
Witlox and Bowen have reviewed the current understanding of flashing liquid jets in a contract
research report for HSE in 2002. (7) (8)
3.2
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS UNDER PRESSURE
Fluids stored below their boiling point can also form mists under certain release conditions. If a
liquid jet is released with enough velocity it will break up into droplets due to resistance with
the air. When the aerodynamic shear is greater than the liquid cohesion, the jet will break apart
into droplets that may be small enough be carried along in the air stream and form a mist.
Very little work has been done into predicting the hazards from these types of releases. The
widely accepted view in industry is that only large droplets are formed, which rainout and form
a liquid pool. Most experimental work on high flashpoint liquids has been done in the area of
diesel injectors and has not been applied to hazard studies.
-5-
3.3
MULTICOMPONENT FLUIDS
Crude oil is not a pure chemical but a mixture of different hydrocarbon fractions. Even after the
crude is processed through a separator, some lighter fractions remain in solution. Under a
pressurised release, the components with lower boiling points will flash, breaking up the jet of
the heavier components. This more complex situation is the best characterisation of a release of
pressurised crude oil.
3.4
TWO-PHASE FLUIDS
The source fluids may also be in two-phases before being released in which case they are either
miscible or immiscible. If miscible, the liquid phase will be supersaturated with the vapour
phase and upon release, the pressure drop will drive the vapour out of the liquid, causing a
situation analogous to flashing break-up. If immiscible the vapour phase will not be dissolved in
the liquid phase but will add to the mechanical pressure driving it out of the orifice and breaking
up the jet as in the case of the pressurised liquids.
-6-
4
INCIDENT DATA
A recent report by HSL involved an audit of a typical offshore platform to identify potential
ignition sources. An inventory of flammable materials and their storage conditions has been
reproduced in table 1. (9)
Table 1 – Inventory of typical offshore platform
Location
Material
HP Separator
LP Separator
Oil & Gas
Oil & Gas
2-Phase
2-Phase
HP Gas Cooler
Gas
Gas
HP Compressor
Aftercooler
Gas
Wet Gas glycol
contractor
Chilled Gas
Separator
Gas
Compressors
Approximate
Approximate
Temperature Pressure
Volume
Volume (gas)
(liquid)
Phase
Gas
Gas
Gas
Pressure Liquefied
Gas
m3
m3
ºC
bar
66
79
110
132
95
65
24
16
14
95
4
Lubrication Oil Pressurised Liquid
30
150
24
0.01
14
40
80
40
80
7
60
130
Seal Oil
Pressurised Liquid
Oil Line
Spiked Crude
Multi-Component
Multi-Phase
Helifuel tank
Day Storage
tank
Jet A1
30
Ambient
1
Diesel
24
Ambient
1
Even measured as a static capacity, large volumes of hydrocarbon fractions are processed as
either multi-phase or pressurised fluids with the potential to generate a flammable mist upon
release.
Under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
(RIDDOR), and prior offshore legislation, all accidental releases of hydrocarbons have been
reported to HSE. OSD keep a database of offshore release statistics, which are available to
industry to aid in the preparation of offshore safety cases. This database of reported releases has
been used to investigate the number of hydrocarbon releases that may have potentially formed
flammable mists.
-7-
The hydrocarbon release database categorises releases into 5 chemical states. These are ‘oil’,
‘gas’, ‘condensate’, ‘2-phase’ and ‘non-process’. Petroleum ‘gas’ may form mists or pools upon
release before reaching thermal equilibrium and a number of correlations have been proposed to
model this. These have been reviewed by Witlox et al as described above. However, due to the
difficulty in defining post expansion parameters, mathematical correlations have not been
applied to these releases.
‘2-phase’ releases can clearly form flammable mists and have been included as potential sources
without further investigation. Although these releases may evaporate upon release, the relatively
low number of 2-phase releases per year (circa 14) was not thought to skew the results.
‘Oil’, ‘condensate’ and ‘non-process’ are liquids at ambient temperature and pressure but, stored
under pressure, may break-up into mists upon release. A correlation defined by Bowen and
Shirvill has been used to characterise whether a mist will form with droplet sizes within the
flammable range. (10) (11)
Depending upon the release conditions of the liquid, several regimes of jet break-up may be
predicted. Low-pressure releases of fluids with high surface tensions break-up in a ‘drip’ or
‘rayleigh’ regime where the resulting droplets are larger than the orifice diameter. ‘Windinduced’ break-up due to aerodynamic forces produce droplets within an order of magnitude of
the orifice while at higher pressure, the ‘atomisation’ regime produces a very fine spray of tiny
droplets. (12)
For the purpose of classifying a hazardous mist only the ‘atomisation’ regime is likely to
produce a mist of 30 µm droplets or smaller however, ‘2nd wind-induced’ jets may form mists
that are flammable and since a range of droplet sizes will be generated, the boundary between
large and small ‘wind-induced’ regimes has been chosen as the definition of a flammable mist.
This threshold is written in equation (1).
Ca = 17.8.Z 0.91
Where
Ca =
µ LU
σL
(1)
Z=
and
µ L = Viscosity (kgm-1s-1)
U = Jet velocity at orifice (ms-1)
σ L = Surface tension of the liquid (Nm-1)
ρ L = Density of the liquid (kgm3)
d O = Diameter of the orifice (mm)
-8-
µL
(σ L ρ L d O )
Above this limit, the jet breaks up according to the ‘2nd wind-induced’ regime and is considered
potentially flammable. Beneath the limit the droplets are predicted to be of the order of 100 µm
or larger. Droplets of this magnitude are thought to be non-flammable due to the heat lost to
vaporise the liquid, and are expected to quickly rain out.
Unfortunately, the equation cannot deal with multi-component mixtures so the categories must
be modelled as pure liquids. The densities of the hydrocarbon fractions are specified in the
database but because of the complex nature of petroleum crude oil, surface tension and viscosity
values are not known. For this reason data has been taken from a paper by George et al. Values
for the viscosity and surface tension at 95 °C have been estimated based on lower temperature
measurements of a crude oil sample with an API of 31.52. (13)
No comparative paper has been found for natural gas condensate but material safety data sheets
indicate that up to 95% of the composition is hexane. Therefore the values for n-hexane have
been used as a single component substitute. ‘Non-process’ releases where no data or substitutes
can be identified, e.g. oil-based mud, have been omitted from the review. (14)
Table 2 – Review of reported releases
Flammable
mist formed
Yes
No
Total
Category
Year
2 Phase
Condensate
Gas
Non-Process
Oil
Sub-Total
Total
2000-2001
22
9
0
30
49
110
663
2001-2002
21
17
0
27
53
118
2002-2003
12
17
0
22
50
101
2003-2004
8
21
0
29
76
134
2004-2005
6
13
0
40
54
113
2005-2006
15
12
0
20
40
87
2000-2001
0
3
141
4
9
157
2001-2002
0
0
117
0
0
117
2002-2003
0
0
125
1
0
126
2003-2004
0
0
131
0
0
131
2004-2005
0
0
148
1
0
149
2005-2006
0
1
111
3
6
121
84
93
773
177
337
1464
801
1464
Approximately fifty five percent of all offshore hydrocarbon releases are gas (773 of 1464), but
of the forty five percent that are fluids, this equation predicts over ninety five percent of them
could have formed a potentially flammable mist (663 of 691).
-9-
The vast majority of these will be formed with large mean droplet sizes that will quickly
precipitate out and form a spreading pool. However, in each case a distribution of droplet sizes
will be formed and the smaller fractions will spread further as a flammable mist.
The records of ignited releases demonstrate the issue further. Although very few ignited releases
are reported each year, the statistics indicate that the vast majority of ignitions are from nonprocess liquids.
Table 3 – Review of reported fires
Category
Flammable
mist formed
Year
Yes
2000-2001
0
0
2001-2002
0
2002-2003
No
Total
Sub-Total
Total
0
8
51
8
0
9
0
2
2
5
1
0
8
1
10
0
0
0
13
0
13
2005-2006
0
0
0
6
0
6
2000-2001
0
0
4
0
1
5
2001-2002
0
0
2
0
0
2
2002-2003
0
0
1
1
0
2
2003-2004
0
0
3
0
0
3
2004-2005
0
0
3
1
0
4
2005-2006
0
0
3
1
0
4
0
3
16
48
4
71
2 Phase
Condensate Gas
Non-Process
Oil
0
8
1
0
0
1
2003-2004
0
2004-2005
20
71
These are mostly high flashpoint machine oils that should not ignite as pool fires without
considerable heating. In fact the majority of the high flash point oil releases that do ignite are
recorded to form a flash-fire, demonstrating that some form of flammable mist is present.
Considering the flash points of these fluids in their liquid forms, it is concluded that they form
mechanically generated mists.
- 10 -
Table 4 – Review of reported types of fire
Category
Type of fire reported
Flash
Explosion
Jet
Pool
Bottled gas
1
1
1
0
Diesel
11
0
3
1
Heat transfer oil
1
0
0
2
Hydraulic oil
3
0
0
0
Lub oil
20
0
0
8
Process fluids
12
5
8
5
Total
48
6
12
16
This demonstrates that in the last 5½ years, 48 releases have formed flash-fires, of which 35
(48 - 12 process fluids - 1 bottle gas) were ‘non-process’ oil and diesel releases. These could not
have vaporised and must have been dispersed as mists.
- 11 -
5
PREDICTIVE MODELS
The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (SCR05) require operators and
owners to submit safety cases for their installations. HSE assesses each case to decide if a case
for safety has been made. Because of the high potential of hazards combined with the difficulty
of escape, the burden is upon industry to demonstrate that they have reduced risk to ALARP.
Most offshore safety cases rely on predictive computer models to evaluate the hazards from
accidental releases. A few sophisticated programmes dominate the field.
5.1
•
PHAST
•
SHELL Sheppard
•
EJECT
•
RELEASE
•
Dunbar
•
TNO
•
SuperChems
PHAST
One such model is PHAST developed by DNV Technica. It is a modular programme that
simulates releases by breaking the process down into stages. Each module feeds its output into
the source terms for the next stage. The stage that simulates the formation of a mist is called the
‘flash-model’ and its outputs (droplet size, temperature, etc) are input into a ‘unified dispersion
model’, UDM.
The ‘flash model’ relies upon a series of assumptions about the physics of expansion.
Depending on the release conditions, two mechanisms of droplet formation are possible. The
mechanism that produces the smallest droplet size is assumed to dominate, either ‘mechanical’
or ‘flashing’.
Mechanical break up modelling relies upon a critical Weber number to predict the largest stable
droplet diameter within the resultant jet stream. This has been investigated by experimentation
and found to lie within a range of 10-22. (15) (16) (17)
WeCrit =
ρ a uO2 d p
σ L = 10 − 22
- 13 -
ρ a = Atmospheric density (kgm-3)
Where
u O2 = Square of velocity at orifice (m2s-2)
d p = Diameter of droplet (m)
σ L = Surface tension of liquid (Nm-1)
The following correlation is used for flashing break-up based on the partial expansion energy,
E P.
(
)
Dd = 0.833 *10 −3 − 0.73 *10 −3 ln(E P )
Where Dd = Diameter of droplet
For stagnation pressure at stagnation temperature > ambient pressure
[
]
[
E P = −Δh + v St PSt − PVSat (TSt ) − v St PVSat (TSt ) − Pa
]
For stagnation pressure at stagnation temperature ≤ ambient pressure
E P = v St (PSt − Pa )
Δh = change of enthalpy between stagnation and post expansion conditions (Jkg-1)
vSt = Stagnation specific volume
PSt = Stagnation pressure (Nm-2)
Pa = Ambient pressure (Nm-2)
TSt = Stagnation temperature (K)
PVSat = Saturated vapour pressure (Nm-2)
A monodisperse mist is assumed with a droplet size equal to this maximum droplet size, which
leads to a discrete threshold where rainout is predicted to be non-existent or absolute. (18)
5.2
SHELL SHEPHERD
SHELL SHEPHERD is part of a risk assessment tool called HGSYSTEMS developed by Shell
Global Solutions. The system performs risk assessments based on calculations of the physical
engineering processes input from failure rates of components through to detailed analysis of
resultant hazards.
Liquid releases are first analysed by phase at release temperature and ambient pressure. Liquids
below their boiling point are modelled as spreading pools, fluids above their boiling points are
assumed to fully convert to vapour clouds.
- 14 -
However version 1.0.4.5, current as at October 2003, does not calculate mist formation.
Released liquid either forms a pool through rainout or is assumed to evaporate and behave as a
vapour. Calculation of the degree of rainout is left to the user. (19) (20)
5.3
EJECT
Eject is a two-phase steady state jet release model developed for the HSE by AEA Technology.
It is designed to calculate the downstream dispersion of hazardous substances close to the
release point. It accounts for flashing conditions upon release as well as two-phase releases and
assumes a five-component system (single component, two phase release; two-phase water and
air).
EJECT calculates an immediate change in the vapour/liquid composition due to flashing upon
release and assumes a thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases.
However, the model assumes a uniform mixture of both liquid and vapour phases travelling at
the same characteristic velocity. No attempt is made to model the droplet size distribution and
total rainout is assumed to occur when the effect of gravity moves the jet plume incident to the
ground. (21)
5.4
RELEASE
This model has been developed by the American Institution of Chemical engineering and again
uses the critical Weber number, as written above, to define the mean droplet diameter for
mechanical break up. This is then used to calculate a lognormal distribution of droplet sizes
around the mean.
[()
]
exp ln λ ± 3 ln(sG )
1
λ = [WeCrit ] 2 σ
Where,
(ρ u )
2
sG = [WeCrit ]
,
g
1
6
λ = Geometric mean wavelength of instability (m-1)
sG = Standard deviation of mean droplet size normalised to mean droplet size (m)
Flashing break up is predicted by modifying the critical Weber number equation. The
RELEASE model simply replaces the velocity at the orifice with a relative velocity.
u Re l =
Where,
[u
2
b
2
+ u Acc
u Acc = u exp
]
− uO ,
ub =
2
φ 2 Cbub
−1
Nd
u exp = Expansion velocity (ms-1)
- 15 -
3
u b = Bubble growth velocity (ms-1)
φ = Corrective term to entrainment rate
Cbub = Bubble growth rate (ms-1/2)
N d = Density number of vaporization nucleation sites
The overall average droplet size is predicted to be the minimum of either the flashing or
mechanical break up values. (22)
5.5
DUNBAR
Additionally, the HSE investigated the possibility of toxic liquids forming mists upon accidental
release from pressurised storage/distribution. Dunbar et al conducted a literature review and
developed a model for mechanical break up. The review identified a series of mechanisms for
jet break up with transitions between the mechanisms determined by Weber number with a
lowest threshold of 12.
A study has been identified that measured the distribution of droplet sizes and found it was
approximately lognormal for all mechanisms except one. The “bag break up” mechanism for
droplets with a Weber number between 12 and 50 shattered into a bi-model distribution with a
peak just beneath the critical Weber number and at a much smaller diameter.
The review recommended the following empirical correlation for determining the sauter mean
diameter from mechanical break up which was derived from experiments using diesel injectors.
0.737
d = 3.09υ 0.385 (σρ l )
ρ a0.06 ΔP −0.54
Where, υ = Kinematic viscosity (m2s-1)
ρ l = Density of liquid (kgm3)
ΔP = Pressure difference (Pa)
Dunbar then went on to develop a model for the dispersion of the resulting mist including the
evaporative mass reduction of the droplet although without experimental validation the accuracy
of the predictions are unknown.
dm dt = −2πdM v D ( p Td − pa Ta ) R
Where, dm dt = Change of mass with time
d = Diameter of droplet
M v = Molecular weight
D = Diffusion coefficient of vapour in air
- 16 -
p = Pressure at droplet surface
R=
Gas constant
(23) (24)
5.6
TNO
TNO use a series of mathematical equations to model the release of pressurised liquids. They
initially calculate the effect of expansion on the orifice conditions. By changing the pressure to
ambient they recalculate the jet density and velocity by preserving the momentum and mass,
then calculate the degree of vaporization by preserving the total energy.
