...

RIC 2013 Spent Fuel Pool Modeling and Analysis with MELCOR

by user

on
Category: Documents
15

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

RIC 2013 Spent Fuel Pool Modeling and Analysis with MELCOR
RIC 2013
Spent Fuel Pool Modeling and
Analysis with MELCOR
Hossein Esmaili
Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research
March 12, 2013
U.S. Spent Fuel Pools (SFP)
Spent Fuel Safety
• Spent fuel rods stored in spent fuel
pools under at least 20 ft of water
• Typically ~ 1/3 to 1/2 of fuel in reactor
replaced with fresh fuel every 18-24
months
• Spent fuel stored in pools for a minimum
of 5 years
• SFPs were originally designed
for limited storage of spent fuel
until removed off-site
• Safety of spent fuel in pools
achieved primarily by
maintaining water inventory,
geometry, and soluble boron
(pressurized water reactors only)
• Drain down could lead to
uncovered fuel, heat-up, and the
release of radionuclides
2
SFP Accident Analysis
• Complete Loss-of-Coolant Accident
– Draining to uncover the bottom of the racks
 Air circulation patterns
 Air oxidation
• More energetic
• Pre- and Post-Breakaway
 Little or no hydrogen
 Enhanced Ru release
• Partial Loss-of-Coolant Accident
– LOCA or boil-off with no or a late uncovery of the bottom of the
racks
 Steam generation
 Steam oxidation/steam starvation
 Hydrogen combustion
 Potential late air oxidation after uncovery of bottom of racks
3
1
SFP MELCOR Models
• New records (SFP-BWR, SFP-PWR)
– Rack component introduced in M1.8.5 version RO to model heat
transfer within a ring and also from ring to ring (a ring is usually a
collection of assemblies)
•
•
•
•
•
Thermal radiation modeling
Decay heat modeling
Radionuclide modeling
Air oxidation modeling (ANL data)
Hydraulic resistance model
4
Thermal Radiation Modeling
•
MELCOR thermal radiation considerations




Only one Rack component
Rack transfers heat between rings
Rack also exists interior to ring
Generalized radiation model
–
–
Ring-to-ring view factor/area
Rack surface area
Convective Heat Transfer Surfaces:
Ring 1
Clad, Canister / Water
Rods, Rack
Ring 2
Clad, Canister /
Water Rods, Racks
Radiative Heat Transfer Flow Path:
Fuel
Clad
Canister /
Rack
Water Rods
Canister /
Water Rods
Ring 1
Clad
Fuel
Ring 2
Racks
5
Decay Heat/Radionuclide modeling
• MELCOR models fission product release and transport
(all relevant phenomena including aerosol dynamics and
deposition by various mechanisms are included)
• SCALE/ORIGEN analysis to characterize decay power
and radionuclide masses for all assemblies. Most recent
offload dominates SFP power.
• SFP accident analysis involves fuel assemblies with
multiple shutdown times
• Control system developed to track the releases from fuel
in each ring. The non-dimensional release fractions
together with actual inventories are used as input for
consequence analysis (required by MACCS2)
6
2
Oxidation Model
• MELCOR models oxidation of Zircaloy (cladding and channel boxes)
by steam and air
• Steam oxidation model uses standard parabolic kinetics
 Urbanic-Heidrich correlation with mass transfer limitation under
low oxidant concentration
• Air oxidation model based on the ANL experiments
 NUREG/CR-6846, “Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-Based Alloys”
 Breakaway timing is a function of temperature modeled using a
lifetime rule
Low temperate data (Zr-4,steam pre-oxidized)
High temperature data (Zr-4,steam pre-oxidized)
7
Hydraulic Resistance Model
• MELCOR models flow between control volumes using constitutive
relationships that specify form losses (K) and wall friction losses
(fL/D)
• The laminar friction factor, f, is a function of Reynolds number and
SLAM which is a user-specified MELCOR input parameter and can be
prescribed based on the SNL experiments
– NUREG/CR-7144, “Laminar Hydraulic Analysis of a Commercial
Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Assembly,” (Jan. 2013)
8
Use of MELCOR for SFP Analysis
Experimental
studies
Analysis
Ring
1
5 Assembly
Model
Ring
2
MELCOR Separate
Effects Analysis
Computational
Fluid Dynamics
MELCOR Whole-Pool
(i.e. Integrated) Analysis
COBRA-SFS Analysis
9
3
Integral SFP MELCOR Model
Post ignition heat transfer
to structures- Potential for
significant long term heat
transfer to surrounding
structures
Integral Spray Modeling
Spray water
draining
down fuel
rods
Upward steam
convection from
boiling spray
water
Converted to
shallow pool
Upward air flow
if base plate is
cleared
10
MELCOR Application to SFP
Scoping Study
• Two conditions to be considered:
– Representative of the current situation for the selected site (i.e.,
high-density loading and a relatively full SFP)
– Representative of expedited movement of older fuel to a dry cask
storage facility (i.e., low-density loading)
• Consider situations with effective and ineffective accident
mitigation
• Elements of the study include
– Seismic and structural assessments based on available information to
define initial and boundary conditions
– SCALE analysis of reactor building dose rates
– MELCOR accident progression analysis (effectiveness of mitigation, fission
product release, etc.)
– Emergency planning assessment
– MACCS2 offsite consequence analysis
– Probabilistic considerations
11
Conclusion
• Improved SFP MELCOR modeling informed by
experimental data leads to more realistic accident
progression and source term
• MELCOR modeling approach is the right tool for SFP
accident analysis since all severe accident phenomena are
represented in an integral manner (i.e., fuel degradation,
fission product release and transport, hydrogen
combustion)
12
4
Fly UP