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Document 1807586
24th Annual Regulatory Information Conference, March 13‐15, 2012
W12 Implementing the IAEA Action Plan: Working Together To Strengthen Nuclear Safety Worldwide
Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry International Nuclear Safety Cooperation
after the TEPCO’s Fukushima Accident Toshihiro Bannai
Director, International Affairs Office
Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Japan
March, 2012
Thanks for Your Great Support and Cooperation • Japan has received a wide array of support from the world. Japan would like to express its deepest gratitude.
• Japan will overcome this accident sharing latest information and lessons learned. A presentation delivered at
the last day of RIC 2011,
16 hours before the
earthquake.
Contents
1. Current Status of Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPS and way forward
2. Japan’s International Nuclear Safety Cooperation
I. US – Japan Cooperation
II. Info. Sharing & Peer Reviews through IAEA and OECD/NEA
III.IAEA Action Plan
a. Stress Test in Japan b. New Safety Regulation
c. Analysis of Relevant Technical Aspects
3. Conclusion
1
The Accident at Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPS
• The accident at Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPS was caused by long lasting complete power loss due to common cause failure (CCF) of electrical equipment following tsunami, and insufficient provision against severe accident.
• It is temporarily rated at INES Level 7, and people where lived in the specific areas including those within 20 km radius from the site are still not able to return home.
The moment when tsunami attacked Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS (source: TEPCO)
General View of root causes of the Accident
CCF of electric equipment and insufficient severe accident provision were induced by following root causes:
– Too late or missed incorporation of new tsunami knowledge into hazard evaluation,
– The regulatory system not covering severe accident,
– Insufficient application of state‐of‐the‐art technologies and international good practices to the regulatory programs.
New Nuclear Regulatory Organizations
Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) will be established as an external organ of the Ministry of Environment (MOE) by: ‐ separating the nuclear safety regulatory function of NISA from METI and,
‐ unifying relevant functions of other ministries (Size: 500 Staff, 50 billion yen Budget).
2
New Nuclear Regulatory Systems NRA will implement new regulatory systems stipulated in amended laws, including:
Regulation taking severe accidents into consideration.
Regulation applying latest scientific/technical knowledge on safety issues to existing facilities. (backfitting)
An operation limit of 40 years to deal with aged reactors
Current Status of Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPP
Step 2 of the “Roadmap towards Settlement of the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, TEPCO” were completed (Dec 16th , 2011)
• Reactor:A condition so‐called “Cold Shutdown”
 Temperature of RPV bottom is, in general, below 100 .
 Release of radioactive materials from PCV is under control and public
radiation exposure by additional release is being significantly held down.
(Not exceed 1 mSv/y at the site boundary as a target.)
 Mid‐term Safety of Circulating Water Injection Cooling System
• Spent Fuel Pool : More stable cooling  Circulating Cooling System by installation of heat exchanger
• Radioactive Contaminated Water : Reduction of total amount




Full‐fledged processing facilities
Desalination processing (reuse)
Storage
Mitigation of contamination in the ocean
Current Status of Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPP
Unit 1
Spent fuel
pool
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Reactor
pressure vessel
Primary
containment
vessel
Pressure
suppressio
n chamber
Reactor Pressure
vessel
Temperature at reactor vessel
bottom*
Primary
Containment vessel
Temperature of air in PCV*
Fuel pool
Temperature of pool water*
Highly-contaminated
water in R/B and T/B**
TEPCO
Ministry of Defense
Air Photo Service
Air Photo Service
Circulating
water
injection
cooling
24.3
Circulating water
injection cooling
47.1
Circulating water
injection cooling
51.4
No fuel
Nitrogen
injection
25.4
Nitrogen injection
54.3
Nitrogen injection
44.4
-
Circulation
cooling
26.5
Circulation cooling
14.2
Circulation
cooling
14.4
Circulation
cooling
26
23,800 m3
18,300 m3
14,100 m3
* As of 12:00 on February 24, 2012
22,000m3
** As of February 21, 2012
3
Temperature Trends
Result of Gas Sampling at PCVs Gas Control System
Concentration
of sample
(Bq/cm3)
Nuclides
Unit 1
(Sampled on
Mar. 8, 2012)
Detection
limits
of Unit 1
(Bq/cm3)
Gas vial
container
Concentration
of sample
(Bq/cm3)
Unit 2
(Sampled on
Mar. 7, 2012)
Detection
limits
of Unit 3
(Bq/cm3)
Gas vial
container
Concentration
of sample
(Bq/cm3)
Unit 3
(Sampled on
Mar. 1, 2012)
Detection
limits
of Unit 3
(Bq/cm3)
Gas vial
container
I-131
N.D.