These post expansion conditions are used to calculate the Reynolds and Weber numbers, which
define whether the jet break-up shatters or not. Two correlations are proposed.
•
If We < Re -0.45 *10 6 and T < 1.11TB then
Dd = 3.78r j
Where
1
⎛
2 ⎞
⎜1 + 3 We ⎟
⎜
Re ⎟
⎝
⎠
Dd = Diameter of droplet
TB = Normal boiling temperature
rj = Radius of jet
•
Otherwise
Dd = 15
Where
σL
u 2j ρ a
uj = Velocity of jet
No attempt is made to model the scenario of releases from pressurised high flashpoint liquids or
multi-component systems. (25)
- 17 -
5.7
SUPERCHEMS
SuperChems is another commercial program that is used to calculate hazard ranges from
process plant work. It also uses two calculations depending on whether the forces driving the
break-up are mechanical or thermal. The calculation of mechanically derived droplet diameter
distributions uses the critical Weber number described under PHAST although modified by the
viscosity of the fluid.
For flashing break-up, SuperChems uses the same equation to define a critical Weber number
but replaces the square of the jet velocity with the available energy after expansion. A value of
140 is used to fit the model results to rainout data collected during the CCPS trials below. (26)
- 18 -
6
6.1
EXPERIMENTS
CCPS
Few large-scale experiments have been performed to validate two-phase release model results.
The first of these experiment trials was in 1989 and involved the release of water and CFC-11
over a range of temperatures around their boiling points. Unfortunately the experiments only
measured the mass of liquid rainout not the mist droplets so cannot be used to help determine
the orifice conditions.
The second of these trials was in 1990 and tried to extend the original correlations to other
substances. Chlorine, methylamine and cyclohexane were released. Again only the liquid
rainout was measured not the orifice conditions but a similar trend was demonstrated.
For all substances, the proportion of rainout decreased as the temperature increased. A gentle,
regressive linear relationship was determined for temperatures from the normal boiling point to
a transitional point in the superheated fluid region. Above this transitional point, the proportion
of rainout decreased much more sharply.
The RELEASE model predictions are compared to the observed rainouts, corrected for
evaporative and plume losses, but since RELEASE is used to back calculate the initial droplet
diameter the data is already tailored and the data sets are not objective. (27) (28) (29) (30)
6.2
STEP
At around the same time an experimental research program looking at chemical hazards was
established by the EC. Part of this involved the use of a laser system to measure liquid droplet
size and velocity inside a release jet.
A test program of 31, 5-litre releases of propane was performed with a range of pressures from
5 to 17 bar and orifice sizes from 2 to 8 mm. Whilst the degree of superheat was not varied, the
direct measurement of droplet sizes and distributions provides a database for flashing break-up
modelling. (31)
6.3
VON KARMAN INSTITUTE
The Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics has also done some experimental studies as part
of an EC research project for the purpose of generating experimental data for model validation.
They studied releases of tetra-fluoro-ethane and varied the orifice diameter (1-4 mm), pressure
(8-12 bar) and superheat (43-49 ºC). They also review the experimental work of other
researchers.
Their experiments conclude that both droplet diameter and velocity are higher in the centre of
the jet than the edge and decrease with distance from the orifice. Greater driving pressures and
superheats lead to a more violent break-up and smaller droplets, unlike larger orifice sizes,
which causes larger droplet diameters. This latter relationship is in contention but both Yildiz
and Hervieu report that orifice size has a positive correlation with droplet diameter.
- 19 -
As a matter of interest to flammability studies, Yildiz reports both the sauter mean diameter and
the arithmetic mean diameter for the same releases demonstrating that the majority of droplets
are of the order of two thirds to half the sauter mean diameter. (32)
6.4
MOBIL
A two-phase mist generation model has been developed and tested by Muralidhar & Sundaresan
for predicting rainout from both liquid and superheated HF releases. They found from a series
of experimental trials, measuring the HF rainout, that the best mechanical break-up correlation
was a critical Weber number derived from the release velocity rather than the velocity square, as
in the PHAST model.
Dd = 0.96
Where
σ
u
Dd = Diameter of droplet
σ = Surface tension (Nm-1)
u = Initial velocity (ms-1)
The correlation produces a good fit to their experimental data but only the captured rainout was
recorded rather than the droplet diameters. No flashing releases were recorded. (33)
6.5
HSL
Flashing propane releases were investigated by HSL to measure near-field conditions including
droplet diameter, velocities and temperatures. This was done by non-intrusive laser techniques
to produce axial and lateral profiles of jet velocity and droplet diameter.
Initial pressure, degree of superheat and orifice sizes were varied to produce a body of data
specifically for validation of computational models. Further work was carried out to investigate
rainout and the effect of impingement of the jet. (34) (35) (36) (37) (38)
6.6
WORK ON MULTI-COMPONENT RELEASES
Because of the complexity of characterising two-phase releases, almost all work to date has
been on single component fluids. However for industry, particularly the petrochemical industry,
releases of interest involve complex component mixtures. Models attempt to cover these
scenarios by either assuming the fluid splits into vapour cloud and liquid pools or by assuming
ideal mixing of the components into a homogenous fluid with the properties of the weighted
average of the components.
A theoretical comparison of this substitute method has been studied by Johnson et al who
conclude that substitute single component models only produce equivalent results for singlephase releases. (39)
- 20 -
Johnson et al only modelled the range to the lower flammability limit while a recent study by
Witlox et al tried to extend the capabilities of PHAST to model multi-component fluids. The
method chosen involved cubic equations of state that can model non-polar mixtures, which
deviate from ideal mixing behaviour. (40)
- 21 -
7
FLASHING LIQUID JET JIP
Recently a series of joint industry projects have been set up to investigate the phenomena of
flashing superheated jets. The first of these took the form of a literature survey that reviewed the
current ‘state of the art’ in two-phase droplet dispersion modelling. It found that only two
models attempted to calculate the initial droplet break-up. These were PHAST and the work of
Muralidar et al.
Once this had been determined, the second stage of the JIP undertook experimental releases of
superheated water and used a phase doppler anemometer to measure the resultant droplet
diameters. This produced results for the sauter mean diameters and the droplet size distributions.
This was then used to validate a proposed new droplet size correlation.
Mechanical break-up
For 2 < L / dO < 50
⎛ L ⎞
Dd
−0.533
= 64.73 * WeLO
* Re −LO0.014 * ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
dO
⎝ d O ⎠
Where
Re LO =
ρ L uO d O
µL
0.114
WeLO =
ρ L u O2 d O
σL
Dd = Droplet diameter
dO = Orifice diameter
WeLO = Weber number of the liquid at the orifice
ReLO = Reynolds number of the liquid at the orifice
L = Thickness of the vessel wall
ρL = Liquid density
uO = Release velocity
µL = Liquid dynamic viscosity
σL = Liquid surface tension
The transition to flashing break-up is assumed to reduce the sauter mean diameter by 2.4 after
which it drops by 0.1 µm/K.
A third phase of this JIP is currently being developed in which it is intended to perform
additional small-scale water releases, large scale butane releases and further develop the
PHAST computational model.
(41) (42)
- 23 -
8
8.1
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSIONS
1. The combustion behaviour of fuel mists have been summarised and the burning
properties of droplets sizes less than 30 µm have been highlighted as particularly
hazardous. It is known that optically thick flammable mixtures are preheated by the
radiative output of the flame front and produce much higher flame speeds. The case has
been made that these scenarios need to be included in hazard assessment to reduce risk
to life and property. (43)
2. The offshore hydrocarbon release statistics for the past 5½ years have been analysed to
identify reported cases of flash-fires of high flash point fuels. There have been thirtyfive flash-fires of non-process oils and diesel and three flash-fires of process
hydrocarbons (not including the ‘gas’ category).
3. An empirical correlation has been used to calculate, from the number of reported
hydrocarbon releases, the number of releases that may have formed a flammable mist.
Shell Research Ltd has proposed this correlation for use in identifying hazardous areas.
This study found that 45% of hydrocarbon releases (96% of liquid releases) occurred
under conditions that could have formed droplets within the flammable size range.
4. The correlation is deliberately cautious but records of the ignited releases show that, of
the non-jet fires, 78 % of fires occurred as explosions or flash-fires rather than pool fires
demonstrating that realistic release conditions favour significant airborne dispersion
over rainout.
5. Current industrial modelling methods have been identified and a short review of the
break-up correlations used in key programs has been undertaken. Demonstration has
been made that industry is aware of the current lack of knowledge of aerosol generation
and steps are being taken to resolve this but the focus remains on single component,
superheated gases rather than multi-component process fluids and high flashpoint
hydrocarbons.
- 25 -
8.2
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Awareness of the potential hazards associated with high flashpoint liquids needs to be
raised within the process safety industry. Pressurised hydrocarbon fluids need to be
considered during risk assessments.
2. Consider revision of OIR12 form to include the presence of mist, area of pool/rainout
and more details of the released hydrocarbon, eg. Product datasheet for non-process
hydrocarbons and compositions for process hydrocarbons.
3. Experimental work is needed to validate droplet size correlations against realistic
release scenarios (high flashpoint hydrocarbons and multi-component process fluids)
instead of single phase pressurised gases and atypical polar fluids.
4. Further experimental work is needed to understand the mechanisms of accelerated
flame propagation and associated higher overpressures within preheated optically thick
fuel mixtures.
- 26 -
9
APPENDICES
Table A.1. -Offshore data from 2000-2001
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON_PROCESS
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
- 27 -
GRAVITY
799.12
924.98138
813.10461
849.065
799.12
980
785.13538
HOLE_DIAM
4.7
1
50.5
1
1
1
17.3
5.8
1
N/A
N/A
1
1
1
1
9.525
1.9
1.3
3.8
1
2.2
1
1.6
7
ACT_PRESSURE
1
7
54
20
140
9.3000002
168
3
28
1
0
0.5
45
3.5
36
3.448276
11
50
75
44
0.1
9
4
31
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET
POOL
NO.
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
OIL
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
HELIFUEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 28 -
GRAVITY
799.12
839.07599
779.14203
849.065
834.08148
799.12
948.95502
699.22998
699.22998
833.78192
599.34003
799.12
799.12
699.22998
599.34003
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
1
6
22.6
3
9
1
12
16
12.7
1
1
8
1
1.2
1.2
1
7.1
8.1
1
1
7.9
16.5
13.7
5
1.1
1
1
2.3
4.5
1
10
ACT_PRESSURE
15
14
5
51
2
30
46
2
137.931
30
0.37931001
10.5
2
7
20
25
0
25.517241
8.5
74
66
3
3
270
100
0
124.1379
1.3
50
80.689651
0
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
DIESEL
METHANOL
METHANOL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
- 29 -
GRAVITY
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
833.78192
948.95502
769.15302
810
HOLE_DIAM
1
26.5
1
1.6
2.9
4.1
29.7
2.2
N/A
2.2
1
1
N/A
4.1
1
1
1.82
7.7
1
14.7
10
2
1
5
1
1
3
1
5
1
1.6
ACT_PRESSURE
17
16
3.5
123.987
322
1.14E-08
1.14E-08
0
0
10
28
786.20691
1.14E-08
124.1379
350
72.413803
90
1.14E-08
3.0869999
1
0.5
44.827591
78.987
32
16
130
0.30000001
9.8000002
12.41379
28
5
IGNITION
YES
NO
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
1
IMMEDIATE
1
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
- 30 -
GRAVITY
799.12
842.07269
978.922
948.95502
862
825
759.164
849.065
599.34003
799.12
699.22998
749.17499
HOLE_DIAM
1.3
10
1
1.3
1
1
1
4.4
1
1.21
3.8
9.6
6
1
1.5
3.2
3.2
1
15.8
5
1.8
1
1
2.2
1
3.6
11.67
1
1
19.5
1
ACT_PRESSURE
17.241381
206.8965
16
7.5862069
13.7931
51.72414
12
8
24
75
0
19
18.889999
128
2.3
20
20
34.482761
0.025
90
80
5
4
19
163
1
19
100
21
0.1
26
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
2-PHASE
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
OIL
OIL
2-PHASE
OIL
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
METHANOL
DIESEL
BOTTLED GAS
METHANOL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 31 -
GRAVITY
799.12
768
799.12
799.12
799.12
948.95502
599.34003
799.12
799.12
938.966
799.12
938.966
799.12
599.34003
799.12
799.12
843.17151
HOLE_DIAM
1.6
1.9
1
3
1
1
1
2.9
1
1
3.1
3.7
1
1
1
1
1
6.3
2.2
1
1.1
1
2.2
3.5
1
1
1
1
1.5
1.3
3
ACT_PRESSURE
122
20
24
310
46
150
1
130
20
0
10
7
25
9
19
103.4483
0
5
0
6.5
73.103447
6.5
3.70E-02
2
1
15
39
222
6.8965521
90
1.14E-08
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
DELAYED
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
JET POOL
1
1
1
NO.
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MAJOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 32 -
GRAVITY
799.12
799.12
819.09802
839.07599
948.95502
799.12
799.12
830
649.28497
968.93298
845.0694
718.20911
800
829.08698
829.08698
829.08698
799.12
830
HOLE_DIAM
41.4
1
18.5
10
1
51.5
6.35
1
5.8
17
6.3
4
43.4
3.38
5.6
>100
1
1
1.4
10
1.8
3
N/A
1
2
5.4
16.1
1
2.6
1
1
ACT_PRESSURE
0.02
117
16.55172
7
180
90
38
10
0.5
2
1.14E-08
0.69999999
0
1.14E-08
1.14E-08
0
43
1
120
2
3.5
0
0
215
3.55
0
0
56
0
40
68.965523
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
METHANOL
BOTTLED GAS
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 33 -
GRAVITY
800
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
886.02429
799.12
777.23999
599.34003
924.98138
849.065
599.34003
839.07599
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
1
3.5
4
4
1
1
1
1.3
1
1
1
3.6
23.7
1.2
1
1
1.6
1
1
1
12.4
3
5
1
2.8
4.7752
1
1
1
1
1
ACT_PRESSURE
166.987
74
15
40
7
63
8.2758617
35
260
35
103.4483
80
12
154
110
26
80.987
90
0.5
275.70001
1
38
35
2
2
0.5
87.5
3.5
10
3
18
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
PROCESS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 34 -
GRAVITY
844.0705
799.12
649.28497
799.12
938.966
799.12
869.04303
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
3.5
1
2.4
9.2
1
3.3
1
4
1
1
1.5
1
1
5.3
5.3
17.7
1.4
6.3
11.0797
1
1
3
1
1
1
25.4
1
1
23
12.9
2.2
ACT_PRESSURE
7.3000002
12.5
12
1
50
10
18.34
14.987
20.689659
158.6207
1.5
6.5
94
5.00E-02
0
27.58621
131.0345
3
25
160
149
206.8965
150
2
131.72411
28
118
12.5
62.06897
8.8000002
1.14E-08
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON_PROCESS
BOTTLED GAS
DIESEL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
- 35 -
GRAVITY
799.12
599.34003
799.12
799.12
820
820
849.065
799.12
829.48657
799.12
649.28497
799.12
808
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
799.12
849.065
HOLE_DIAM
1
1.1
2.9
4.4
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
2.4
3
1
1
N/A
1
4
1
1
1
1
2.6
10.2
6.7
17.2
15.8
2.2
ACT_PRESSURE
12
9
6
0.066
4
40
10
3.0869999
3.0869999
25
315
0.68965518
10
8
30
2
1
1
3.5
167
182
1.5
62
20.689659
0
4
0.55172402
1.14E-08
130
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
JET POOL
1
1
Table A.2. -Analysis of offshore data from 2000-2001
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
33.48482278
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
15.75756366
0.26086416
0.031101018
35.87401361
0.008
0.017
0.001003185
16.88188876
0.278815213
0.033241197
21.73163492
0.008
0.017
0.002265174
10.22665173
0.58506257
0.069752939
8.681994724
0.008
0.017
0.000961136
4.085644576
0.268160053
0.031970857
3.614031612
0.008
0.017
0.001531577
1.700720758
0.409766207
0.048853573
25.5365784
0.008
0.017
0.001169087
12.01721336
0.320479546
0.038208546
47.35469051
27.61781652
91.5338557
17.36398945
0.00714
0.008
0.000248
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.01843
0.017
0.002707949
0.004542232
5.14735E-05
0.002883408
11.27041634
12.99661954
1.231708964
8.171289152
0.688276007
1.101982972
0.018689626
0.728743047
0.082058358
0.131381761
0.002228234
0.086882962
- 36 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
84.01941659
0.008
0.017
0.003299965
39.53854898
0.823954594
0.098234372
7.794641344
0.0232
0.024
0.003212918
7.534819966
0.80415256
0.095873514
19.13418472
35.7967818
0.0232
0.0016
0.024
0.026
0.003005409
0.000236324
18.49637856
2.20287888
0.756749439
0.074808587
0.090221969
0.008918907
0
0.000248
0.01843
6.94513E-05
0
0.024546454
0.002926503
126.560734
0.008
0.017
0.00097795
59.55799245
0.272425707
0.032479421
95.6709236
131.2735593
0
0.00714
0.000248
0.008
0.03
0.01843
0.017
0.002193689
2.60646E-05
0.002948631
22.76967982
1.766459181
0
0.568236548
0.010061581
0.743728485
0.067746889
0.001199572
0.088669572
140.9246811
0.0232
0.024
0.004064055
136.2271917
0.995893829
0.118733491
- 37 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
NO.
