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8.1 Similar Polygons Essential Question How are similar polygons related?

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8.1 Similar Polygons Essential Question How are similar polygons related?
8.1
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
G.7.A
G.7.B
Similar Polygons
Essential Question
How are similar polygons related?
Comparing Triangles after a Dilation
Work with a partner. Use dynamic geometry software to draw any △ABC. Dilate
△ABC to form a similar △A′B′C′ using any scale factor k and any center of dilation.
B
A
C
a. Compare the corresponding angles of △A′B′C′ and △ABC.
b. Find the ratios of the lengths of the sides of △A′B′C′ to the lengths of the
corresponding sides of △ABC. What do you observe?
c. Repeat parts (a) and (b) for several other triangles, scale factors, and centers of
dilation. Do you obtain similar results?
Comparing Triangles after a Dilation
ANALYZING
MATHEMATICAL
RELATIONSHIPS
To be proficient in math,
you need to look closely
to discern a pattern
or structure.
Work with a partner. Use dynamic
geometry software to draw any
△ABC. Dilate △ABC to form a
similar △A′B′C′ using any
scale factor k and any center
of dilation.
B
A
a. Compare the perimeters of △A′B′C′
and △ABC. What do you observe?
C
b. Compare the areas of △A′B′C′
and △ABC. What do you observe?
c. Repeat parts (a) and (b) for several other triangles, scale factors, and centers of
dilation. Do you obtain similar results?
Communicate Your Answer
3. How are similar polygons related?
4. A △RST is dilated by a scale factor of 3 to form △R′S′T′. The area of
△RST is 1 square inch. What is the area of △R′S′T′?
Section 8.1
Similar Polygons
421
What You Will Learn
Lesson
8.1
Use similarity statements.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
Find corresponding lengths in similar polygons.
Previous
similar figures
similarity transformation
corresponding parts
Decide whether polygons are similar.
Find perimeters and areas of similar polygons.
Using Similarity Statements
Recall from Section 4.6 that two geometric figures are similar figures if and only if
there is a similarity transformation that maps one figure onto the other.
Core Concept
ANALYZING
MATHEMATICAL
RELATIONSHIPS
Corresponding Parts of Similar Polygons
In the diagram below, △ABC is similar to △DEF. You can write “△ABC is similar
to △DEF ” as △ABC ∼ △DEF. A similarity transformation preserves angle
measure. So, corresponding angles are congruent. A similarity transformation also
enlarges or reduces side lengths by a scale factor k. So, corresponding side lengths
are proportional.
Notice that any two
congruent figures are also
similar. In △LMN and △WXY
below, the scale factor is
5
6
7
—5 = —6 = —7 = 1. So, you can
write △LMN ∼ △WXY and
△LMN ≅ △WXY.
M
B
a
X
7
5
L
E
N
6
C
7
5
W
6
Y
ka
c
b
kc
similarity transformation
A
F
D
kb
Corresponding angles
Ratios of corresponding side lengths
∠A ≅ ∠D, ∠B ≅ ∠E, ∠C ≅ ∠F
—=—=—=k
DE
AB
EF
BC
FD
CA
Using Similarity Statements
READING
In the diagram, △RST ∼ △XYZ.
In a statement of
proportionality, any
pair of ratios forms
a true proportion.
T
Z
a. Find the scale factor from △RST to △XYZ.
b. List all pairs of congruent angles.
25
c. Write the ratios of the corresponding side
lengths in a statement of proportionality.
R
30
15
18
X
12 Y
S
20
SOLUTION
XY 12 3
a. — = — = —
RS 20 5
YZ
ST
18
30
3
5
—=—=—
ZX
TR
15
25
3
5
—=—=—
3
So, the scale factor is —.
5
b. ∠R ≅ ∠X, ∠S ≅ ∠Y, and ∠T ≅ ∠Z.
XY YZ ZX
c. Because the ratios in part (a) are equal, — = — = —.