1.3×10-1
N.D.
1.2×10-1
N.D.
1.3×10-1
Cs-134
3.5×10-1
3.0×10-1
5.9×10-1
3.0×10-1
4.0×10-1
3.2×10-1
Cs-137
5.5×10-1
3.6×10-1
8.1×10-1
3.6×10-1
7.2×10-1
3.8×10-1
Kr-85
2.5×10-1
N.D.
2.5×10-1
N.D.
2.5×10-1
Xe-131m
2.9×100
N.D.
3.0×100
N.D.
3.3×100
Xe-133
2.4×10-1
N.D.
2.7×10-1
N.D.
2.2×10-1
Xe-135
1.1×10-1
N.D.
1.0×10-1
N.D.
N.D. : not detected
1.0×10-1
(Source: TEPCO)
Trend of Amount of Accumulated Water
• Total amount of the accumulated water level has been decreased around
the tentative target level of O.P. 3000 during STEP 2 and maintained.
T/B B1
T/B
B1水位
Water Level
(WL)
[mm]
4000
2号T/B
Unit 2 T/BB1水位[mm]
B1 WL [mm]
Unit 3 T/BB1水位[mm]
B1 WL [mm]
3号T/B
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
OP3,000
2800
2600
6/17
7/22
8/26
9/30
11/4
12/9
1/13
2/17
4
Release Rate of Radioactive Materials from PCVs of Units 1‐3
• Current total release rate of Cesium 134 and 137 from PCVs of Units1-3 is estimated to
be approx. 0.01 billion Bq/h at the maximum. (1/77,000,000 of early stages of the
accident)
Release Rate (Billion Bq / hour)
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Jul.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb
Installation of Reactor Building Cover (on Oct. 28, 2011)
• A cover was installed in the Unit 1 building to restraint release of
radioactive materials.
• Rubble is being removed from the upper part of the reactor buildings for
Units 3 and 4 before installation of the covers.
Debris removal at Unit 3
Installation of the Unit 1 Cover
Start of steel framing
On Sep. 10, 2011
Completion of steel framing
On Feb. 21, 2012
Debris and girder removal at Unit 4
Covering of SFP
The Covering was completed
Removal works of the girder of overhead
traveling crane on Mar. 5, 2012
Building wall panels
Debris removal at the top
(Source: TEPCO)
Construction of Water Shielding Wall
• A measure to prevent contamination of the ocean via the underground water.
Image of water shielding walls
Cross-section view
Seaside water shielding wall
Existing wall
Permeable layer
Landfill
Low permeable layer
Permeable layer
Low permeable layer
5
Start of Marine Soil Covering Construction at Inside Port • High concentrated radioactive materials were detected from marine soil sampled at inside of the port
• To prevent contamination of the ocean outside of the port, marine soil in front of the intake canal is planned to be
covered with solidified soil.
No
rth
Impermeable structure (restored)
er
at
kw
ea
br
br
ea
kw
at
er
h
ut
So
Dredging
(seaway, anchor ground)
Install additional silt fence
Covering
(Dredged soil dump)
Covering
Covering
(in front of the intake canal)
Water shielding walls
(in front of the intake canal)
Unit 6 Unit 5
Shallow draft quay
Unit 1 Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Existing silt fence
(Source: TEPCO)
Prepare for Fuel Removal from SFP of Unit 4
•
•
•
Fuel removal are planned to be initiated in autumn 2013.
Currently Rubble is being removed to prepare for the relevant works.