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
0.001353909
0
0.0232
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.017509665
0.001383031
0.001308779
0
3.762206535
0.373436475
0.448541703
0.044522232
40.02201817
0.0232
0.024
0.004765527
38.68795089
1.151173461
0.137246401
354.8684691
5.44E-04
0.0226
7.3107E-05
8.541966691
0.025719505
0.003066358
236.7734526
5.44E-04
0.0226
7.3107E-05
5.699325584
0.025719505
0.003066358
12.6560734
0.0232
0.024
0.012318513
12.23420428
2.731919112
0.325707704
110.1175544
0.008
0.017
0.000952447
51.82002561
0.265952961
0.031707721
45.45177071
0.008
0.017
0.00204553
21.38906857
0.533203643
0.06357016
52.55148699
0.0232
0.024
0.00366329
50.79977076
0.906113653
0.108029625
- 38 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
Ignited?
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
39.61152508
32.84937905
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.001032021
0.002131393
18.64071768
15.45853132
0.286098997
0.553533212
0.034109592
0.065993913
0
54.2943716
56.43560038
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.017
0.01843
0.001887817
0.002935466
7.18551E-05
0
25.55029252
0.759415567
0.495659344
0.740706085
0.025318407
0.059094014
0.088309232
0.003018538
18.6208042
0.0232
0.024
0.00405611
18.00011072
0.994121895
0.118522235
85.8162155
0.000248
0.01843
2.60646E-05
1.154770561
0.010061581
0.001199572
28.29984044
0.00714
0.03
0.001105516
6.735362025
0.304581704
0.036313157
58.97551811
0.000248
0.01843
4.17576E-05
0.793593516
0.015450029
0.001841999
130.7113649
0.008
0.017
0.00090283
61.51123052
0.253315254
0.030201015
222.8331665
5.44E-04
0.0226
0.000126625
5.363771795
0.042398723
0.005054905
- 39 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
12.90994449
0.008
0.017
0.000914103
6.075267994
0.25619185
0.030543971
40.02201817
0.008
0.017
0.001641728
18.8338909
0.436499736
0.052040826
0
28.29984044
0
29.76711394
0.000248
0.0232
0.008
0.008
0.01843
0.024
0.017
0.017
2.60646E-05
0.00806436
0.001383031
0.00101074
0
27.35651243
0
14.00805362
0.010061581
1.857968724
0.373436475
0.280725358
0.001199572
0.221512681
0.044522232
0.033468931
29.76711394
2.434442614
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.00101074
0.001383031
14.00805362
1.145620054
0.280725358
0.373436475
0.033468931
0.044522232
49.01676149
5.44E-04
0.0226
7.3107E-05
1.179872489
0.025719505
0.003066358
32.35661144
0.008
0.017
0.001173054
15.22664068
0.321469092
0.038326523
33.48482278
0.008
0.017
0.002948631
15.75756366
0.743728485
0.088669572
- 40 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
78.01727607
39.53093138
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.002349672
0.000944023
36.71401227
18.60279124
0.604890077
0.263811534
0.072116834
0.031452413
17.46704084
0.008
0.017
0.003939486
8.219783924
0.968076779
0.115417057
9.716977295
0
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.002032204
0.006142785
4.572695198
0
0.530041668
1.450348072
0.063193179
0.172914907
0
81.43294973
14.04065312
0.008
0.0232
0.000248
0.017
0.024
0.01843
0.003274407
2.71289E-05
78.71851807
0.188935538
0.818145453
0.010434772
0.097541789
0.001244065
21.50265752
0.008
0.017
0.001377519
10.11889766
0.372081944
0.044360741
0
195.748643
23.83275058
0
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.000883975
0.001319394
0.002207046
92.11700846
11.21541204
0
0.24849641
0.357767221
0.571384111
0.029626498
0.042654096
0.068122151
80.04403633
0.0232
0.024
0.003212918
77.37590179
0.80415256
0.095873514
33.46640106
0.008
0.017
0.000932952
15.74889462
0.260994827
0.031116597
- 41 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
36.4087356
0.0232
0.024
0.003212918
35.19511108
0.80415256
0.095873514
204.0730516
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
96.03437723
0.26086416
0.031101018
132.7380176
0.0232
0.024
0.003212918
128.313417
0.80415256
0.095873514
108.1657651
0.00714
0.03
0.001472454
25.7434521
0.395346323
0.047134391
8.949195322
213.0815302
5.44E-04
0.000248
0.0226
0.01843
7.3107E-05
2.96819E-05
0.215414259
2.867293516
0.025719505
0.011324719
0.003066358
0.001350167
86.45743849
16.63617528
17.36398945
0.000248
0.008
0.008
0.01843
0.017
0.017
5.82822E-05
0.001003185
0.001608288
1.163399064
7.828788367
8.171289152
0.020926546
0.278815213
0.428401504
0.002494927
0.033241197
0.05107533
21.92096215
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
10.31574689
0.26086416
0.031101018
33.27185846
0.008
0.017
0.001792825
15.65734516
0.472910802
0.056381864
99.28241031
0.000248
0.01843
2.71289E-05
1.335976004
0.010434772
0.001244065
- 42 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO. Exit Velocity (ms-1)
216
217
218
219
220
221
222 29.76711394
223 122.7051842
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.00101074
0.000932439
14.00805362
57.74361607
0.280725358
0.26086416
0.033468931
0.031101018
0.000248
0.01843
7.22558E-05
0
0.025446858
0.003033852
Flammable Mist?
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
226
0
0
227
0
0
228
0
0
229
0
0
230
0
0
231
0
0
232
0
0
233
234 17.89839064
0
0
1
0
235
0
0
236
0
0
237
238 44.74597661
0
0
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
21.05693017
0.26086416
0.031101018
1
0
239 99.7094347
0.008
0.017
0.004471821
46.92208692
1.086427076
0.12952714
1
0
240
241 0.001353909
0
0
0.008
0.017
0.001383031
0.000637134
0.373436475
0.044522232
0
0
242 43.84192429
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
20.63149379
0.26086416
0.031101018
1
0
224
225 0
0.008
0.017
- 43 -
0.000932439
8.422772068
0.26086416
0.031101018
0
NO. Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
243
Flammable Mist?
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
244
245 3.251404126
0.008
0.017
0.001955901
1.53007253
0.511900299
0.06103031
1
0
246 25.31214679
0.0232
0.024
0.003212918
24.46840857
0.80415256
0.095873514
1
0
247
0
0
248
249 21.9516094
0
0
0.008
0.017
0.000944542
10.33016913
0.263943674
0.031468167
1
0
250 21.9516094
0.008
0.017
0.000944542
10.33016913
0.263943674
0.031468167
1
0
251
0
0
252
253 10.19648575
0
0
0.0232
0.024
0.0033118
9.856602893
0.826643235
0.09855492
1
1
254 40.02201817
0.00714
0.03
0.001712657
9.525240324
0.453628076
0.054082919
1
0
255 35.1354321
0.008
0.017
0.001645431
16.53432099
0.437395574
0.05214763
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
260
0
0
261
0
0
262
263 15.41504987
0
0
0.008
0.017
0.000937605
7.254141113
0.262179134
0.031257794
1
0
264 99.65402158
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
46.89601015
0.26086416
0.031101018
1
0
265 57.56727221
0.00714
0.03
0.00178259
13.70101079
0.470453479
0.056088894
1
0
266 0
0.008
0.017
0.002977971
0
0.750459904
0.089472112
0
0
267 25.31214679
0.0232
0.024
0.008316431
24.46840857
1.910743911
0.227804699
1
0
256
257 17.89839064
0.008
258 14.04065312
0.000248
259 12.6560734
0.0232
0.017
0.01843
0.024
- 44 -
0.000932439
0.003212918
8.422772068
12.23420428
0.26086416
0.80415256
0.031101018
0.095873514
NO. Exit Velocity (ms-1)
268 9.400694313
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.0232
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.024
Ohnsorge no.
0.013324896
Capillary no.
9.087337836
Atomisation
2.934295802
Second wind
0.349835668
Flammable Mist?
1
Ignited?
269 0.001353909
0.008
0.017
0.003706372
0.000637134
0.9158058
0.109185152
0
0
270 139.9929585
0.0232
0.024
0.004912193
135.3265265
1.183369675
0.141084931
1
0
- 45 -
1
Table A.3. -Offshore data from 2001-2002
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
OIL BASED MUD
OIL BASED MUD
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 46 -
GRAVITY
799.12
798.40002
799.12
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
799.12
750.17389
799.12
807.12
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
N/A
8.08177
1.00602
6.0189
1
1.99979
1.03211
3.54851
29.8932
9.5926
1
1
0.401
6.35866
1
10.5582
5.713
1
1.95204
1.45891
1
1
1
3.15361
8.4
N/A
ACT_PRESSURE
1.00E-02
0.91000003
5
172.42
170
44.139999
150
1.00E-02
1.00E-02
1.00E-02
1
42
48.27586
4
35.5
0.69999999
7.5
15.5
1
140
120.7
121.39
5
48.06897
200
2.07E-02
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET
POOL
NO.
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
PROCESS
OIL
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
CONDENSATE
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
HYDRAULIC OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 47 -
GRAVITY
928.97699
1000
799.12
705
996.90222
843.07159
1000
799.12
798.40002
798.40002
996.90002
798.40002
798.40002
849.065
798.40002
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
3
1
1
1.7
1
1
4.5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8.266
2
2.518
12.7
1
1.00679
1
1
2
1
1
1.97199
2.116
4
37.3373
ACT_PRESSURE
1.9
3.49
67
74
60
1.3
1.724138
101.3793
4.1900001
30.5
6
110
1.5
80
22
1.00E-02
170
14
1.00E-02
3.5
152.60001
1
37.93
8.4799995
110.34
9.3000002
4
1.00E-02
1.00E-02
4
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
DELAYED
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
LUB OIL
SEAL OIL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 48 -
GRAVITY
813.10461
496
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
598.79999
848.29999
819.09802
598.79999
798.40002
798.40002
818.35999
799.12
849.07001
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
11.616
3
1.98424
0.476
1.393
N/A
1
1.86377
11.541
0.73
1.03724
N/A
1.82623
0.0502029
1
0.403933
2.31397
5.85386
1
1
1
1
0.895722
0.748091
0.37627
7.04
5.09236
3.8196
0.56469
5.361
ACT_PRESSURE
41
90
20.700001
49.599998
8.2799997
83
29.5
33
1
29
20.799999
1.00E-02
75
19.310341
8.2799997
0.5
137.94
213.8
68
154
30
125
290
1
2.5
1.3
18
40
180
20
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
DELAYED
1
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
JET POOL
1
1
NO.
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 49 -
GRAVITY
860
778.44
839.07599
799.12
799.12
799
789.13
855.05841
798.40002
938.96997
799.12
844.90002
798.40002
759.15997
HOLE_DIAM
0.598343
1.76443
1
1
4.48977
1
2.944
0.563439
1
0.516935
0.341815
1.78749
8.267
2.22409
1
6
0.54
43.18
1
9.49645
5.14918
1.01119
2.05503
0.613163
2.63267
2.5
8.01039
1
1
1
ACT_PRESSURE
146
3
22
130
66
41
15
25
5
60
14.5
28
50
2
9
414
97
58.630001
63.459999
17.549999
0.5
73
7
100
11.39
5.8699999
20
17.25
46.91
150
IGNITION
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
2-PHASE
CONDENSATE
OIL
OIL
OIL
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON_PROCESS
METHANOL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 50 -
GRAVITY
799.12
798.40002
778.44
798.40002
798.40002
858.28003
840
798.40002
700
978.03998
840
768.46002
838.32001
818.35999
998.40002
850
864.27002
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
7.60381
44.416
1
0.449624
N/A
0.441638
0.503774
1.02061
10.8824
0.5
20.0768
1.24458
4.13145
0.160143
4.94815
0.105861
0.5
21.4189
0.391535
0.563899
1
7.97885
3.39666
4.92005
1
0.619129
1.99278
1
2
1.14696
ACT_PRESSURE
250
1.00E-02
200
68.970001
1.00E-02
820
47
28
1
0.49000001
11
80
2.5
8
16
16
1.3
1.00E-02
14.5
16
16
10
0.1
60
31.4
145
70
0.5
11.04
120
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
DELAYED
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
METHANOL
LUB OIL
OIL BASED MUD
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 51 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
698.59998
798.40002
866
798.40002
819.09802
798.40002
798.40002
828.34003
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
598.79999
832.33002
HOLE_DIAM
5.337
1
19.05
1.07157
12
1.301
3.26942
0.727828
5.8282
0.594935
0.133085
1.56127
0.632786
5.812
1
1.75199
1.27532
1
7.57786
0.420707
2.258
0.847185
1.99957
2.19415
2.28643
N/A
N/A
3.45856
0.601037
3.729
ACT_PRESSURE
3
59.700001
0.30000001
12.28
1.00E-02
11
161
170
11.73
2.5
60
12
130
28
150
2.7
67.800003
70
17
40
5
3.8
24
108
7
510.35001
51.400002
98
5
60.700001
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
GLYCOL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 52 -
GRAVITY
820
798.40002
598.79999
798.40002
798.40002
598.79999
598.79999
798.40002
798.40002
780
848.29999
790.12988
799.12
1197.6
HOLE_DIAM
0.352831
0.403494
10.5721
0.5
0.825927
N/A
0.401938
3
1.03202
5
1.20057
1.83743
0.1
0.267435
0.881562
4.17919
5.00932
29.7467
1.09595
2.35483
2.3497
3
5.79145
2.266
4.36375
0.453
0.25
3
0.247544
1.52925
ACT_PRESSURE
158
0.69999999
21
0.49000001
62.080002
1.00E-02
25
200
11
8
60
4.1500001
94
10
137.94
14
4
10
8
17.25
100
75.860001
0.5
13.7931
8.6206894
3.5
38.700001
161
90
300
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
DELAYED
1
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 53 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
678.64001
798.40002
628.73999
798.40002
598.79999
822.09003
830
798.40002
790.09998
HOLE_DIAM
N/A
9.91823
1
1.01058
7.68453
1
2
1
0.97561
1
1.51037
1.051
2.05
0.420367
2.9149
1.96721
25.8144
3.52941
11.5941
3.0078
0.16413
8.64909
2.11805
0.417443
3.22107
0.0133943
0.557655
23.633
1.18879
6.37182
ACT_PRESSURE
1.00E-02
0.22
35
8
1.00E-02
4.1999998
0.69999999
144
6
144
10
20.700001
1.75
11.8
13.8
4.1500001
10.7
35
1.00E-02
70
380
67
160
4
4
6.5
9.00E-02
1.00E-02
91.040001
12
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
237
238
239
240
241
PROCESS
OIL
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 54 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
0.276046
3
N/A
4.63855
5.3506
ACT_PRESSURE
8.6300001
35
358.63
17.25
8.6300001
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
Table A.4. -Analysis of offshore data from 2001-2002
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
1.265607327
12.07856716
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
0.008
0.017
0.002649586
5.684031606
0.674763764
0.080447388
12.6560734
84.65422884
87.9354508
25.18639012
0.008
0.000248
0.0232
0.008
0.017
0.01843
0.024
0.017
0.000932439
2.91605E-05
0.002034566
0.002363014
5.955799245
1.139134496
85.00426911
11.85241888
0.26086416
0.01114355
0.530602313
0.608014791
0.031101018
0.001328568
0.063260021
0.072489372
10.59360394
34.67570878
49.84947219
0.0232
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.010435153
0.002227701
10.24048381
16.3179806
2.349057955
0.576248121
0.280061833
0.068702053
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
#VALUE!