RS ST TR
K
6
J
4
8
9
P
422
Chapter 8
Monitoring Progress
Q
L
6
12
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
1. In the diagram, △JKL ∼ △PQR. Find the scale factor from △JKL to △PQR.
R
Similarity
Then list all pairs of congruent angles and write the ratios of the corresponding
side lengths in a statement of proportionality.
Finding Corresponding Lengths in Similar Polygons
Core Concept
Corresponding Lengths in Similar Polygons
READING
Corresponding lengths in
similar triangles include side
lengths, altitudes, medians,
and midsegments.
If two polygons are similar, then the ratio of any two corresponding lengths in
the polygons is equal to the scale factor of the similar polygons.
Finding a Corresponding Length
In the diagram, △DEF ∼ △MNP. Find the value of x.
E
SOLUTION
The triangles are similar, so the corresponding side lengths
are proportional.
MN NP
DE
EF
18 30
—=—
15
x
18x = 450
—=—
FORMULATING
A PLAN
There are several ways to
write the proportion. For
example, you could write
EF
DF
— = —.
MP NP
x
15
Write proportion.
D
N
Substitute.
30
18
Cross Products Property
x = 25
F
20
Solve for x.
M
P
24
The value of x is 25.
Finding a Corresponding Length
In the diagram, △TPR ∼ △XPZ.
—.
Find the length of the altitude PS
X
T
6
S
6
R
SOLUTION
First, find the scale factor from △XPZ to △TPR.
P
8
Y
8
20
TR 6 + 6 12 3
XZ 8 + 8 16 4
Because the ratio of the lengths of the altitudes in similar triangles is equal to the
scale factor, you can write the following proportion.
—=—=—=—
PS 3
PY 4
PS 3
—=—
20 4
PS = 15
—=—
Z
Write proportion.
Substitute 20 for PY.
Multiply each side by 20 and simplify.
— is 15.
The length of the altitude PS
Monitoring Progress
2. Find the value of x.
A
12
10
D
B
x
16
C
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
3. Find KM.
K
Q 6 R
5
4
T 8 S
G 40 H
E
35
J
ABCD ∼ QRST
48 M
L
F
△JKL ∼ △EFG
Section 8.1
Similar Polygons
423
Finding Perimeters and Areas of Similar Polygons
Theorem
ANALYZING
MATHEMATICAL
RELATIONSHIPS
Theorem 8.1 Perimeters of Similar Polygons
When two similar polygons
have a scale factor of k, the
ratio of their perimeters is
equal to k.
If two polygons are similar, then the ratio of
their perimeters is equal to the ratios of their
corresponding side lengths.
K
P
L
N
M
Q
S
R
PQ + QR + RS + SP
PQ QR
RS
SP
If KLMN ∼ PQRS, then —— = — = — = — = —.
KL + LM + MN + NK KL LM MN NK
Proof Ex. 52, p. 430; BigIdeasMath.com
Modeling with Mathematics
A town plans to build a new swimming
ppool. An Olympic pool is rectangular
with a length of 50 meters and a width of
w
225 meters. The new pool will be similar in
sshape to an Olympic pool but will have a
llength of 40 meters. Find the perimeters of
aan Olympic pool and the new pool.
25 m
50 m
SOLUTION
S
11. Understand the Problem You are given the length and width of a rectangle and
the length of a similar rectangle. You need to find the perimeters of both rectangles.
2. Make a Plan Find the scale factor of the similar rectangles and find the perimeter
of an Olympic pool. Then use the Perimeters of Similar Polygons Theorem to write
and solve a proportion to find the perimeter of the new pool.
STUDY TIP
You can also write the
scale factor as a decimal.
In Example 4, you can
write the scale factor as 0.8
and multiply by 150 to get
x = 0.8(150) = 120.
3. Solve the Problem Because the new pool will be similar to an Olympic pool, the
40
scale factor is the ratio of the lengths, —
= —45 . The perimeter of an Olympic pool is
50
2(50) + 2(25) = 150 meters. Write and solve a proportion to find the perimeter x
of the new pool.
x
150
4
5
—=—
Perimeters of Similar Polygons Theorem
x = 120
Multiply each side by 150 and simplify.