Construction of covering structure will be initiated in spring 2013.
fuel removal cover
Measure for
rain water
Building image of fuel removal cover
Cross-section diagram
(Source: TEPCO)
2. Japan’s International Nuclear Safety Cooperation
1. Bilateral Cooperation
Information sharing
Technical cooperation of experts
Goods
2. Cooperation through international organization
Information sharing
IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan
6
2.‐I. US – Japan Cooperation
Overall cooperation framework
 Based on an order from the Prime Minister, and an offer of support from the U.S. government
 US: NRC, DOE, U.S. army, research centers
Japan: Related ministries, agencies, TEPCO  From March 22 to December 20, regular plenary meetings were held.
Technical experts meetings
Under the framework, experts from NRC, NISA, etc. have frequently conducted discussions issues e.g.,
‐Latest information of the plant,
‐Cooling methods,
‐Severe accident management.
2.‐II‐1. Info. Sharing & Peer Reviews through IAEA and OECD/NEA (2011)
May‐Jun: IAEA Fact Finding Mission
Jun: Report of the Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety Sep: Additional Report of the Japanese Government (Second Report) to the IAEA
Oct:
IAEA Decontaminating Review Mission IAEA IRRS Work Shop International Symposium on Decontamination Nov:
International Seminar on Stress Test
(2012)
Jan:
Mar: Aug:
Dec:
International Workshop on Nuclear Safety Regulation IAEA Stress Test Review Mission
IAEA International Expert Meeting
Extraordinary Meeting on CNS
The Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety
(TBD)
IAEA Decommissioning Review Mission
2.‐II‐2. Sharing Lessons Learned
–28 Lessons in Japanese Government’s Report to IAEA‐
• Category 1
Prevention measures against a severe accident (8 items)
• Category 2
Mitigation measures against a severe accident (7 items)
• Category 3
Responses to the nuclear accident (7 items)
• Category 4
Safety infrastructure (5 items)
• Category 5
Safety culture
First Report in June 2011
Additional Report in September 2011 Mr. Goshi HOSONO, Minister of State for the Nuclear Power Policy and Administration announced to invite IRRS to Japan at the IAEA 55th General Conference on 19 September 2011.
7
2.‐II‐2. Sharing Lessons Learned (cont’d)
–16 Lessons in IAEA Fact Finding Mission’s Report‐
Lesson 1: Considering external natural hazards
Lesson 2, 3: Providing any necessary equipment for severe accident management
Lesson 4, 5: Housing the Emergency Response Centres
Lesson 6: Taking account of the potential unavailability of instruments, lighting, power and abnormal conditions
Lesson 7: Pooling experienced personnel adequately Lesson 8: Revisiting the risk and implications of hydrogen explosions
Lesson 9: Providing adequate diversity for essential safety functions
Lesson 10: Providing hardened systems, communications and sources of monitoring equipment Lesson 11: Making off‐site emergency preparedness and response even more effective
Lesson 12: Introducing concepts of ‘deliberate evacuation’ and ‘evacuation‐prepared area’ for effective long term countermeasures
Lesson 13: Taking advantage of the data and information generated from the Fukushima accident
Lesson 14: Organizing appropriately and with well led and suitable trained staff
Lesson 15: Establishing effective on‐site radiological protection in severe accident conditions
Lesson 16: Ensuring regulatory independence
2.‐III. IAEA Action Plan
1. Safety assessments in the light of the accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station
2. IAEA peer reviews
3. Emergency preparedness and response
4. National regulatory bodies
5. Operating organizations
6. IAEA Safety Standards
7. International legal framework
8. Member States planning to embark on a nuclear power programme
9. Capacity Building
10. Protection of people and the environment from ionizing radiation
11. Communication, information dissemination and analyze relevant technical aspects
12. Research and development
2.‐III.‐a‐1. Stress Test in Japan (as IAEA AP #1)
Objectives
Carry out safety assessment to ensure public/residents relief and confidence in
improved safety of nuclear power plants, according to new procedure/rule and
referring to stress tests conducted in European countries as references.
Overview
 Primary assessment: (Decision on whether to restart operations at
nuclear power stations currently suspended for the purpose of regularly
scheduled checks)
Evaluate safety margins of structures, systems and components important to safety to
endure the events beyond design bases, for nuclear power plants under periodic
inspection and ready for start-up.