0.001741316
0.001043072
0.85706245
7.614131489
9.946236095
#VALUE!
0.460530483
0.288885641
#VALUE!
0.054905845
0.034441825
166.1853764
84.12224895
1.266177847
1.266177847
149.8161848
1.821257707
16.18002941
21.1357517
- 55 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
108.87166
104.3724917
12.91963902
16.17926429
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
2.82689E-05
0.001041456
1.404469774
6.079830126
0.010833054
0.288478115
0.00129155
0.034393238
23.158584
0.008
0.017
0.001043072
10.89815718
0.288885641
0.034441825
23.68801871
0.0232
0.024
0.00321147
22.89841809
0.803822825
0.095834202
11.33128551
77.98052174
0.008
0.017
0.001041454
5.332369652
0.288477825
0.034393204
24.55638937
1.266177847
1.266177847
0.0232
0.00714
0.00714
0.024
0.03
0.03
0.00465068
0.001607411
0.002210035
23.73784306
0.301350328
0.301350328
1.125899843
0.42818882
0.572088204
0.134233203
0.051049973
0.068206095
57.08433634
113.1370827
36.43425351
115.3542929
0.008
0.000248
0.0232
0.00714
0.017
0.01843
0.024
0.03
0.001324905
1.63591E-05
0.003790351
26.8632171
1.522408926
35.21977839
0.359126902
0.00658537
0.934669546
0.042816201
0.000785128
0.111434145
31.00092197
113.2503906
133.002929
- 56 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
NO.
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
12.6617786
0.000248
0.01843
0.000102199
0.17038096
0.034886386
0.004159261
1.266177847
0.008
0.017
64.24791882
0.000248
0.01843
5.8374E-06
0.864540633
0.002578218
0.000307383
8.68590862
146.8189648
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.000610582
0.001436023
4.087486409
69.09127755
0.177454374
0.386435079
0.02115665
0.046071965
120.56425
0.000248
0.01843
2.60529E-05
1.622351276
0.010057455
0.00119908
12.6617786
20.0200298
14.25950556
53.69517193
77.65389243
0.008
0.00714
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.03
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.000806124
0.000677827
0.002503646
0.002104166
0.001878431
5.958484046
4.764767092
6.710355556
25.2683162
36.5430082
0.228499664
0.195154249
0.640857117
0.547094823
0.493416179
0.027242425
0.023266883
0.076404934
0.065226308
0.058826577
56.62519532
0.00714
0.03
0.002558539
13.47679649
0.653630846
0.077927857
21.13082175
60.14558498
0.0232
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.004427362
0.000920295
20.42646103
28.3038047
1.076593619
0.257770608
0.128354765
0.030732196
79.08539101
49.01676149
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.000955466
0.001599887
37.21665459
23.06671129
0.266719976
0.426364578
0.031799167
0.050832482
28.29984044
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
13.31757197
0.26086416
0.031101018
- 57 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
98.04088442
48.49698154
64.74199965
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.000541732
0.001289538
22.82210896
30.46682336
0.15914885
0.350392566
0.01897421
0.041774867
17.90645902
35.02679399
257.5129982
121.2238832
0.008
0.008
0.00714
0.017
0.017
0.03
0.001389955
0.001010742
0.002707949
8.426568949
16.48319717
61.28809357
0.375137624
0.280725898
0.688276007
0.044725048
0.033468995
0.082058358
33.49991733
0.0232
0.024
0.004603763
32.38325342
1.115559143
0.133000353
58.07020145
0.000248
0.01843
8.30248E-05
0.781411284
0.028876126
0.0034427
362.5781606
5.44E-04
0.0226
4.8562E-05
8.727545105
0.017725142
0.002113245
67.85337099
0.008
0.017
0.00092973
31.93099811
0.260174431
0.031018787
8.863245109
41.99436879
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.000781365
0.00417611
2.109452336
19.7620559
0.222104342
1.02085085
0.026479955
0.121708943
105.1063854
- 58 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
NO.
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
19.30903125
34.91486244
50.64711439
54.0898723
13.04362657
1.234426787
49.14488771
49.42652295
50.0256548
35.80574334
3.880570001
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.0232
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.024
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.006767985
0.000382567
Capillary no.
18.66539687
16.4305235
Atomisation
1.584082607
0.115964258
Second wind
0.188859145
0.013825611
0.000248
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.01843
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.01843
9.16498E-06
0.00072942
0.004424383
0.000572151
0.000717167
0.000943597
9.50248E-05
0.727850696
6.138177212
0.580906723
23.12700598
23.25954021
23.54148461
0.481813584
0.003886864
0.208626544
1.075934267
0.167260833
0.205434808
0.263703353
0.032650609
0.000463404
0.024873091
0.128276155
0.019941345
0.024492563
0.031439516
0.003892705
40.43568432
138.7028351
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.024
0.001371369
0.003439363
19.02855733
134.0794073
0.370569867
0.855568523
0.044180466
0.102003481
44.37045668
1.353601092
41.99436879
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
9.74808E-05
0.001063074
0.018214491
19.7620559
0.033417683
0.293922255
0.003984158
0.035042305
41.63849702
20.0200298
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.024
0.002343369
0.002477072
19.59458683
19.35269547
0.603413148
0.634664148
0.07194075
0.07566659
43.30396567
0.0232
0.024
0.004064438
41.86050015
0.995979293
0.11874368
66.99983465
5.44E-04
0.0226
0.000176168
1.612739383
0.057260171
0.006826732
- 59 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
52.20585057
0.008
0.017
0.002565654
24.56745909
0.655284648
0.078125028
27.796215
24.68235041
62.0297936
131.5850631
0.008
0.00714
0.008
0.017
0.03
0.017
0.001426529
0.001017087
0.001317932
13.08057177
5.874399397
29.19049111
0.384109707
0.282329204
0.35740651
0.045794727
0.033660146
0.042611091
32.69257244
96.61655645
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
2.01979E-05
0.001837631
0.439921756
45.4666148
0.007977892
0.483654206
0.000951148
0.057662725
10.45314743
0.008
0.017
0.000599984
4.919128201
0.174649413
0.020822234
8.863245109
0.00714
0.03
0.000781365
2.109452336
0.222104342
0.026479955
73.10281435
0.000248
0.01843
1.65171E-05
0.983694952
0.006643248
0.000792028
98.07771529
0.0232
0.024
0.003518825
94.80845811
0.873537676
0.104145818
141.7516163
46.23427934
0.000248
0.000248
0.01843
0.01843
8.23863E-06
1.3473E-05
1.907455281
0.622143314
0.003527671
0.005519152
0.00042058
0.00065801
47.37603742
0.008
0.017
0.001905332
22.29460585
0.499842538
0.059592747
40.0400596
0.008
0.017
0.005083281
18.84238099
1.220818077
0.145549644
90.77709555
41.99436879
- 60 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
36.23286509
51.01816142
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
0.0232
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
0.024
Ohnsorge no.
0.0009644
0.005079818
Capillary no.
17.05076004
49.31755604
Atomisation
0.268988545
1.220061138
Second wind
0.032069632
0.145459399
8.999963418
0.008
0.017
0.002231297
4.235276903
0.577094576
0.06880297
37.15951044
19.34118653
0.008
0.02
0.017
0.045
0.001947827
0.003124937
17.48682844
8.596082902
0.509977073
0.784088967
0.060801017
0.093481471
1.266177847
0.008
0.017
0.002583648
0.595848399
0.659465646
0.0786235
10.59360394
0.008
0.017
0.001318074
4.985225385
0.357441479
0.04261526
16.74995866
47.17655873
47.03641987
29.06655063
41.4177597
0.00714
0.000248
0.03
0.01843
0.001582144
1.79824E-05
3.986490162
0.634822928
0.422059523
0.007177477
0.05031922
0.000855721
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
3.74434E-05
0.00473539
0.391128842
19.49071045
0.013990437
1.144546724
0.001667982
0.136456341
122.3244052
243.2411749
0.000248
0.01843
4.51835E-05
1.646036489
0.01659936
0.001979026
- 61 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
31.66085341
0.008
0.017
0.00010998
14.89922513
0.037295385
0.004446469
1.266177847
0.0232
0.024
0.015612171
1.223971919
3.389310939
0.404083957
44.09147042
37.19633202
74.90809238
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.002340385
0.000489683
0.001614304
20.74892725
17.50415624
35.250867
0.602713862
0.145172001
0.429859443
0.071857379
0.017307847
0.05124915
52.58831612
37.19633202
0.0232
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.006916637
0.002155887
50.83537225
17.50415624
1.615713131
0.559318818
0.192630233
0.06668369
- 62 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table A.5. - Offshore data from 2002-2003
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
METHANOL
DIESEL
HELIFUEL
METHANOL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
- 63 -
GRAVITY
799.12
838.84003
600
799.12
839.08002
786
849.065
799.12
799.12
799.12
831
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
2
1.85094
9.83698
5.11961
1.47015
5.2898
4.93926
0.457843
0.802165
1.74291
0.700597
8.38762
3.96232
0.678728
1.47933
1.4
0.470588
0.25
1.05109
7.53456
2.92993
1
0.445263
3.43585
0.751774
0.875669
4.82022
1.81272
ACT_PRESSURE
41.389999
220
4.5
3.448276
7.5999999
2
3
17
18.01
15.1
12
1.00E-02
34.48
85
117
3.2
8.5600004
380
172
1
1.7
7
3
1.00E-02
73
200
74
160
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
EXPLOSION
JET
2
POOL
NO.
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
METHANOL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 64 -
GRAVITY
799.12
598.79999
799.12
794.12
817.70001
809.10999
699.22998
798.40002
799.12
808.38
798.40002
699.22998
832.08002
552.12
799.12
778.44
864.27002
HOLE_DIAM
15.3391
1.31
1.40852
9.1622
94.181
13.4017
0.113
8.21703
39.5893
1
0.151749
0.669113
25.4
1.03687
1.07089
3.32004
0.35439
5.13631
0.135771
11.7647
1.27624
1.81552
0.723279
0.29376
0.200774
6.84773
0.846344
0.25
6.36267
0.5
ACT_PRESSURE
1
170
5.5
25
1.00E-02
0.80000001
160
1.00E-02
0.69
4.1999998
114
25
5.00E-02
100
27
14.5
110
7
18
1
185
14.14
110
50.700001
0.22
20
9
10.35
1.00E-02
128
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
FUEL OIL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MAJOR
MAJOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 65 -
GRAVITY
799.12
749.17499
799.12
799.12
866.04999
838.32001
973.92749
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
3.25185
0.88759
N/A
1
1.02573
0.641368
33.799
25.5
0.982
0.492
1
6.54545
0.225644
0.25
4.80423
69.996
25.4
44.4742
3
0.585441
40.3676
0.314769
0.444322
3.33275
13.9672
2.3497
0.591334
0.937288
4.3562
0.834887
ACT_PRESSURE
6.9099998
100
1.6
172.42
65.25
147
6
1.00E-02
20.703449
96.565514
5
4.5
170
310
120.6897
79
5.5
0.12
5
180
1.00E-02
25
5.4000001
320
35
1.00E-02
7
18
2
4
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
OIL BASED MUD
DIESEL
LUB OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 66 -
GRAVITY
799.12
799.12
811.10681
799.12
998
720
798.40002
798.40997
794.12549
830
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
1.29215
4.5
0.760174
0.26411
5.14911
0.198684
0.636216
0.156155
0.436041
0.5
1
1
19.8839
0.19973
0.19973
44.1426
0.948367
6.10202
0.376125
4.30065
12.7
0.2
1.86056
0.1
5.75
1.2
4.59871
4.42994
1.60775
1
ACT_PRESSURE
179.31
46
30
3.52
24.799999
143
551.72412
40
138.62
97.931038
4.1500001
7
8.00E-02
60
63
0.12
30
4
140.89999
1.00E-02
4
20
6
115
0.14
9.6700001
40
15
3
50
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
DELAYED
1
JET POOL
NO.
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
OIL BASED MUD
GLYCOL
BOTTLED GAS
OIL BASED MUD
METHANOL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
- 67 -
GRAVITY
649.28497
830
973.92999
798.40002
799.12
1.5599999
743
699.22998
948.95001
835
798.40002
716
978.91998
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
0.349793
0.169
0.1
0.025
0.676806
0.978345
2
0.195478
1.88278
5.23049
4.63193
0.31437
0.944945
0.169039
1.245
0.254
25.4
2.184
3.18
3.90275
2
2.6
0.5
1.04154
0.1
3.08637
0.160155
5.13374
1.45924
6.37753
ACT_PRESSURE
178
5.5
130
2.8
11.6
13.8
3.0999999
11
279.32001
13.8
0.49000001
78
11
160
71
55.186211
1
0.60000002
305
1.00E-02
35
34.48
178
35
130
12
108.6
0.02
77
250
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
METHANOL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 68 -
GRAVITY
815
798.40002
798.40002
700
799.12
798.40002
777.23999
798.40002
849.06
799.12
798.40002
798.40002
598.79999
664.09998
888.21997
HOLE_DIAM
0.0946494
0.946508
6.37604
6.16337
3
0.101
0.189109
75.6258
0.0253128
3.73231
0.463112
0.991012
1.56811
0.883961
0.55893
0.280164
1.90877
3.55317
7.44019
1.33333
3.86332
0.447235
3.31013
1
3.97161
1.49618
3.59504
0.520471
0.24
0.263167
1
ACT_PRESSURE
53.799999
10
4.1500001
3.46
1.04
130.8
14.5
38
118
4.8400002
5.5
10
10
120
87
240
125
475
350
117.25
20.700001
45
6.9099998
0.5
93.110001
1
1.00E-02
26
27
146
31.549999
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
HELIFUEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 69 -
GRAVITY
831
799.12
758.28998
848.40002
724.20001
830.336
798.40002
798.40002
778.44
798.40002
799.12
886.02002
799.12
599.34003
799.12
799.12
819.09998
800
HOLE_DIAM
0.304346
1
1.93734
1
0.525
1.479
2.59563
2
4.51424
0.710875
0.363
1.152
9.02643
0.388145
0.997484
6.35
2.09013
1.8872
11.9671
1
0.567299
0.854784
0.232072
1.49618
1.87699
2.74688
5.46223
0.190005
1
0.237604
0.35375
ACT_PRESSURE
148
130
12
3.2
66
40
20
71
0.5
75.870003
189.3241
18
19
13
13
3
10
0.5
1.73
8
12
11
68.970001
1
10.35
9
0
140
5
227.60001
80
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
IMMEDIATE
1
2
3
NO.