So, the perimeter of an Olympic pool is 150 meters, and the perimeter of the
new pool is 120 meters.
4. Look Back Check that the ratio of the perimeters is equal to the scale factor.
120
150
4
5
—=—
Gazebo B
Gazebo A
F 15 m G
A 10 m B
C
x
E
424
D
✓
18 m
9m
H
12 m
K 15 m J
Chapter 8
Similarity
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
4. The two gazebos shown are similar pentagons. Find the perimeter of Gazebo A.
Theorem
ANALYZING
MATHEMATICAL
RELATIONSHIPS
When two similar polygons
have a scale factor of k,
the ratio of their areas is
equal to k2.
Theorem 8.2 Areas of Similar Polygons
If two polygons are similar, then the ratio of
their areas is equal to the squares of the ratios
of their corresponding side lengths.
Q
P
L
K
N
M
S
R
QR
RS
SP
).
( ) = ( LM
) = ( MN
) = ( NK
Area of PQRS
PQ
If KLMN ∼ PQRS, then —— = —
Area of KLMN
KL
2
—
2
—
2
—
2
Proof Ex. 53, p. 430; BigIdeasMath.com
Finding Areas of Similar Polygons
In the diagram, △ABC ∼ △DEF. Find the area of △DEF.
B
E
10 cm
5 cm
D
A
F
C
Area of △ABC = 36 cm2
SOLUTION
Because the triangles are similar, the ratio of the area of △ABC to the area of △DEF
is equal to the square of the ratio of AB to DE. Write and solve a proportion to find the
area of △DEF. Let A represent the area of △DEF.
2
Area of △ABC
AB
Area of △DEF
DE
2
36
10
—= —
A
5
36 100
—=—
A
25
36 25 = 100 A
( )
( )
—— = —
⋅
⋅
900 = 100A
9=A
Areas of Similar Polygons Theorem
Substitute.
Square the right side of the equation.
Cross Products Property
Simplify.
Solve for A.
The area of △DEF is 9 square centimeters.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
5. In the diagram, GHJK ∼ LMNP. Find the area of LMNP.
P
K
7m
G
J
H
L
21 m
N
M
Area of GHJK = 84 m2
Section 8.1
Similar Polygons
425
Deciding Whether Polygons Are Similar
Deciding Whether Polygons Are Similar
Decide whether ABCDE and KLQRP are similar. Explain your reasoning.
D
9
6
E
C
P
12
9
B
12
6
R
4
8
A
Q
6
8
K
L
SOLUTION
Corresponding sides of the pentagons are proportional with a scale factor of —23 .
However, this does not necessarily mean the pentagons are similar. A dilation with
center A and scale factor —23 moves ABCDE onto AFGHJ. Then a reflection moves
AFGHJ onto KLMNP.
D
9
6
C
G
9
4
H
4
J
6
8
6
B 4 F
E
8
A
N
P
6
R
8
K
4
M
Q
6
8
L
KLMNP does not exactly coincide with KLQRP, because not all the corresponding
angles are congruent. (Only ∠A and ∠K are congruent.)
Because angle measure is not preserved, the two pentagons are not similar.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Refer to the floor tile designs below. In each design, the red shape is a
regular hexagon.
Tile Design 1
Tile Design 2
6. Decide whether the hexagons in Tile Design 1 are similar. Explain.
7. Decide whether the hexagons in Tile Design 2 are similar. Explain.
426
Chapter 8
Similarity
Exercises
8.1
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. COMPLETE THE SENTENCE For two figures to be similar, the corresponding angles must be ____________,
and the corresponding side lengths must be _________________.
2. DIFFERENT WORDS, SAME QUESTION Which is different? Find “both” answers.
What is the scale factor?
A
What is the ratio of their areas?