 Secondary assessment: (Decision on whether to continue or halt
operations of nuclear power stations that are currently in operation)
Conduct comprehensive safety assessment for all nuclear power plants including those in
operation and those subject to primary assessment, considering the status of stress tests
in European countries and progress in investigation by the Investigation and Verification
Committee on the Accident.
" Confirmation of the Safety of Nuclear Power Stations in Japan " (July 11)
8
2.‐III.‐a‐2. Events Assessed and Safety Margin Assessment Process
Assess the safety margins (overall system margins) from the occurrence of events beyond
design bases (earthquake and tsunami), through functional loss of individual component and
damages to redundant safety measures, finally to core damage.
Events to be assessed
Beyond design bases
Earthquake
Tsunami
Assessment methods
Event progression
Damage to structures, systems and components
Assessment of what structures,
systems and components will be
damaged due to earthquake/tsunami.
Occurrence and progression of accident
Assessment of the scenarios to
prevent core damage, on the basis of
the above assessment.
Failure of redundant safety measures
Identification of earthquake/tsunami
level above which there is no reliable
measure to prevent core damage, on
the basis of the above assessment.
Significant core
damage
2.‐III.‐a‐3. Review Process of Stress Test (Primary Assessment)
Flow of Domestic Review
T
r
a
n
s
p
a
r
e
n
c
y
of
R
e
v
i
e
W
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
Corporation with over seas
 Submission of operator’s report (Report
on Ohi Unit 3 was submitted on October
28, expecting the submissions by other
utilities follows intermittently)
 The submitted report was promptly
publicized to NISA and Licensees web
site.
 Advisory Meeting was open to public.
Heard of the review perspective
Advisors hears from licensees.
Advisors hears from the NISA review
results.
Reflect
Invite foreign experts, heard
of the conduct of Stress
Test in their countries (Nov
17-18, 2011)
Reflect
Receive the IAEA review on
the appropriateness of JG’s
Stress Test method
(Jan 23-31, 2012)
•Review, Q&A in writing are on the web.
•Introduce the process responding to the
questions from public and residents.
 Finalize the NISA review, reports to NSC.
 NSC review results are to be publicized.
 Explains the stress test review results to
local stakeholders.
 Determines the restart by political level.
2.‐III.‐a‐4. Review Process of Stress Test (Primary Assessment) (cont’d)
(As of February 24, 2012)
Licensee
Power station (Unit)
Date of report
on primary
evaluation
Date of NISA’s
evaluation
completion
Date of
report to
NSC
Feb. 23, 2012
Feb. 23, 2012
—
—
—
Kansai Electric Power Co.
Ohi Power Station (Unit 3)
Oct. 28, 2011
Shikoku Electric Power Co.
Ikata Power Station (Unit 3)
Nov. 14, 2011 Evaluation under way
Kansai Electric Power Co.
Ohi Power Station (Unit 4)
Date of NSC’s
confirmation
completion
Nov. 17, 2011
Feb. 23, 2012
Feb. 23, 2012
—
Dec. 7, 2011
Evaluation under way
—
—
Dec. 14, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Dec. 14, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Dec. 14, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Dec. 21, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Tsuruga Power Station (Unit 2)
Dec. 27, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Hokkaido Electric Power Co.
Tomari Power Station (Unit 2)
Dec. 27, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Tohoku Electric Power Co.
Higashidori Nuclear Power Station (Unit 1)
Dec. 27, 2011 Evaluation under way
—
—
Kansai Electric Power Co.
Takahama Power Station (Unit 1)
Jan. 13, 2012 Evaluation under way
—
—
Tokyo Electric Power Co.
Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (Unit 1)
Jan. 16, 2012 Evaluation under way
—
—
Tokyo Electric Power Co.
Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (Unit 7)
Jan. 16, 2012 Evaluation under way
—
—
Kansai Electric Power Co.
Ohi Power Station (Unit 1)
Jan. 27, 2012 Evaluation under way
—
—
Hokuriku Electric Power Co.
Shika Nuclar Power Station (Unit 2)
Evaluation under way
—
—
Hokkaido Electric Power Co.
Tomari Power Station (Unit 1)
Kyushu Electric Power Co.