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
METHANOL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MAJOR
- 70 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
798.40002
906
865.27002
787.41998
973.92999
799.12
899.01001
819.09998
835
HOLE_DIAM
0.319
2
8
0.5
6
10.8411
1.33202
1
0.414858
3.5
5.14737
10.1322
N/A
3.453
0.473001
2
0.731392
5.03538
1
3.51
ACT_PRESSURE
6
4.2800002
75
180
0.5
1.00E-02
32
13
116
39
35
110.35
1.98
194.1172
11
50
42
14
7
42
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
1
JET POOL
Table A.6. - Analysis of offshore data from 2002-2003
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
187.7199047
26.20424602
5.44E-04
0.0226
9.94616E-05
4.518567619
0.034035029
0.00405776
40.26578339
17.89839064
0.008
0.017
0.002144569
8.422772068
0.556646234
0.066365057
52.41555049
0.008
0.017
0.000855752
24.66614141
0.241266198
0.02876449
44.20631712
0.008
0.017
0.000774034
20.80297276
0.22020708
0.026253758
72.09715773
0.0232
0.024
0.006592329
69.69391914
1.546625477
0.184393392
0.0016
0.008
0.008
5.44E-04
0.026
0.017
0.017
0.0226
0.000394767
0.000932439
0.000634488
0.000135512
1.015476974
15.75756366
10.11593816
0.030464176
0.119324706
0.26086416
0.183765922
0.045098092
0.014226254
0.031101018
0.021909132
0.005376732
37.02847935
16.50150083
33.48482278
21.4963686
1.265607327
- 71 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
165.0150083
34.28825925
63.28036698
1.269585383
11.19058987
5.44E-04
0.000248
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.0226
0.01843
0.017
0.017
0.017
8.36748E-05
3.09198E-05
0.002822411
0.009020678
0.003452959
3.972042676
0.46139383
29.77899623
0.597451945
5.266159941
0.029081784
0.011753718
0.714700868
2.057441267
0.858645656
0.003467219
0.001401314
0.085208811
0.245294404
0.102370346
1.257769904
0.008
0.017
0.002689525
0.59189172
0.684013485
0.081550168
27.72806729
0.008
0.017
0.000872217
13.04850225
0.24548676
0.029267678
63.30889299
0.008
0.017
0.000762385
29.79242023
0.217189366
0.025893977
126.560734
65.38514434
48.21461646
0.0232
0.008
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.017
0.003271612
0.000970498
0.001698229
122.3420428
30.76947969
22.68923128
0.817509879
0.270535927
0.450149228
0.097466014
0.032254116
0.05366816
35.7967818
52.62095073
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
6.38043E-05
0.000350591
0.481692994
24.76280035
0.022723399
0.107109567
0.002709153
0.012769928
57.25493816
132.7380176
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
3.37079E-05
0.000793
0.770440839
62.46494946
0.012714391
0.225111965
0.001515848
0.026838533
57.34656519
0.008
0.017
0.002408243
26.98661891
0.618596006
0.073750897
39.15168299
- 72 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
31.00092197
1.307113635
0.05
0.000248
0.024
0.01843
0.040256272
0.000147155
64.5852541
0.017588941
8.025245726
0.048611166
0.956794199
0.005795571
28.29984044
26.84758597
0.00714
0.000248
0.03
0.01843
0.001105516
7.69999E-05
6.735362025
0.361269741
0.304581704
0.02696285
0.036313157
0.003214593
1.215719828
0.008
0.017
0.006167404
0.572103448
1.455636662
0.173545429
28.71421531
0.008
0.017
0.000636602
13.51257191
0.184323172
0.021975569
30.33127682
53.71937705
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.024
0.000791579
0.003109141
14.27354203
51.92873115
0.22474473
0.780481431
0.02679475
0.09305137
- 73 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
169.473282
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.001059929
Capillary no.
79.75213271
Atomisation
0.293131033
Second wind
0.034947973
23.74489845
0.00714
0.03
0.000568142
5.65128583
0.16619422
0.01981418
149.0088051
0.008
0.017
0.000615721
70.12179062
0.178813107
0.021318642
23.07085915
35.27668415
0.000248
0.01843
2.8568E-05
0.474694393
0.010937326
0.001303981
25.3235572
0.0232
0.024
0.007933059
24.47943862
1.830420346
0.21822828
31.01470354
0.008
0.017
0.001271304
14.59515461
0.345880945
0.041236978
80.29535311
48.09628896
21.92096215
0.008
0.008
0.00714
0.017
0.017
0.03
0.00199332
0.002000103
0.001401761
37.78604852
22.63354775
5.217188991
0.520804709
0.522417247
0.378036068
0.062091921
0.062284173
0.04507061
295.0712838
- 74 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
NO.
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
32.92825033
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.000248
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.01843
Ohnsorge no.
1.11526E-05
Capillary no.
0.443093113
Atomisation
0.004646986
Second wind
0.000554028
20.77997182
0.008
0.017
0.000150253
9.778810269
0.049541504
0.005906489
0.02
0.045
0.008673881
20.89565599
1.985336096
0.236697807
0.000248
0.000248
0.01843
0.01843
1.62716E-05
2.7367E-05
1.559854984
0.603834124
0.006553306
0.010518092
0.000781305
0.001253999
1.23811716
74.90809238
0.008
5.44E-04
0.017
0.0226
0.001882968
0.000103342
0.582643369
1.803097445
0.494500784
0.035241399
0.058955887
0.004201587
79.10109506
0.000248
0.01843
2.90743E-05
1.064409744
0.011113551
0.001324991
39.61156595
0.008
0.017
0.001813059
18.64073692
0.477765475
0.056960653
1.790645902
0.008
0.017
0.002111746
0.842656895
0.548887968
0.065440093
39.63019237
0.008
0.017
0.000916126
18.64950229
0.256707891
0.030605495
38.0222189
211.6146545
47.01522599
200.5121732
115.9198684
44.87364078
11.61404
- 75 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
25.79400436
23.55226963
13.79026572
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
0.008
0.000248
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
0.017
0.01843
Ohnsorge no.
0.002353424
0.002313843
4.87892E-05
Capillary no.
12.13835499
11.083421
0.185566245
Atomisation
0.605768966
0.596490594
0.0178006
Second wind
0.072221618
0.071115422
0.002122242
40.0400596
0.008
0.017
0.000927821
18.84238099
0.259688194
0.030960816
198.8076249
0.000248
0.01843
1.57108E-05
2.675219261
0.006347461
0.000756764
275.9570668
5.44E-04
0.0226
0.000137744
6.642506386
0.045773568
0.005457264
32.2756362
8.949195322
122.1779632
12.6617786
1.462056272
70.7904911
62.377304
0.0232
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.000248
0.024
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.01843
0.01843
0.006025392
0.000932439
0.001857411
0.001140031
4.93977E-05
1.97938E-05
31.19978166
4.211386034
57.4955121
5.958484046
0.019673899
0.952579587
1.425103643
0.26086416
0.488389256
0.31322322
0.018002519
0.00783252
0.16990519
0.031101018
0.058227252
0.037343425
0.002146315
0.000933817
48.1928917
- 76 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
22.20135402
102.8184263
0.008
0.017
0.000950856
10.44769601
0.265548848
0.031659541
58.10350403
0.008
0.017
0.001463368
27.34282542
0.39312575
0.046869647
8.685396552
115.80059
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.01843
0.002041301
2.41568E-05
4.087245436
1.558249936
0.532200494
0.009389153
0.063450561
0.001119403
52.67618371
55.19141335
0.0232
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.003515174
0.002800159
50.92031092
25.97242981
0.872712862
0.709571378
0.104047481
0.084597257
45.65269197
22.21022919
40.0400596
8.949195322
15.80906805
35.79678129
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.00714
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.03
0.017
0.000930846
0.00231907
0.001347446
0.001280942
0.004026939
0.000932439
21.48361975
10.45187256
18.84238099
4.211386034
3.762558196
16.84554414
0.26045848
0.59771677
0.364682691
0.348266397
0.987613729
0.26086416
0.031052652
0.071261611
0.043478579
0.041521379
0.117746312
0.031101018
48.46906978
105.1063854
12.6560734
0.000248
0.0232
0.0016
0.01843
0.024
0.026
2.40979E-05
0.001547786
0.000282101
0.652215372
101.6028392
0.778835286
0.009368302
0.413710742
0.087887675
0.001116917
0.049323853
0.010478236
37.50228949
0.008
0.017
0.001564598
17.64813623
0.417797954
0.049811143
113.137085
31.0148968
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
1.79105E-05
0.000526405
1.522408957
14.59524555
0.007151344
0.155046177
0.000852605
0.018485077
- 77 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
109.6542192
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
1.188614111
0.00714
0.03
0.003875784
0.282890158
0.953821386
0.113717486
75.42855567
0.008
0.017
0.002099957
35.49579091
0.546098812
0.065107561
38.0222189
89.49195322
5.44E-04
0.0226
0.000103389
2.154142591
0.035255855
0.00420331
44.64643013
33.07391052
80.23916346
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.002219284
0.000944024
0.001785711
21.01008477
15.56419319
37.75960634
0.574266509
0.263811821
0.471202992
0.068465799
0.031452448
0.056178254
43.85315386
- 78 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table A.7. - Offshore data from 2003-2004
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 79 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
598.79999
778.44
799.12
778.44
798.40002
570
848.29999
798.40002
786
613
798.40002
808
HOLE_DIAM
0.198
0.733
4.732
0.952
0.311
1
0.53
1
1.162
1
0.221
1.101
0.514
17.259
0.158
1.323
0.766
15.684
6.856
0.689
2
0.338
2.409
0.1
0.605
ACT_PRESSURE
25
68.979309
19.66
345
25
20.703449
4.5
8
110
5
8
22
5
0.013
7
6.9103451
6.9103451
1.00E-02
2.5
22
0.80000001
23
1.00E-02
140
1.5
IGNITION IGN_TYPE
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET
POOL
NO.
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
HYDRAULIC OIL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
OIL BASED MUD
OIL BASED MUD
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
- 80 -
GRAVITY
948.09998
598.79999
844
738.52002
798.40002
798.40002
798.40002
815
939.1651
858.28003
834.08002
798.40002
839.08002
738.52002
748.5
898.91998
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
0.153
1
6.793
4.439
2.631
0.526
1
25.4
19.05
2.721
7.115
15.27
0.131
1
6.667
9.164
1
0.135
6.753
36.672
0.269
2
1
0.804
0.408
21.81
8.313
0.312
1
5.451
21.531
ACT_PRESSURE
169
140
1.737931
32
10
170
33
2
0.1
110
159
4
10
42
15.186207
3
60
10
1.00E-02
1.00E-02
2.4000001
2
140
37
12
310.34479
0.013
40
327.58621
14.3
0.2
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
DELAYED
IMMEDIATE
JET POOL
1
1
1
NO.
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
CONDENSATE
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 81 -
GRAVITY
HOLE_DIAM
0.423
4
799.12
811.37402
798.40002
849.065
799.12
820
600
830
914.90997
799.12
825
779.14203
839.07599
830
800
798.40002
785.42603
15.772
2
1.967
0.446
4.763
0.461
0.249
0.125
1
15.194
1.198
0.1
0.411
6.604
63.411
4.775
0.573
1.8
25.36
0.774
1
2.064
5.039
1.209
4.936
1.413
0.6
0.224
ACT_PRESSURE
143
2.5
2
0.013
1.00E-02
28.799999
40
9.8000002
6.8965521
210
14
22.772409
32
0.80000001
2.8
0.5
4.1999998
2.4000001
1.00E-02
70
68.300003
16
14.5
26
178
71
18.987
0.213
82.769997
12
60
IGNITION
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
DELAYED
DELAYED
1
1
2
IMMEDIATE
1
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
NO.
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 82 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
598.79999
799.12
799.12
798.40002
848.29999
844.79999
798.40002
742.8114
798.40002
1025
HOLE_DIAM
1
3.382
6.201
1.011
3.5
0.25
0.669
0.1
4.774
52.176
0.927
1.643
15.738
0.352
0.581
9
20.574
28.973
5.345
1.233
2.144
2.14
1.549
5.071
3
7.574
0.564
12.157
0.068
7.349
0.615
ACT_PRESSURE
0.5
27.6
0.013
100
0.48699999
173
1
1
5.00E-02
5.00E-02
27
2
6.90E-02
75
164
36
13
0.013
100
10.01379
15.18621
67.5
143.5
30
0.5
26.700001
116
1.3
130
60
9
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
IMMEDIATE
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
- 83 -
GRAVITY
858.28003
598.79999
838.32001
739.18597
790
799.12
821
821.354
821
820
830.16998
825
798.40002
798.40002
841
HOLE_DIAM
0.379
3.659
15.248
2.108
0.991
6
6.562
0.657
0.717
1.059
4
0.149
8.552
2.856
0.096
1
0.1
2.608
1.681
2
1
1.2
4
37.089
7.657
2
1.067
4.822
0.215
2.125
1.882
ACT_PRESSURE
65
1
2
2.49E-02
10
79.324127
0.013
68
30
14
13
167
6.00E-02
25
120
30
14
20
70
0.1
17.5
60
25
0.442
70
250
16
24
140
151.72411
25
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
CONDENSATE
OIL
OIL
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
OIL BASED MUD
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 84 -
GRAVITY
848.29999
812
848.91498
798.40002
756.48401
860
700
798.40002
821
835
798.40002
756.48401
798.40002
611.77399
598.79999
893.20001
799.12
850
890
798.40002
HOLE_DIAM
0.71
0.441
0.1
2.691
0.051
1
0.5
1
0.1
1.122
4
1.517
7.761
0.75
1.661
29.212
2.693
0.307
10.571
1
0.263
6.591
6.729
1.392
0.2
2.812
1.632
0.551
0.173
0.5
13.224
ACT_PRESSURE
5
5
50
10
13.7
2
2.5
158.6207
70
1.5
15
9
16
1
0.1
103.45
30
101.3793
0.013
24
140
8
30
0.013
363
8
3
200
4.5
6.551724
1
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
HEAT TRANSFER OIL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
- 85 -
GRAVITY
860
650
799.12
798.40002
821
799.12
779.14203
899.00989
798.40002
820
900
845
848.29999
598.79999
899.00989
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
0.5
0.181
0.3
6
1.632
10
0.154
4.573
21.333
4
8
0.238
3.381
0.533
1.764
5.845
0.1
10.16
0.136
0.107
6.847
0.103
1.671
1.211
0.85
1.21
0.208
0.6
0.661
10.574
1.291
ACT_PRESSURE
38
50
179
0.1
18
79
6.0100002
6.5
1
49.65517
72
212.6207
0.013
12
200
45
7
5
11
2
3.448276
170
2
6
13.5
3.1034479
0.013
101
83
2
45
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
DELAYED
1
DELAYED
DELAYED
1
1
NO.
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
NON_PROCESS
HYDRAULIC OIL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 86 -
GRAVITY
798.40002
821
798.40002
798.40002
987.02002
835
848.29999
815
799.12
821.34998
798.40002
532.93201
849.065
648.70001
HOLE_DIAM
1.459
4.923
0.25
0.1
6
0.51
1
3.408
12.585
0.744
0.8
9.031
4
0.046
0.561
10
1.597
16.013
2
0.5
1.04
0.312
0.02
0.5
1.135
0.286
2
1.1
1.359
0.295
0.098
ACT_PRESSURE
27.58621
166.10001
113.7931
180
13
20.689659
50
0.02
4
59
20
23
167
130
28
25
155.17239
0.40000001
3
2.758621
0.48275861
129
14
75
12
31.034479
38.700001
140
6.2068968
134
3
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
IMMEDIATE
FLASH EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 87 -
GRAVITY
849.065
798.40002
849.065
821.34998
716
828.34003
821.34998
799.12
828.34003
941
813.37
788
1025
838
768.46002
HOLE_DIAM
4.348
10.262
1.561
0.1
10.225
0.161
0.5
1
1
0.317
1
10.154
8.228
0.669
4.743
11.685
1
1.184
0.103
1.2
6.682
0.223
2
3.67
0.1
4
0.1
ACT_PRESSURE
41
2
0.013
181
7
75
32
14
27
75
1.16
0
10
1
6.5
1
65
3
130
15.18
6.8965521
80
181
23
30
0.30000001
17
IGNITION
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
DELAYED
FLASH
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
2
Table A.8. - Analysis of offshore data from 2003-2004
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
105.1608614
0.0232
0.024
0.002749514
101.6554994
0.697883038
0.083203738
73.10281435
0.000248
0.01843
1.4529E-05
0.983694952
0.00591145
0.000704781
28.6732826
35.79678129
0.008
0.00714
0.017
0.03
0.000920295
0.00051971
13.49330946
8.519633946
0.257770608
0.15325064
0.030732196
0.018271007
28.6732826
1.44366488
39.64757022
32.29089795
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.0232
0.017
0.017
0.01843
0.024
0.000659794
0.003871975
1.01037E-05
0.003807573
13.49330946
0.679371708
0.53351044
31.21453468
0.19042397
0.952968206
0.004247534
0.93853338
0.022702925
0.113615767
0.000506404
0.111894803
20.0200298
59.85563633
12.92467835
60.72375694
0.0232
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.008408902
0.000767601
0.001154941
0.000541855
19.35269547
28.16735828
6.082201576
28.57588562
1.930067742
0.218541017
0.316948805
0.159181796
0.230108545
0.026055125
0.0377876
0.018978138
15.41504987
0.008
0.017
0.000729286
7.254141113
0.208591602
0.024868925
15.31772192
0.00714
0.03
0.003138461
3.645617817
0.787176315
0.093849554
- 88 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
83.98873933
17.41601377
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
2.60529E-05
0.004829504
1.130179455
8.195771185
0.010057455
1.16522853
0.00119908
0.138922089
138.0766339
159.6589532
25.3235572
40.0400596
0.008
0.00714
0.0232
0.008
0.017
0.03
0.024
0.017
0.001478631
0.002947519
0.012549412
0.000337334
64.97723948
37.99883085
24.47943862
18.84238099
0.396855383
0.743473132
2.778478856
0.103417668
0.047314306
0.088639128
0.331258698
0.012329769
48.83720919
20.220628
94.59454796
39.17428926
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.002431412
0.003060046
0.000966338
22.98221609
9.515589645
44.51508139
0.624009245
0.769258408
0.269480382
0.07439628
0.091713327
0.032128271
19.61554347
17.46699889
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.00057312
0.001351236
4.668499345
8.219764185
0.16751858
0.365615956
0.019972075
0.043589846
80.08011912
45.30015683
210.2164499
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.01843
0.000803755
1.86055E-05
37.68476194
0.609573461
0.227888438
0.007403422
0.027169553
0.000882658
17.89839064
0.0232
0.024
0
17.30177762
0
0
67.4047764
0.008
0.017
0.001317732
31.71989478
0.357357201
0.042605212
229.1698714
- 89 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
NO.