20
12
D
3
F
C
B
16
5
What is the ratio of their corresponding side lengths?
E
4
△ABC ∼ △DEF
What is the ratio of their perimeters?
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
In Exercises 3 and 4, find the scale factor. Then list
all pairs of congruent angles and write the ratios
of the corresponding side lengths in a statement of
proportionality. (See Example 1.)
6.
E
x
H
20
3. △ABC ∼ △LMN
A
6.75
4.5
C
D
L
B
6
9
6
7.
N
M
8
E
R
1
Q
3
6
F
13
12
M
9
12
P
x
26
24
L
R
S
4
Q
22
2
3
P
8.
L
12
G
J
12
J 6 K
N
4. DEFG ∼ PQRS
D
G
F
16
18
15
6
M
G 4 H
9
15
In Exercises 5–8, the polygons are similar. Find the
value of x. (See Example 2.)
5.
P
x
14
21
L
18
K
J
N
x
J
6
10
8
K
P
20
Q 12
R
Section 8.1
Similar Polygons
427
In Exercises 9 and 10, the black triangles are similar.
Identify the type of segment shown in blue and find the
value of the variable. (See Example 3.)
18. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS Your family has
decided to put a rectangular patio in your backyard,
similar to the shape of your backyard. Your backyard
has a length of 45 feet and a width of 20 feet.
The length of your new patio is 18 feet. Find the
perimeters of your backyard and of the patio.
9.
27
x
In Exercises 19–22, the polygons are similar. The area of
one polygon is given. Find the area of the other polygon.
(See Example 5.)
16
18
19.
10.
3 ft
18
y
6 ft
A = 27
16
20.
y−1
ft2
4 cm
12 cm
A = 10 cm2
In Exercises 11 and 12, RSTU ∼ ABCD. Find the ratio
of their perimeters.
11.
R
21.
S
A
B
12
U
D
T
4 in.
8
20 in.
A = 100 in.2
C
14
22.
12.
R
18
A
S
24
B
3 cm
U
36
T
D
12 cm
A = 96 cm2
C
In Exercises 13–16, two polygons are similar.
The perimeter of one polygon and the ratio of the
corresponding side lengths are given. Find the
perimeter of the other polygon.
2
13. perimeter of smaller polygon: 48 cm; ratio: —3
23. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error
in finding the perimeter of triangle B. The triangles
are similar.
✗
10
A
5
1
15. perimeter of larger polygon: 120 yd; ratio: —6
2
16. perimeter of larger polygon: 85 m; ratio: —5
17. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS A school
gymnasium is being remodeled. The basketball court
will be similar to an NCAA basketball court, which
has a length of 94 feet and a width of 50 feet. The
school plans to make the width of the new court
45 feet. Find the perimeters of an NCAA court and of
the new court in the school. (See Example 4.)
B
24. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error
in finding the area of rectangle B. The rectangles
are similar.
✗
A = 24 units2
A
6
B
18
428
Chapter 8
Similarity
5x = 280
x = 56
12
3
14. perimeter of smaller polygon: 66 ft; ratio: —4
28
5
=—
—
10
x
6
6
24
=—
—
18
x
6x = 432
x = 72
In Exercises 25 and 26, decide whether the red and blue
polygons are similar. (See Example 6.)
25.
36. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS In table tennis, the table is
a rectangle 9 feet long and 5 feet wide. A tennis court
is a rectangle 78 feet long and 36 feet wide. Are the
two surfaces similar? Explain. If so, find the scale
factor of the tennis court to the table.
40
30
22.5
30
26.
3
3
3
3
3
3
MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS In Exercises 37 and 38,
the two polygons are similar. Find the values of x and y.
27. REASONING Triangles ABC and DEF are similar.
37.
27
Which statement is correct? Select all that apply.
BC
AC
AB
CA
A —=—
○
EF DF
B —=—
○
DE FE
BC
D —=—
○
FD EF
AB
CA
C —=—
○
EF DE
39
24
BC
ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS In Exercises 28 –34,
y
x
38.