Genkai Nuclear Power Station (Unit 2)
Kyushu Electric Power Co.
Sendai Nuclear Power Station (Unit 1)
Kyushu Electric Power Co.
Sendai Nuclear Power Station (Unit 2)
Kansai Electric Power Co.
Mihama Power Station (Unit 3)
Japan Atomic Power Co.
Feb. 1, 2012
• Currently 54 units of nuclear power plants are in operation. (The Units 1~ 4 at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear
Power Station were decided to be decommissioned .)
• 2 units (Tomari Power Station (Unit 3) and Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (Unit 6)) are operating and 48
units are in stoppage.
9
2.‐III.‐a‐5. Recommendations and suggestions form IAEA Review
- IAEA Stress Test Review Mission’s Summary Report (on Jan 31, 2012) ‐
Recommendations:
• Clarify guidance regarding the expectations for conducting and reviewing Comprehensive
Safety Assessments;
• Ensure implementation of future actions by the licensees (documentation, follow-up
inspection);
• Meetings with interested parties near the nuclear facilities;
• Ensure on the definition of the safety margin capacity specification and communication to
the licensees;
• Ensure that the seismic safety margin assessment includes the proper walkdowns;
• The secondary Assessment addressing the provisions for mitigation of severe accidents;
and
• Licensees to develop comprehensive accident management programmes.
Suggestions:
• Identify and implement lessons from the experience gained during early assessments and
reviews;
• The Secondary Assessments with appropriate timescales;
• Seismic and Tsunami Probabilistic Safety Assessment to check effectiveness; and
• Consider action of closer integration of accident management and on-site emergency
preparedness measures.
2.‐III.‐b‐1. New Safety Regulation (as IAEA AP #4)
• NSSA (tentative name) will be established as an agency (Size: 500 Staff, 50 billion yen Budget), an
external organ of the MOE by separating the nuclear safety regulation section of NISA from METI
and unifying relevant functions of other ministries NSIC, a council‐type third party to be created with
NSSA, will review the effectiveness of regulatory actions taken by NSSA, investigate causes of
nuclear accidents and make recommendations to monitor the regulatory independence of
NSSA.(Diet agreed personnel)
2.‐III.‐b‐2. Reform of Japan’s Nuclear Safety Regulation
• With a strong determination “To protect people and the environment from harmful effects of
radiation," the Government of Japan will establish “a new regulation that applies the latest scientific/technical knowledge on safety to existing facilities and operation (backfitting),“ reinforce “a licensee’s responsibility of seeking to constantly improve the safety of its facilities,” and make the regulation visible by statutory transparency.
○Reform of the Atomic Energy Basic Act
Considering the international understanding of nuclear safety, the objective of nuclear safety
in the use of nuclear energy, that is “to protect people and the environment from harmful
effects of ionizing radiation,” will be clearly written in the Atomic Energy Basic Act.
○Reform of the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law
1. Dealing with “the unexpected” - The new regulation takes severe accidents into
consideration.
2. Regulation based on the latest knowledge - The new regulation applies latest
scientific/technical knowledge on safety issues to existing facilities.(backfitting)
3. An Operational limit of 40 years will be introduced to ensure the safety of aged power
reactors.
4. Specified licensee’s responsibility - a licensee’s responsibility to constantly improve the
safety of its facilities
5. Thorough protection of the lives and health of citizens in case of nuclear disasters
6. Unification of legislation – Separation from the Electricity Business Act
10
2.‐III.‐c‐1. Analysis of Relevant Technical Aspects (as IAEA AP #11)
Action for the Restoration Investigation of the cause and the actual condition of the accident
Reflection of new findings
Study on earthquake and tsunami
Study on buildings and structures
Study on aging technical evaluation
Study on comprehensive safety assessment for nuclear power reactor facilities (Stress test)
Study on technological knowledge of the accident of the Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPS of Tokyo Electric Power Co.
Technical workshops for the estimation of core damage of Unit 1 to 3 of the Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPS of Tokyo Electric Power Co.