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
39.63763713
32.2441198
183.4039277
46.74789678
0.008
0.0232
0.00714
0.008
0.017
0.024
0.03
0.017
0.002034066
0.002248612
0.000551651
0.000333946
18.65300571
31.16931581
43.6501348
21.99901025
0.530483604
0.58116846
0.161798509
0.102472024
0.063245868
0.069288671
0.01929011
0.012217026
13.06394538
20.77997182
8.363745455
25.93723158
0.000248
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.01843
0.017
0.017
0.017
2.85442E-05
0.000300506
0.000639624
0.002396205
0.175792645
9.778810269
3.935880214
12.20575604
0.010929028
0.093090741
0.185119061
0.615781489
0.001302992
0.011098561
0.022070457
0.073415342
1.245598298
107.237255
102.0738978
0.008
0.000248
0.000248
0.017
0.01843
0.01843
0.002070275
2.24957E-05
4.13763E-05
0.586163905
1.443018949
1.373539157
0.539070278
0.008799759
0.015321576
0.064269598
0.001049134
0.001826685
47.2878904
64.49806199
0.008
0.017
0.000932952
30.35202917
0.260994827
0.031116597
5.843654314
0.008
0.017
0.002070677
2.749954971
0.539165375
0.064280936
44.22246661
0.008
0.017
0.000716049
20.81057252
0.205143462
0.024457827
8.953229509
0.008
0.017
0.000932019
4.213284475
0.260757195
0.031088266
1.667000648
0.000248
0.01843
6.48763E-05
0.022431696
0.023070561
0.002750542
12.6560734
12.6560734
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.000904228
0.000294863
3.012145468
5.955799245
0.253672095
0.091498593
0.030243559
0.01090874
- 90 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
NO.
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
65.79253154
17.37181724
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.024
0.000897356
0.004243138
30.96119131
16.79275666
0.25191706
1.035750342
0.030034318
0.123485305
73.85489502
0.008
0.017
0.002876157
34.75524472
0.727075183
0.086684114
1.44366488
0.008
0.017
0.005016738
0.679371708
1.206266669
0.14381478
98.07771529
33.5246542
98.45712711
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.000828159
0.000594906
15.77630786
46.3327657
0.234176597
0.173303764
0.027919246
0.020661802
20.6765983
0.000248
0.01843
0.000101733
0.278230948
0.03474161
0.004142
39.07509734
0.008
0.017
0.000950728
18.3882811
0.26551615
0.031655643
1.500374946
0.008
0.017
0.002297256
0.706058798
0.592598269
0.070651368
69.71914725
47.35469051
45.01995768
0.008
0.017
0.000785032
32.80901047
0.223052707
0.026593022
0.008
0.017
0.001890236
21.18586244
0.49623728
0.059162918
67.82992604
- 91 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
62.41799311
0.008
0.017
0.001597566
29.37317323
0.42580157
0.050765358
68.39022517
46.74789678
55.5311248
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.000945118
0.00029869
0.0015348
32.18363537
21.99901025
26.13229402
0.264090082
0.092578738
0.410550801
0.031485623
0.011037519
0.048947115
52.10711578
98.07771529
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.024
0.000947418
0.003517989
24.52099566
94.80845811
0.264674744
0.873348948
0.031555328
0.104123317
200.200298
0.00714
0.03
0.001562731
47.64767092
0.417344164
0.04975704
61.68463386
0.008
0.017
0.001312267
29.02806299
0.356008248
0.042444386
27.46725479
88.77935232
38.83049137
46.8656882
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.000637982
0.00029723
0.001576534
0.00021048
12.92576696
41.77851874
18.27317241
22.05444151
0.184686656
0.092166681
0.420697467
0.067325677
0.022018905
0.010988392
0.050156831
0.008026772
20.56719723
0.008
0.017
0.000641504
9.678681051
0.185614199
0.022129489
36.59965688
0.008
0.017
0.001191397
17.22336794
0.326040229
0.038871508
4.276179871
0.000248
0.01843
3.63035E-05
0.05754165
0.01360231
0.001621709
- 92 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
128.7834226
68.39022517
124.6626605
1.44366488
63.72512989
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
0.000248
0.008
0.008
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
0.01843
0.017
0.017
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.005037388
5.00615E-05
0.000528113
0.00303028
0.000907224
Capillary no.
60.60396356
0.920280838
58.66478141
0.679371708
29.98829642
Atomisation
1.210784042
0.018222524
0.155503892
0.762446041
0.254436752
Second wind
0.144353355
0.002172545
0.018539647
0.090901135
0.030334723
35.81291803
79.22643385
1.667000648
228.0782845
35.79678129
21.25475725
0.0232
0.000248
0.000248
0.00714
0.0232
0.024
0.01843
0.01843
0.03
0.024
0.008244789
6.83101E-05
3.07379E-05
0.000522695
0.005387748
34.6191541
1.066096343
0.022431696
54.28263171
34.60355524
1.895759238
0.024179163
0.011690792
0.154051406
1.287183363
0.226018181
0.002882713
0.001393812
0.018366477
0.153461915
25.43994912
0.008
0.017
0.000409291
11.97174076
0.123313148
0.014701768
12.6617786
0.008
0.017
0.00338927
5.958484046
0.84422147
0.100650651
86.26621856
0.008
0.017
0.000411531
40.59586756
0.123927161
0.014774973
124.7273951
0.000248
0.01843
8.58363E-05
1.678371892
0.029764627
0.003548629
32.26678261
0.008
0.017
0.001993981
15.18436829
0.520961899
0.062110662
43.25377625
0.008
0.017
0.000690001
20.35471823
0.198341216
0.023646843
84.89952133
33.91139758
26.68134708
0.0232
0.008
0.0232
0.024
0.017
0.024
0.00776769
0.000291154
0.010862323
82.06953728
15.95830474
25.79196884
1.795665355
0.090450615
2.436404874
0.214084684
0.010783797
0.290475598
89.22302673
- 93 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
41.99436879
17.66904417
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.00714
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.03
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.00040751
0.000308968
Capillary no.
9.994659772
8.314844316
Atomisation
0.122824753
0.095473068
Second wind
0.014643541
0.011382589
16.86548085
30.14756607
0.0232
0.000248
0.024
0.01843
0.004407609
3.40577E-05
16.30329816
0.405675333
1.072221757
0.012834391
0.127833538
0.001530155
21.63976217
1.667000648
0.00714
0.000248
0.03
0.01843
0.001252928
1.18819E-05
5.150263396
0.022431696
0.341328616
0.00492274
0.040694236
0.000586904
16.87476556
84.89952133
66.502923
0.0232
0.0232
0.00714
0.024
0.024
0.03
0.011081422
0.003650587
0.00133474
16.31227338
82.06953728
15.82769567
2.481085364
0.903253991
0.361552072
0.295802542
0.107688687
0.043105337
45.01995768
57.59322283
89.53229509
0.008
0.000248
0.008
0.017
0.01843
0.017
0.002315057
2.14837E-05
0.000932019
21.18586244
0.774992906
42.13284475
0.596775397
0.00843878
0.260757195
0.071149378
0.001006097
0.031088266
60.25887504
61.9058586
0.008
0.017
0.0030141
29.13216875
0.758740561
0.090459357
20.40216581
8.707454114
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.000805413
0.000960307
4.855715464
4.097625466
0.22831619
0.267949429
0.02722055
0.031945746
- 94 -
Flammable Mist?
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
Ignited?
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
NO.
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
47.35469051
108.1113999
43.86168769
86.33587822
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.01843
0.000131867
0.000668442
0.000992939
1.31442E-05
22.28456024
50.87595291
20.64079421
1.16176331
0.043992948
0.192693764
0.276222733
0.005396437
0.005244973
0.022973537
0.032932114
0.00064338
30.5894577
162.6055751
0.0232
0.000248
0.024
0.01843
0.003860769
1.47281E-05
29.56980911
2.18807285
0.950458084
0.005985134
0.113316503
0.000713566
78.61880599
17.90645902
0.0232
0.008
0.024
0.017
0.006905718
0.002985663
75.99817912
8.426568949
1.613391835
0.752223445
0.192353481
0.089682366
32.48504969
108.1113999
75.63511348
0.0232
0.008
0.000248
0.024
0.017
0.01843
0.010589994
0.000379308
2.01445E-05
31.4022147
50.87595291
1.017770382
2.380756207
0.115064693
0.007958691
0.283840994
0.013718363
0.000948859
64.59256668
108.1113999
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.000949333
0.000532241
30.39650197
50.87595291
0.265161759
0.156609562
0.031613391
0.018671468
12.6560734
0.000248
0.01843
2.46169E-05
0.170304189
0.009551734
0.001138787
12.43084525
0.008
0.017
0.003245138
5.849809531
0.811487728
0.096748035
20.2009038
0.008
0.017
0.001100994
9.506307671
0.303447985
0.036177992
48.87612824
0.008
0.017
0.001030503
23.00053093
0.28571598
0.034063928
113.99528
0.008
0.017
0.00043725
53.64483764
0.130955607
0.015612926
53.59286447
- 95 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO. Exit Velocity (ms-1)
267 67.69297528
268
269 53.21313021
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.000301951
Capillary no.
31.85551778
Atomisation
0.093497927
Second wind
0.011147107
0.008
0.017
0.000289151
25.04147304
0.089884258
0.010716275
- 96 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
Table A.9. - Offshore data from 2004-2005
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
OIL
2-PHASE
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
NON_PROCESS
OIL BASED MUD
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
FUEL OIL
METHANOL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
HEAT TRANSFER OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 97 -
GRAVITY
899
799.12
799.12
913
830
849.065
799.12
799.12
895
799.12
815
899.01001
923.98248
811.87
849.065
832
799.12
820
829.08698
799.12
849.065
699.22998
HOLE_DIAM
0.634
>100
1.7
0.689
0.172
2
2.289
3.62
0.079
0.264
0.2
4.545
6.651
0.247
2.42
0.072
1.816
0.531
0.504
0.02
1.55
6.638
2
0.579
1.063
0.169
1
ACT_PRESSURE
20
0.013
40
8
28
3
4.8275862
186
13
364
0.013
0.28
22.758619
7
180
6.987
33
15.4
10
26
28
1
10
4
6
115.487
1.5
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
DELAYED
1
1
DELAYED
EXPLOSION
JET
POOL
1
NO.
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
HYDRAULIC OIL
DIESEL
BOTTLED GAS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
DIESEL
METHANOL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 98 -
GRAVITY
799.12
699.22998
849.065
828
799.12
1
859
820
799.12
1066.75
799.12
749.16998
830.16998
864.04999
799.12
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
1
N/A
3
1
0.452
0.307
0.5
0.1
2
1.284
0.1
14.282
2.639
3
2
3.141
1
0.523
0.751
0.1
1
5
6
9.407
2
1.5
2
3.6
3.242
3.326
2.858
ACT_PRESSURE
300
0.013
6
5.00E-02
5
10
41.379311
106
0.30000001
48.987
7.517241
0.013
1
93
20
2
0.2068966
85
22.5
75.862068
25
0.2
58.987
10
130
2.49
145
1
220
179.2
2.49
IGNITION
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
IMMEDIATE
1
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
EXPLOSION
2
1
1
JET POOL
2
NO.
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 99 -
GRAVITY
821
819.09802
799.12
849.065
600
869.04303
790
810
999.82001
839
1018.878
899.70923
HOLE_DIAM
0.6
5
6.521
2.51
9.8
0.1
5.281
0.1
1.8
4.5
2.5
1
1
0.13
1
15
3.049
1.588
0.5
1.5
6
8.5
0.268
2.903
15
2.5
1.582
0.1
2.066
10
23.534
ACT_PRESSURE
180
25
1.35
13
2.5
108.987
1
200
15.5
0.34999999
27
2
25
19.65517
20
2.5
8
11.987
34
22
40
2
33
8.00E-03
1
1
0.013
184
17
9
1
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
IMMEDIATE
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
HYDRAULIC OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 100 -
GRAVITY
781
810
799.12
840
839.07599
799.12
799.12
899.01001
850
820
850
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
0.584
25
1
0.5
1
0.25
0.25
1
2
5
0.1
1
0.1
2.677
2
1
0.332
0.01
0.21
1.574
4.98
6.35
0.1
1
1
0.1
0.196
2
2
12.7
4.403
ACT_PRESSURE
128
1.00E-02
6.8000002
68.987
8.3999996
120
199.5
25
26
4
219
24.13793
87
0.60000002
60
96
75
10
21.4
30
127.987
0.013
130
35
344.82761
64
13
4.8275862
145
0.44999999
3
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
GLYCOL
LUB OIL
LUB OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
- 101 -
GRAVITY
599.34003
849.065
799.12
840
899.01001
899
799.12
799.12
799.12
899.01001
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
1
4.761
0.75
0.862
1
3.5
4
3.547
11.5
2.162
3.629
17.189
1
0.5
7.117
0.221
4
0.1
5.178
0.04
0.85
4
0.781
0.1
6.4
9
2
3.999
N/A
5.791
10.6
ACT_PRESSURE
45
0.013
14
160
20.689659
30
17
20
14
140
23
0.25
5
35
2.3
29
4.9000001
90
4.2758622
3.5
103.4483
4
0.152
66.586998
83.987
168
1.39
39
3
27.59
40
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
DELAYED
IMMEDIATE
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
2
1
NO.
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
METHANOL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 102 -
GRAVITY
799.12
799.12
830
799.12
845.90002
750
699.22998
0.83999997
699.22998
799.12
799.12
810
860
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
2.781
1.017
14.301
3.27
20
1.559
0.396
2.048
3.69
1.18
1.649
5
1.3
5.1
3.844
1.957
0.585
0.348
11.011
6.35
0.011
0.351
1.5
3.924
5.5
5.871
10
3
0.865
2
3.223
ACT_PRESSURE
133.987
3
1.00E-02
25
6.70E-02
22
1.5
7.5
18
9
36
41.379311
10.5
41.379311
24
83.987
18.965521
10.5
0.60000002
17
0.1
160
7
10
4.5
29
20
219.0345
121
10
10.5
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
IMMEDIATE
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
LUB OIL
METHANOL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 103 -
GRAVITY
749.17999
0.79000002
749.17999
0.89999998
799.12
799.12
700
0.81999999
800
829.08698
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
0.846
6.19
0.5
0.05
1
1.59
6.245
1
0.5
1.3
0.324
0.3
0.3
0.75
1
16.5
2.813
3.875
0.437
2.38
4.36
0.1
1
0.663
1
2.336
1.574
0.6
1.792
3
0.5
ACT_PRESSURE
160
2.987
60
20.700001
160
112
0.18000001
3.448276
125
180
63
140
72
72.43
0.60000002
0.48699999
0.02
5
137.931
1
11.5
40
1
1
13
1.7
162.069
24
108.987
49
170
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
1
1
1
IMMEDIATE
1
IMMEDIATE
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
1
NO.