JKLM ∼ EFGH.
(y − 73)°
J
H3G
y
11
z°
E 8 F
20
116°
116°
5
M
x
K
L
61°
4
6
30
65°
18
x−6
ATTENDING TO PRECISION In Exercises 39– 42, the
28. Find the scale factor of JKLM to EFGH.
figures are similar. Find the missing corresponding
side length.
29. Find the scale factor of EFGH to JKLM.
39. Figure A has a perimeter of 72 meters and one of the
side lengths is 18 meters. Figure B has a perimeter
of 120 meters.
30. Find the values of x, y, and z.
31. Find the perimeter of each polygon.
40. Figure A has a perimeter of 24 inches. Figure B
32. Find the ratio of the perimeters of JKLM to EFGH.
33. Find the area of each polygon.
has a perimeter of 36 inches and one of the side
lengths is 12 inches.
41. Figure A has an area of 48 square feet and one of
34. Find the ratio of the areas of JKLM to EFGH.
the side lengths is 6 feet. Figure B has an area of
75 square feet.
35. USING STRUCTURE Rectangle A is similar to
42. Figure A has an area of 18 square feet. Figure B
rectangle B. Rectangle A has side lengths of 6 and
12. Rectangle B has a side length of 18. What are
the possible values for the length of the other side of
rectangle B? Select all that apply.
A 6
○
B 9
○
C 24
○
has an area of 98 square feet and one of the side
lengths is 14 feet.
D 36
○
Section 8.1
Similar Polygons
429
CRITICAL THINKING In Exercises 43 –48, tell whether the
polygons are always, sometimes, or never similar.
52. PROVING A THEOREM Prove the Perimeters of
Similar Polygons Theorem (Theorem 8.1) for similar
rectangles. Include a diagram in your proof.
43. two isosceles triangles 44. two isosceles trapezoids
45. two rhombuses
53. PROVING A THEOREM Prove the Areas of Similar
46. two squares
Polygons Theorem (Theorem 8.2) for similar
rectangles. Include a diagram in your proof.
47. two regular polygons
48. a right triangle and an equilateral triangle
54. THOUGHT PROVOKING The postulates and theorems
in this book represent Euclidean geometry. In
spherical geometry, all points are points on the
surface of a sphere. A line is a circle on the sphere
whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the sphere.
A plane is the surface of the sphere. In spherical
geometry, is it possible that two triangles are similar
but not congruent? Explain your reasoning.
49. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your sister claims
that when the side lengths of two rectangles are
proportional, the two rectangles must be similar.
Is she correct? Explain your reasoning.
50. HOW DO YOU SEE IT? You shine a flashlight directly
on an object to project its image onto a parallel
screen. Will the object and the image be similar?
Explain your reasoning.
55. CRITICAL THINKING In the diagram, PQRS is a
square, and PLMS ∼ LMRQ. Find the exact value
of x. This value is called the golden ratio. Golden
rectangles have their length and width in this ratio.
Show that the similar rectangles in the diagram are
golden rectangles.
P
S
51. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS During a total
1
x
Q
L
R
M
56. MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS The equations of the
eclipse of the Sun, the moon is directly in line with
the Sun and blocks the Sun’s rays. The distance DA
between Earth and the Sun is 93,000,000 miles, the
distance DE between Earth and the moon is
240,000 miles, and the radius AB of the Sun is
432,500 miles. Use the diagram and the given
measurements to estimate the radius EC of the moon.
lines shown are y = —43 x + 4 and y = —43 x − 8. Show
that △AOB ∼ △COD.
y
B
A
O
B
C
x
C
D
A
Sun
E
moon
D
Earth
△DEC ∼ △DAB
△
Not drawn to scale
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
Find the value of x. (Section 5.1)
57.
58.
59.
x°
x°
76°
24°
60.
52°
41°
x°
430
Chapter 8
Similarity
x°
Fly UP