Study on operating plans for facilities based on “Philosophy for Mid‐term Safety Assurance” for Unit 1 to 4 of the Fukushima Dai‐ichi NPS of Tokyo Electric Power Co. 2.‐III.‐c‐2. Comparison with other NPSs
(damages by earthquake and tsunami)
Seismic intensity
(Observation point: city / town
/village)
Max. acceleration on
observation record
(on basement)
[Comparison with basic design
earthquake ground motion
(Ss)]
Elevation of site*
(Subsidence due to
earthquake is not considered)
Estimated Tsunami height*
(Estimate using the methods of
Society of Civil Engineering, as
of 2002)
Onagawa
Tokai Dai-ni
(Status of Fukushima Daini, Onagawa and Tokai
Dai-ni)
6 upper (Naraha Town,
Tomioka Town)
6 lower (Onagawa
Town)
6 lower (Tokai Village)
-
305 Gal
(Unit 1 Up-down direction)
[Lower than Ss]
607 Gal
(Unit 2 S-N direction)
[Partially surpassed
Ss]
225 Gal
(E-W direction)
[Lower than Ss]
-
12m
14.8m
8m
-
Fukushima Dai-ichi
NPS
Fukushima Dai-ni
NPS
6 upper (Ohkuma Town,
Futaba Town)
550 Gal
(Unit 2 E-W direction)
[Partially surpassed Ss]
Units 1-4: 10m
Units 5-6: 13m
5.4-5.7m
5.1-5.2m
13.6m
5.75m
-
Tsunami run-up height*
Units 1-4: 14-15.5m
Units 5-6: 13-14.5m
7.0-7.3m
(Only south side of Unit 1
building:
15.3-15.9m)
13.8m
6.2m
-
Power receiving status from
(off-site) power cable
Loss of all circuits (out of 6
circuits)
1 circuit available
(out of 4 circuits)
1 circuit available
(out of 5 circuits)
Loss of all circuits
(out of 3 circuits)
Units 1-5:  (Water cooling)
Units 2&4:  (Air cooling)
Unit 6:  (1 unit: Air
cooling)
 (2 units: Water cooling)
T/B basement (Sea side)
Operation auxiliary common
facility on the 1st floor
DG building
Units 1& 2: 
Unit 3:  (2/3)
Unit 4:  (1/3)
(All water cooling)
Unit 1: 
Unit 2:  (1/3)
Unit 3: 
(All water cooling)
 (2/3)
(All water cooling)
Emergency generator
(Installation location)
Reactor building basement
(Land side)
Reactor building
basement
(Land side)
Sea water pump motor
(Pump location / height)
Tools arranged for power
supply
Emergency generator is installed in
Reactor building basement reactor building.
(Land side)
Totally soaked
Partially soaked
Partially soaked
Partially soaked
Outdoor
O.P: 4m
Indoor
O.P: 4.2m
Partially Outdoor
O.P: 3m
Outdoor
T.P:0.8m
Power source car
(could not be connected)
Power source car was used
partially
AC power (Emergency power
supply) was available. 
Core cooling was possible.
Pumps were partially available and
functioned.
No specific difference (Height of
tsunami that attacked Fukushima
Dai-ichi NPS was enormous.)
Because off-site power supply by power cable or emergency diesel generator survived,
power source car was not necessary.
* It refers to the altitude from base point in each power station.
2.‐III.‐c‐3. Progress of Accident (Outline of accident development common to Units 1‐3)
Automatic reactor shutdown due to earthquake, loss of
off-site power supply
Dependency on emergency power was
inevitable.
Emergency diesel generator started up and power
supply was secured.
Reactor was cooled by core cooling system.
Start-up / Shutdown operations for IC・RCIC
were going on.
Most of electric systems including emergency diesel
generators and switchboards were unavailable due to
tsunami.
(Only one of emergency air cooling DGs in Unit 6 maintained its function)
Cooling sea water pumps installed along the
coast were also unavailable. (Loss of heat
sink)
Station Blackout
(On March 13, Unit 5 received power supply from Unit 6 on emergency basis. )
Motor operated pumps etc. were unavailable.
(Emergency cooling was carried out by
emergency condenser IC in Unit 1, reactor
core isolation cooling system [RCIC] in Unit 2,
and RCIC and high pressure core injection
system HPCI in Unit 3.)