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
DIESEL
HYDRAULIC OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 104 -
GRAVITY
799.12
790
799.12
790
799.12
799.12
515
799.12
841
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
10.923
0.5
15.414
1
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.247
12.7
1
15
0.656
1.084
4.988
2.858
1
2.6
0.1
1.225
0.292
0.5
3.377
0.1
1.746
0.5
5.4
1
4
8
0.02
5.4
ACT_PRESSURE
0.2068966
102.069
1.5
45
35
7.9000001
35
101.7241
70
341
42
125
50
0.86206901
7.5
42
112
2
72
2
45
112
0
65
291.72421
78
49.5
168
10
11
8
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON_PROCESS
HEAT TRANSFER OIL
LUB OIL
LUB OIL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 105 -
GRAVITY
869.03998
808
869.04303
950
941
799.12
883.02002
790
948.95502
HOLE_DIAM
0.1
1.212
0.267
0.292
0.2
1.9
2.298
1.304
3
1.5
7
0.1
8
3.43
7.548
11.39
1
0.1
0.04
3
0.676
ACT_PRESSURE
8.5
41.379311
6.8965521
70
181
150
5
40
1.103448
5.3000002
28
5.931035
10
16
7.5
5.6100001
25
17.5
20
10.5
66
IGNITION
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
DELAYED
FLASH EXPLOSION
1
JET POOL
Table A.10. - Analysis of offshore data from 2004-2005
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
3.92414E-05
0.000773981
1.077098264
16.84554414
0.014600495
0.220193331
0.001740715
0.026252118
0.008
0.0232
0.00714
0.008
0.00714
0.0232
0.008
0.05
0.008
5.44E-04
0.00714
0.017
0.024
0.03
0.017
0.03
0.024
0.017
0.024
0.017
0.0226
0.03
0.001343905
0.005010568
0.002103387
0.00026208
0.000601135
0.00143686
0.002007521
0.018940933
0.000498304
0.000114632
0.00030577
10.12203027
26.07811986
41.08018719
21.47393957
54.30266152
1.394913907
3.120658616
118.5917387
14.6542367
4.054977521
7.724259294
0.363810421
1.204916501
0.546910437
0.082192983
0.174954299
0.38664028
0.524180168
4.041057666
0.147495941
0.038728127
0.094573566
0.043374585
0.143653809
0.065204325
0.009799297
0.020858584
0.04609643
0.062494354
0.481787183
0.017584915
0.004617285
0.011275348
48.67474468
40.02201817
0.0232
0.024
0.002280945
38.68795089
0.588768197
0.070194735
12.49390095
39.29207255
25.31214679
30.07531195
0.008
0.00714
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.03
0.017
0.024
0.002433548
0.00159248
0.000709512
0.003414528
5.879482801
9.351513268
11.91159849
29.07280155
0.624508287
0.424567789
0.203438508
0.849944859
0.074455777
0.050618263
0.024254558
0.101333011
1.360494577
80.04403633
35.79678129
62.65397244
21.50931432
26.97736538
172.6058285
45.63212158
228.1624434
1.443014386
6.63139956
56.92403458
31.14025299
168.4604632
32.45487098
- 106 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
16.57069005
219.2096215
1.54264729
30.07531195
0.000248
0.00714
0.000248
0.0232
0.01843
0.03
0.01843
0.024
2.8153E-05
0.001105516
0.010792622
0.304581704
0.001286729
0.036313157
0.005736206
0.222980528
52.17188991
0.020758357
29.07280155
1.3627252
0.162468242
27.80192187
40.02201817
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.000638115
0.000516642
13.08325735
18.8338909
0.184721627
0.152427166
0.022023074
0.01817283
195.9591827
85.43755762
0.008
0.017
0.001095452
40.20590947
0.302057713
0.036012239
1.424523883
0.008
0.017
0.00356957
0.67036418
0.884993877
0.105511661
17.89839064
4.982534746
116.6832313
62.00205167
0.0232
0.00714
0.024
0.03
0.005694211
0.001277292
17.30177762
1.18584327
1.35364368
0.347363241
0.161385516
0.041413702
5.55311248
93.47892397
40.02201817
0.008
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.017
0.024
0.002125118
0.002374978
0.009854286
2.613229402
43.99008187
38.68795089
0.552049859
0.610815374
2.229763077
0.065817063
0.072823266
0.265839134
12.6560734
5.44E-04
0.0226
0.000138711
0.304641767
0.046065973
0.005492125
- 107 -
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
45.01995768
19.76546569
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.001497348
0.002955258
21.18586244
9.301395618
0.401424278
0.745249414
0.047859023
0.088850901
12.6560734
0.008
0.017
0.002142785
5.955799245
0.556224701
0.0663148
7.263877832
75.89466384
17.16324264
63.64458273
55.73151867
0.0232
0.000248
0.00714
0.008
0.000248
0.024
0.01843
0.03
0.017
0.01843
0.007025388
4.12344E-05
0.001152868
0.000927103
1.09252E-05
7.021748571
1.021262975
4.084851749
29.95039187
0.749941217
1.638814545
0.015273775
0.31643108
0.25950533
0.004560682
0.195384453
0.001820986
0.037725876
0.030939015
0.000543738
17.89015392
0.008
0.017
0.004039438
8.418895961
0.990402911
0.118078847
42.76409219
0.008
0.017
0.001203984
20.12427868
0.329173317
0.039245044
1.002510423
0.008
0.017
0.001793903
0.471769611
0.473169726
0.056412734
- 108 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
35.78286843
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.003128712
Capillary no.
16.83899691
Atomisation
0.784950816
Second wind
0.093584223
1.280204836
32.780603
0.000248
0.008
0.01843
0.017
0.000148768
0.000938765
0.017226847
15.42616612
0.049095738
0.262474211
0.005853343
0.031292974
36.68078467
0.008
0.017
0.000932439
17.26154573
0.26086416
0.031101018
61.72133998
0.008
0.017
0.000955992
29.04533646
0.266853578
0.031815095
24.70212605
0.008
0.017
0.002136486
11.62452991
0.554736696
0.066137396
9.803352462
98.03352298
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.001525614
0.001318668
4.613342335
46.13342258
0.408314144
0.357588105
0.048680454
0.042632741
55.19879636
67.21344403
0.008
0.00714
0.017
0.03
0.000453217
0.001430443
25.97590417
15.99679968
0.135300248
0.385068607
0.016130907
0.04590905
232.0059242
0.00714
0.03
0.001119865
55.21740997
0.308177306
0.036741836
26.96252374
0.0232
0.024
0.00468617
26.06377295
1.133715928
0.13516506
- 109 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
NO.
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
21.92096215
98.03352053
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.01843
0.001956567
2.60646E-05
10.31574689
1.319170542
0.512059075
0.010061581
0.06104924
0.001199572
55.84845739
0.0232
0.024
0.0033118
53.98684214
0.826643235
0.09855492
52.18232742
0.0232
0.024
0.006425835
50.4429165
1.511039248
0.180150694
46.18802154
0.008
0.017
0.003241925
21.73553955
0.810756702
0.096660879
26.6813453
0.008
0.017
0.000989001
12.5559272
0.275225592
0.032813232
26.41333159
0.008
0.017
0.001977991
12.4298031
0.51715879
0.061657244
26.17042859
23.67734526
0.00714
0.02
0.03
0.045
0.002515625
0.000758529
6.228562004
10.52326456
0.643646693
0.216189478
0.076737516
0.025774767
25.31214679
0.00714
0.03
0.002211031
6.024290937
0.572322879
0.068234074
14.06792749
0.008
0.017
0.001398659
6.620201173
0.377274509
0.044979814
21.92096215
0.00714
0.03
- 110 -
5.217188991
Flammable Mist?
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
NO.
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
146.4975347
21.92096215
5.44E-04
0.0232
0.0226
0.024
0.000121916
0.003240112
3.52631234
21.19026341
0.040961331
0.810344115
0.004883534
0.09661169
58.24749852
15.50046098
33.68806752
55.42562584
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.01843
0.001186524
0.00058677
0.0013729
5.6009E-05
27.41058754
7.294334581
15.85320825
0.745825025
0.324826513
0.171145595
0.370946472
0.02018249
0.038726805
0.020404498
0.044225366
0.002406218
87.0335287
1264.911087
87.0335287
0.000248
0.008
0.000248
0.01843
0.017
0.01843
6.2952E-05
3.44688E-05
6.35784E-05
1.171151119
595.2522761
1.171151119
0.022447001
0.012975295
0.022650167
0.0026762
0.001546954
0.002700422
55.1164673
0.000248
0.01843
2.30196E-05
0.741664888
0.008986059
0.001071345
9.803352462
0.008
0.017
0.003094096
4.613342335
0.777043966
0.092641544
26.66666667
65.69839473
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.002201599
0.002343795
12.54901961
30.91689164
0.570100816
0.603513163
0.067969153
0.071952675
- 111 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
Ignited?
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
40.02201817
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.0232
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.024
Ohnsorge no.
0.004543752
Capillary no.
38.68795089
Atomisation
1.102318502
Second wind
0.131421764
165.3376999
0.000248
0.01843
2.68036E-05
2.224837198
0.010320841
0.001230482
747.4677224
0.008
0.017
2.93176E-05
351.7495164
0.01119815
0.001335078
103.7485833
0.000248
0.01843
1.65875E-05
1.396074262
0.006668982
0.000795096
292.1187055
0.008
0.017
3.12922E-05
137.4676261
0.011882458
0.001416663
1.789839064
28.29984044
158.8133136
395.0918411
0.00714
0.0232
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.024
0.03
0.017
0.001854171
0.006324635
0.000683988
4.60797E-05
0.425981697
27.35651243
37.79756863
185.9255723
0.487613858
1.489368196
0.196767792
0.016898718
0.058134807
0.177567005
0.023459255
0.002014717
12.64911064
12.42524433
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.001106124
0.000773341
3.010488332
5.8471738
0.304734269
0.220027849
0.036331346
0.026232389
132.1254057
5.44E-04
0.0226
9.78652E-05
3.180363748
0.033537555
0.003998449
- 112 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
Ignited?
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
NO.
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
5.75672736
0.008
0.017
0.003081707
2.70904817
0.774212172
0.092303929
15.58967526
84.89952133
0.0232
0.0232
0.024
0.024
0.012541943
0.003212918
15.07001942
82.06953728
2.776973925
0.80415256
0.331079276
0.095873514
75.30528584
0.008
0.017
0.000655561
35.43778157
0.189311778
0.022570326
11.75086945
34.66008444
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.002082494
0.001576346
5.529820918
16.31062797
0.541964634
0.420651776
0.064614672
0.050151384
22.29545646
0.000248
0.01843
1.3056E-05
0.300014824
0.005363476
0.00063945
164.0414599
39.01278793
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.002211031
0.002705562
39.04186745
18.35895902
0.572322879
0.687723837
0.068234074
0.081992527
- 113 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
41.97544677
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
35.38299324
80.96380905
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.000364568
0.001032218
8.42115239
38.10061602
0.110988617
0.286148726
0.0132324
0.034115521
27.13746939
0.00714
0.03
0.00174765
6.458717715
0.462054703
0.055087567
26.72274855
0.008
0.017
0.001245151
12.57541108
0.339399907
0.040464289
36.88163564
0.008
0.017
0.002861899
17.35606383
0.723794332
0.086292961
34.66008444
28.51682328
63.64458273
0.00714
0.008
0.03
0.017
0.003921985
0.000927103
6.78700394
29.95039187
0.964162522
0.25950533
0.114950388
0.030939015
37.63369151
0.008
0.017
0.00175994
17.70997247
0.465010636
0.055439982
- 114 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table A.11. - Offshore data from 2005-2006
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
OIL
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
CONDENSATE
OIL
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
NON_PROCESS
FUEL OIL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
- 115 -
GRAVITY
849.06
840
839.07599
899
948.90002
599.34003
915.29211
599.34003
799.12
599.34003
839.07599
859.05402
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
10
10.46
3
1.21
0.5
0.863
0.551
22.707
43.87
2.179
0.2
0.211
0.321
9.602
9.845
1
11
16.567
3.538
18.324
5
1.849
3
0.151
1
ACT_PRESSURE
13.8
0.1
30
124
3.5
56
120
0.013
0.324
1
22
74
60
8
0.013
163
6.8965521
0.013
60
0.013
10
4.83E-02
7
140
17
IGNITION IGN_TYPE
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET
POOL
NO.
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
OIL
CONDENSATE
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
HEAT TRANSFER OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 116 -
GRAVITY
790
834
849.065
948.95502
839.06
849.065
799.12
700
779.14203
670
998.90002
843.07001
799.12
849.065
915.29211
810
801.59998
790
599.34003
HOLE_DIAM
1
0.2
0.1
0.311
3
0.745
1.37
0.8
3.3
44.5
8.398
0.1
8
1.074
0.631
25.738
>100
4
5
0.056
0.5
45.7
0.483
10
1
1
1
1.5
2.551
1
0.1
ACT_PRESSURE
12
70
128
70
18
106.89
5.8800001
2.068965
10
0.68965518
15
20
1.39
15
6.9000001
0.013
0.1
6.9000001
8.2758617
40
6.21
8.00E-02
0
7
9.8599997
4
20
221
30
25
30
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
DELAYED
JET POOL
1
NO.
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
PROCESS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
CONDENSATE
NON-PROCESS
OIL
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MAJOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
- 117 -
GRAVITY
799.12
886.02002
790
855
749.17499
829.09998
878.93213
799.12
750
799.12
799.12
815
824
990
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
0.36
2
1
1.3
83.7
1
0.853
0.5
1.5
3
2
10
0.661
1
10
1
0.1
1
3
2.506
14.064
0.755
2
2.505
2
6
1
11
2
1
2.764
ACT_PRESSURE
8.2758617
2.3
40
100.0207
3.5
32
29
42
24.987
61
16
12
100
19
1
40
28.98621
2.206897
78
173.987
123
27
2.758621
10
60
17
4.5
4.5
60
7.5
1
IGNITION
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
IMMEDIATE
1
IMMEDIATE
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
2-PHASE
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
2-PHASE
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
LUB OIL
HYDRAULIC OIL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 118 -
GRAVITY
899.01001
839.07599
979.82098
799.12
819.09802
840
859.05402
839.07599
596.34332
918.98798
799.12
1000
819.09802
HOLE_DIAM
1.3
0.274
1
0.957
1.02
2.209
0.319
1.37
1
1
4.82
2
1.41
19.05
4.723
42.554
4.7
2.54
1.707
1.5
0.585
0.1
0.5
0.2
1
3.41
4.303
5
2.718
0.1
ACT_PRESSURE
12
40
28
2
16
72.413803
43
18.299999
130
5.8827591
5
10
14
4.482759
4
1
23.787001
7
10.9
27.58621
16.5
19.5
35
8
16
20
4
70
0.13
130
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH EXPLOSION
IMMEDIATE
1
JET POOL
2
NO.
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
PROCESS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
2-PHASE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
2-PHASE
CONDENSATE
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
OIL
2-PHASE
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
FUEL OIL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
- 119 -
GRAVITY
599.34003
799.12
799.12
971
833.08258
919
849.065
994.90442
838
866
810
830
917.40002
799.12
HOLE_DIAM
8.333
1
1.1
30.743
1.681
2
2.364
3
0.5
1
0.5
3
0.3
1
1
0.1
14.827
3.51
0.138
6.35
1
2.443
6
11
0.01
1
0.67
2
64.8
2
22.717
ACT_PRESSURE
36
1
6
0.5
20
32
1
75
83
19.5
65
20
71
178
1
85
0.1
0.1
65
2.758621
0.077
30
0.138
1.5
1
18
170
9.5
0
15.86207
0.013
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
NO.