Soaking / dry-up of battery, dry-up of compressed air,
etc.
Many on-site works were necessary due to difficulty of
measurement / control / communication.
Shutdown of core cooling system
Unit 1 has lost its function at an early phase. Due to
this reason, there was only short time to address the
situation.
Fuels were exposed and melt down while cooling was not
conducted.
Serious degradation of confinement led to the release
of radioactive materials into environment.
Water injection from fire protection
system (Alternative water injection)
The exposure time of fuels is considered to be prolonged
due to insufficient reactor depressurization (reactor
depressurization operation for containment, reactor
containment depressurization [vent]) to the pressure
lower than the fire extinguishing pump head.
Hydrogen generated through zirconium – water reaction. Explosions
that seemed to be hydrogen explosion occurred in reactor buildings at
Units 1, 3 and 4. (Pressure in the pressure suppression chamber in
Unit 2 dropped simultaneously with the Unit 4 explosion.)
 The explosions deteriorated work performance in
the surrounding areas.
 Water leakage from containments / buildings were
observed.
11
2.‐III.‐c‐4. Technical Knowledge Learned
Direction of Countermeasures (Point) ‐ Interim Report ‐
<Accident sequence>
<Direction of countermeasures>
Prevention of loss of Safety i
fl
f f
functions by common cause failure
Earthquake
Shut down
Loss of
External Power
Supply
Start-up
Emergency D/G
and Core
cooling system
Prevention off longterm Loss of External
Power Supply caused
by Earthquake
1. Reliability of external power supply and grid
2. Earthquakes resistant of substation 3. Earthquakes resistant to of switching station 4. Recover external power supply quickly
Prevention of Loss of
on-site Power Supply
by common cause
failure / Enhancement
of Emergency Power
Supply
5. Disperse power facilities
6. Enhance countermeasure for flooding
7. Diversity and redundancy of emergency power supply
8. Emergency DC supply
9. System dedicated backup power supply
Flooding / Drying up
※Underlines mainly target BWR.
On-site Power Supply
Tsunami
Loss of
Emergency D/G
Mitigation of significant release of radioactivity Prevention of severe accident
External Power Supply
10. Facilitate alternative power supply from outside
11. Stock backup electrical equipments
Core Cooling / Injection system
13. Disperse the cooling water system and prevent flooding
Prevention of
Loss of Core
Cooling System
Loss of DC
12. Improve the response capabilities for accidents
14. Enhance UHS at a time of accident
15. Reliability of isolation valves
16. Alternative water injection functions
17. Reliability of cooling and injection system for spent fuel pool
Prevention of CV damage and Hydrogen Explosion
19. Prevention of the damaging top‐
head flange of CV caused by overheating
20. Switching to Low pressure injection 22. Ensure independency of vent system process
23. Decrease the effect of radioactivity 22. Reliability, operability of venting caused by venting system
24. Prevent the Hydrogen explosion (control the gas concentration and the adequate release ) 18. Diversity of CV cooling system
Loss of Core
Cooling
System
Core Damage
Prevention of early
damage of
Containment Vessel
/ Prevention of
uncontrolled release
of Radioactivity
Control and Instrument system
Hydrogen
Explosion
Loss of
Communication,
Instrumentation
and control system
Enhancement of Plant
Controlling function
and Monitoring
function
30. Create the structure and conduct the training for the emergency response
25. Prepare emergency Command Post
26. Secure the communication tools for accidents
27. Improve reliability of the measurement equipment for accidents
28. Enhance the monitoring functions for the plant conditions
29. Enhance the monitoring functions for ambient dose equivalent
3. Conclusion
 Japan has been making every effort to share knowledge and lessons learned conducting thorough investigation of the accident with the international community and to contribute to enhancing international nuclear safety.
 And, again:
• Deployments of new design reactors are globally planed, especially in newcomer countries.
• “Accident anywhere is accident everywhere.”
The potential size of “anywhere” is growing fast.
• Nuclear safety must internationally be maintained, however, regulatory resources are limited in every country.
The international community must take
effective, efficient and sustainable approaches
Including implementing IAEA Action Plan in a well harmonized way!
Thank you for your attention
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