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
CONDENSATE
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
OIL
OIL
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
2-PHASE
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
LUB OIL
DIESEL
DIESEL
DIESEL
DIESEL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
- 120 -
GRAVITY
650
649.28497
799.12
834.08148
799.12
843.07159
870
799.12
799.12
799.12
899.01001
HOLE_DIAM
24
0.935
N/A
19.05
1
4.95
0.7
1.318
0.9
2.5
3.631
1
0.942
1
3
0.1
1
0.026
2
5
1
0.8
0.319
13.69
0.1
3.407
0.645
ACT_PRESSURE
42
47
0.013
-0.013
82.275864
20
3.487
0.2
1.087
280
35
160
220
78.206886
178
8
8
100
10
4.6999998
7
55
21
0
140
6.1999998
85
IGNITION
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
EXPLOSION
1
1
JET POOL
NO.
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
NON-PROCESS
2-PHASE
GAS
NON-PROCESS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
OIL
GAS
GAS
NON_PROCESS
GLYCOL
DIESEL
LUB OIL
SEVERITY
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MAJOR
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 121 -
GRAVITY
700
849.06
807.10999
799.12
849.065
803.70001
799.12
830.013
960
HOLE_DIAM
9.33
2.2
3.5
3.175
10
0.154
0.029
1.769
2
0.367
25.5
0.541
2.332
0.1
3
3.175
>100
N/A
0.5
2.58
3.261
0.1
0.258
0.73
ACT_PRESSURE
5
1.37931
0.2068966
35
689.65521
0.013
1.77
20
7
124
1.8
204
7
100
31.487
0.5
93
0.013
25
0.41999999
11.5
17
20
80
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
DELAYED
1
DELAYED
1
IMMEDIATE
1
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
2
3
4
NO.
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
PROCESS
GAS
OIL
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
OIL
NON-PROCESS
OIL
CONDENSATE
GAS
NON_PROCESS
DIESEL
SEVERITY
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
SIGNIFICANT
MINOR
MINOR
MINOR
- 122 -
GRAVITY
799.12
900
850
830
815
HOLE_DIAM
0.84
2.348
3
1
3.438
5
3.755
3
1
1.8
1
ACT_PRESSURE
45
58
117
0.345
70
178
1.37931
0.48699999
15.2
47
29
IGNITION
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
IGN_TYPE
FLASH
EXPLOSION
JET POOL
Table A.12. - Analysis of offshore data from 2005-2006
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
3.882717509
67.61234038
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.020588774
0.038651402
1.827161181
31.81757194
4.356849639
7.728393134
0.519785011
0.922020092
11.93232679
0.05
0.024
0.230598205
24.85901415
39.26157455
4.684021629
32.85033104
1.666249447
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.01843
0.020327054
0.000752046
15.45897931
0.022421588
4.306421851
0.214363741
0.513768827
0.025574226
1.348331875
113.1993589
1.443014386
46.21344477
2.713582178
32.2956305
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.01843
0.015756644
0.001254508
0.634509118
1.523246935
3.415551344
0.341491319
0.407485348
0.040740921
0.000248
0.008
0.008
0.01843
0.017
0.017
0.001055279
0.049260229
0.03822035
0.621862957
1.276979848
15.19794376
0.291764957
9.636971369
7.649921265
0.03480842
1.149719104
0.912658167
0.008
0.017
0.069032242
20.75024017
13.10105065
1.562993978
1.408237853
52.18232742
44.09426037
- 123 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
52.56034559
0.008
0.017
0.038790187
24.73428028
7.7536417
0.925032321
17.66082907
0.00714
0.03
0.050017516
4.20327732
9.77169614
1.165792167
9.644909842
47.8359172
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.009441972
0.023114318
4.538781102
22.51101986
2.143265072
4.840615733
0.255697844
0.577499732
14.47577805
49.01676149
35.52061801
1.461397448
4.370866918
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.0232
0.000248
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.024
0.01843
0.023542364
0.066230401
0.092321282
0.033441569
6.812130845
23.06671129
16.71558495
1.4126842
4.922122078
12.61627201
17.06842646
6.774381872
0.58722368
1.505158457
2.036313613
0.808203735
32.56496278
77.92972795
31.53877239
0.008
0.017
0.027454878
15.32468837
5.661253213
0.675404204
0.00714
0.03
0.065214862
7.506227828
12.44010978
1.484141784
32.48504969
0.0232
0.024
0.051393938
31.4022147
10.01609989
1.194950255
23.65130568
56.21826951
0.008
0.017
0.064133607
11.1300262
12.25227625
1.461732689
69.21285488
63.64458273
80.04403433
36.4087356
18.22834062
0.008
0.008
0.000248
0.008
0.00714
0.017
0.017
0.01843
0.017
0.03
0.042907326
0.069032242
0.007461951
0.114395325
0.03096712
32.57075524
29.95039187
1.077098237
17.13352263
4.338345067
8.49909025
13.10105065
1.730073207
20.74533031
6.316675523
1.013966531
1.562993978
0.206402836
2.474979086
0.753598018
- 124 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
NO.
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
80.50473687
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.008
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.017
Ohnsorge no.
0.069032242
Capillary no.
37.88458206
Atomisation
13.10105065
Second wind
1.562993978
61.16162081
102.0888395
49.70058765
41.80400947
126.560734
56.94441734
0.000248
0.000248
0.0232
0.008
0.01843
0.01843
0.024
0.017
0.001613096
0.001218531
0.116295769
0.020696069
0.823010416
1.373740217
48.0439014
19.67247505
0.429279076
0.332567853
21.05872071
4.377506222
0.05121426
0.039676326
2.512367484
0.522249402
0.008
0.017
0.070849191
26.79737287
13.41447181
1.600386047
18.80139254
0.008
0.017
0.068637195
8.847714138
13.03280784
1.55485241
21.02059495
0.008
0.017
0.048533826
9.892044681
9.507565893
1.134280649
51.67144908
26.43915895
24.12090757
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.027746685
0.067593031
24.31597604
12.44195715
5.715982904
12.85226201
0.681933617
1.53331276
12.6560734
0.0232
0.024
0.100764451
12.23420428
18.48325719
2.205107091
75.46624076
0.000248
0.01843
0.003680709
1.015497977
0.9094241
0.108496977
- 125 -
Flammable Mist?
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
29.95676206
0.008
0.017
0.066983044
14.09729979
12.74667355
1.520715745
36.14361751
47.35469051
0.008
0.017
0.057802946
22.28456024
11.14662256
1.329824944
12.50077812
0.008
0.017
0.010392676
5.882719114
2.338787432
0.279024238
32.65986324
40.30027378
64.87096476
0.0232
0.00714
0.008
0.024
0.03
0.017
0.102524076
0.034041649
0.054691426
31.57120113
9.59146516
30.52751283
18.77674716
6.884913003
10.59925499
2.240121309
0.821390425
1.264522379
41.43828747
47.2073977
0.000248
0.01843
0.005289637
0.557606907
1.264987791
0.150916774
25.31214679
94.65727653
4.507219649
0.008
0.00714
0.0232
0.017
0.03
0.024
0.033088254
0.018435401
0.100366713
11.91159849
22.52843181
4.356978994
6.709219948
3.940149251
18.4168542
0.800429726
0.470071425
2.197185018
14.6139744
0.000248
0.01843
0.002359676
0.196650334
0.606826419
0.072396181
- 126 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NO.
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
71.59356257
12.6560734
0.008
0.0232
0.017
0.024
0.048533826
0.108956371
33.69108827
12.23420428
9.507565893
19.84580476
1.134280649
2.367663034
50.70055058
0.000248
0.01843
0.001853871
0.682242894
0.487215477
0.058126243
55.43396662
99.44350051
0.008
0.017
0.03881154
26.08657253
7.75752559
0.92549568
18.83910747
0.05
0.024
0.12840645
39.24814057
23.04532558
2.749375304
67.69297528
4.516329111
0.000248
0.01843
0.000801409
0.060773175
0.227130975
0.027097395
12.57078722
52.6868448
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.681746657
0.067348276
5.915664575
24.79380932
105.2848223
12.80990533
12.56078979
1.528259483
36.40721134
0
0.008
0.017
0.045297179
17.13280534
8.928809865
1.065233348
3.882706077
- 127 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
NO.
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
0.000248
Surface tension (Nm-1)
0.01843
Ohnsorge no.
0.00051914
Capillary no.
Atomisation
0.15299528
Second wind
0.018252788
6.279170964
0.000248
0.01843
0.001974757
0.084494541
0.516043402
0.0615655
111.9235513
0.00714
0.03
0.046113871
26.6378052
9.075186628
1.082696528
35.03851884
35.79678129
123.2176034
38.35706412
27.43771271
33.48482278
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.0232
0.0232
0.0232
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.024
0.024
0.024
0.212452227
0.068637195
0.414425648
0.113529242
0.074918895
0.167523741
16.48871475
16.84554414
57.98475455
37.07849531
26.52312229
32.36866202
36.43985117
13.03280784
66.93376458
20.60235501
14.11389761
29.35474515
4.347381708
1.55485241
7.985395507
2.45792171
1.683829607
3.502107666
57.99741434
0
0.0232
0.024
0.04268727
0
8.459415283
1.009233191
15.88133136
5.584862318
74.50280869
332.3647794
0.008
0.02
0.0232
0.017
0.045
0.024
0.04944304
0.054691587
0.093550075
7.473567698
2.48216103
72.01938174
9.669511274
10.59928334
17.27503709
1.153601211
1.26452576
2.06096287
16.33507559
0.00714
0.03
0.262704865
3.887747991
44.20636536
5.273949755
- 128 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
NO.
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
Exit Velocity (ms-1)
Viscosity (Kg m-1s-1)
Surface tension (Nm-1)
Ohnsorge no.
Capillary no.
Atomisation
Second wind
33.38927722
0.008
0.017
0.044818185
15.71260105
8.842848928
1.054977955
8.949195322
0.008
0.017
0.038520123
4.211386034
7.704502404
0.919169858
42.11254206
47.60952286
0.008
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.037294748
0.198029509
19.81766685
22.40448134
7.481147399
34.18165142
0.892522947
4.077971819
96.3857834
0.008
0.017
0.044793034
45.35801572
8.838332991
1.054439191
14.00601775
8.563671472
48.41586915
85.91620972
0.008
0.0232
0.008
0.000248
0.017
0.024
0.017
0.01843
0.033376385
0.093780442
0.067348276
0.001508252
6.591067178
8.278215756
22.78393842
1.156116116
6.762364669
17.31374402
12.80990533
0.403812839
0.806770048
2.065580721
1.528259483
0.048176063
- 129 -
Flammable Mist?
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
Ignited?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
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Bull, DC, McLeod, MA, Mizner, GA, Detonation of Unconfined Fuel Aerosols, 7th
Int. Colloquium on Gas dynamics of explosions and reactive systems, (1979)
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Burgoyne, JH, Cohen, L, Proc. Of the Royal Soc. Of London Academy, No. 225,
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(3)
Chan, KK, Jou, CS, An experimental and theoretical investigation of the transition
phenomena in fuel spray deflagration, FUEL, Vol 67, (1988)
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(Bowen, PJ, Bull, DC, Prothero, A, Rowson, JJ, Deflagration of Hydrocarbon
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(Bowen, PJ, Cameron, RJ, Hydrocarbon Aerosol Explosion Hazards, Trans.
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Allen, JT, Qualitative study of impinging realistic two phase flashing jets
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Witlox, HWM, Bowen, PJ, Flashing liquid jets and two-phase dispersion – a
review, CRR/403/2002
(8)
Witlox, HWM, Harper, M, Flashing Liquid Jets and Two-Phase Droplet Dispersion,
Part I, Overview, Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Centre,
beyond regulatory compliance, making safety second nature (2005)
(9)
Lunn, G, Hawksworth, SJ, Thyer, AM, A Review of potential ignition sources on
offshore platforms, FS 99/09
(10)
Bowen, P.J. and Shirvill L.C."Pressurised Atomisation of High Flashpoint Liquids Implications for Hazardous Area Classification", ICHEME conference "Hazards
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(11)
Bowen, PJ, Shirvill, LC, Combustion hazards posed by the pressurized atomisation
of high-flashpoint liquids, J. Loss Prev. Ind., Vol 7, (1994)
(12)
Zanelli, S, Behaviour of a liquid jet near the nozzle, 4th Int. Conf. On liquid
atomisation and spray systems, (1988)
(13)
George, AK, Arafin, S, Singh, RN, Carboni, C, A correlation between surface,
transport and thermo-elastic properties of liquid hydrocarbon: an experimental
investigation, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, Vol. 18, (2006)
(14)
Weast, RC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Phillips 66 MSDS)
(15)
Brown, R, York, JL, Sprays formed by flashing liquid jets, AIChE journal, 8,
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Bushnell, DM, Gooderum, PB, Atomization of superheated water jets at low
ambient temperatures, J. Spacecraft & Rockets, 5, (1968)
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Hinze, JD, Fundamentals of the hydrodynamic mechanism of splitting in dispersion
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Witlox, HWM, Bowen, PJ, Flashing liquid jets and two-phase dispersion – a
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http://www.hgsystem.com/tech_ref/Contents.htm
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Tickle, GA, EJECT – An integral model of an elevated two-phase jet in a crossflow:Theory manual for EJECT Version 1.00, AEA Technology, AEAT-1517,
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Johnson, DW, Woodward, JL, RELEASE: A model with data to predict aerosol
rainout in accidental releases, CCPS, ISBN 081690745-5, (1999)
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Dunbar, IH, Hiorns, DN, Mather, DJ, Tickle, A, Liquid spray releases:
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Faeth, GM, Structure and atomisation properties of dense turbulent sprays, 23rd
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Bosch, CJ, Weterings, RA, Methods for the Calculation of the Physical Effects –
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Melhem, GA, Advanced consequence analysis, (2005)
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Johnson, DW, Woodward, JL, RELEASE: A model with data to predict aerosol
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Johnson, DW, Diener, R, Prediction of aerosol formation from the release of
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Woodward, JL, Dispersion modelling of an elevated high momentum release
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Ramsdale, SA, Tickle, GA, Review of RELEASE rainout model and the CCPS
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Hervieu, E, Veneau, T, Experimental determination of the droplet size and velocity
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Yildiz, D, Rambaud, P, VanBeeck, JP, Droplet size and velocity characterizations
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Muralidhar, R, Jersey, GR, Krambeck, FJ, Sundaresan, S, A Two-Phase Model for
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Allen, JT, Two-phase jet release facility,
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Allen, JT, Bettis, RJ, Rainout from jets of chilled propane and LPG
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- 133 -
Published by the Health and Safety Executive
02/14
Health and Safety
Executive
Flammable mists from accidental
hydrocarbon releases offshore
The report investigates offshore hydrocarbon releases in an
attempt to identify whether mists of hydrocarbon droplets
were formed, and if these presented a flammability hazard.
Scientific literature has been searched for the present state
of knowledge of the physics of two-phase mist generation.
An empirical correlation has been used to model the reported
hydrocarbon releases for a five year period and estimate
whether flammable mists could have been generated.
It was found that ninety-five percent of reported liquid releases
(forty-five percent of total reported releases) could have formed
flammable mists. It was also noted that there were thirty-five
cases of high flash point diesel and machine oils igniting as
flash fires in five years.
Having established that flammable mists are being generated,
the state of computational modelling and its validity has been
reviewed to identify whether industry is able to characterise
this risk in order to enact measures to control it. This found
that computer programs existed to model both mechanical
and flashing mist generation although the ability of these
programs to model subsequent dispersion and rainout was
limited. Validation studies of jet breakup are continuing but
are focused on characterisation of single component flashing
releases, not mechanical breakup of multiple component
mixtures.
This report and the work it describes were funded by the
Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including
any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the
authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy.
RR1001
www.hse.gov.uk
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