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9.2 Special Right Triangles Essential Question

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9.2 Special Right Triangles Essential Question
9.2
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
Special Right Triangles
Essential Question
What is the relationship among the side lengths
of 45°- 45°- 90° triangles? 30°- 60°- 90° triangles?
G.9.B
Side Ratios of an Isosceles Right Triangle
Work with a partner.
a. Use dynamic geometry software to construct an isosceles right triangle with
a leg length of 4 units.
b. Find the acute angle measures. Explain why this triangle is called a
45°- 45°- 90° triangle.
USING PRECISE
MATHEMATICAL
LANGUAGE
To be proficient in math,
you need to express
numerical answers with
a degree of precision
appropriate for the
problem context.
c. Find the exact ratios
of the side lengths
(using square roots).
Sample
A
4
AB
AC
3
—=
2
AB
BC
—=
1
B
0
AC
BC
—=
−1
C
0
1
2
3
4
5
Points
A(0, 4)
B(4, 0)
C(0, 0)
Segments
AB = 5.66
BC = 4
AC = 4
Angles
m∠A = 45°
m∠B = 45°
d. Repeat parts (a) and (c) for several other isosceles right triangles. Use your results
to write a conjecture about the ratios of the side lengths of an isosceles right triangle.
Side Ratios of a 30°- 60°- 90° Triangle
Work with a partner.
a. Use dynamic geometry software to construct a right triangle with acute angle
measures of 30° and 60° (a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle), where the shorter leg length
is 3 units.
b. Find the exact ratios
of the side lengths
(using square roots).
5
Sample
A
4
AB
—=
AC
3
2
AB
BC
—=
AC
BC
—=
1
B
0
−1
C
0
1
2
3
4
5
Points
A(0, 5.20)
B(3, 0)
C(0, 0)
Segments
AB = 6
BC = 3
AC = 5.20
Angles
m∠A = 30°
m∠B = 60°
c. Repeat parts (a) and (b) for several other 30°- 60°- 90° triangles. Use your results
to write a conjecture about the ratios of the side lengths of a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle.
Communicate Your Answer
3. What is the relationship among the side lengths of 45°- 45°- 90° triangles?
30°- 60°- 90° triangles?
Section 9.2
Special Right Triangles
475
9.2 Lesson
What You Will Learn
Find side lengths in special right triangles.
Solve real-life problems involving special right triangles.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
Finding Side Lengths in Special Right Triangles
Previous
isosceles triangle
A 45°- 45°- 90° triangle is an isosceles right triangle that can be formed by cutting a
square in half diagonally.
Theorem
Theorem 9.4
45°- 45°- 90° Triangle Theorem
In—a 45°- 45°- 90° triangle, the hypotenuse is
√ 2 times as long as each leg.
REMEMBER
An expression involving
a radical with index 2
is in simplest form when
no radicands have perfect
squares as factors other
than 1, no radicands
contain fractions, and
no radicals appear in the
denominator of a fraction.
x
45°
x 2
45°
x
—
hypotenuse = leg √ 2
⋅
Proof Ex. 19, p. 480
Finding Side Lengths in 45°- 45°- 90° Triangles
Find the value of x. Write your answer in simplest form.
a.
b.
8
45°
5 2
x
x
x
SOLUTION
a. By the Triangle Sum Theorem (Theorem 5.1), the measure of the third angle must
be 45°, so the triangle is a 45°- 45°- 90° triangle.
⋅
—
hypotenuse = leg √ 2
⋅
—
x = 8 √2
45°- 45°- 90° Triangle Theorem
Substitute.
—
x = 8√ 2
Simplify.
—
The value of x is 8√ 2 .
b. By the Base Angles Theorem (Theorem 5.6) and the Corollary to the Triangle Sum
Theorem (Corollary 5.1), the triangle is a 45°- 45°- 90° triangle.
⋅
—
hypotenuse = leg √ 2
—
⋅
—
5√ 2 = x √ 2
—
5√ 2
x√ 2
√2
√2
5=x
The value of x is 5.
Chapter 9
Substitute.
—
—
— = —
—
476
45°- 45°- 90° Triangle Theorem
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
—
Divide each side by √2 .
Simplify.
Theorem
Theorem 9.5 30°- 60°- 90° Triangle Theorem
In a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle, the hypotenuse is
twice as—long as the shorter leg, and the longer
leg is √ 3 times as long as the shorter leg.
60°
x
2x
30°
x 3
⋅
hypotenuse = shorter leg 2
—
longer leg = shorter leg √ 3
⋅
Proof Ex. 21, p. 480
Finding Side Lengths in a 30°- 60°- 90° Triangle
REMEMBER
Because the angle opposite
9 is larger than the angle
opposite x, the leg with
length 9 is longer than
the leg with length x by
the Triangle Larger Angle
Theorem (Theorem 6.10).
Find the values of x and y. Write your answer
in simplest form.
y
60°
x
30°
9
SOLUTION
Step 1 Find the value of x.
⋅
—
longer leg = shorter leg √3
⋅
—
9 = x √3
9
—
— = x
√3
9
—
—
√3
30°- 60°- 90° Triangle Theorem
Substitute.
—
Divide each side by √3 .
—
—
√3
√3
=x
⋅—
√3
Multiply by —
—.
√3
—
—
9√ 3
3
—=x
Multiply fractions.
—
3√ 3 = x
Simplify.
—
The value of x is 3√ 3 .
Step 2 Find the value of y.
⋅
hypotenuse = shorter leg 2
—
y = 3√ 3
—
y = 6√ 3
⋅2
30°- 60°- 90° Triangle Theorem
Substitute.
Simplify.
—
The value of y is 6√ 3 .
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Find the value of the variable. Write your answer in simplest form.
1.
2.
2 2
2
2
x
y
x
3.
4.
3
60°
4
x
h
4
30°
2
Section 9.2
2
Special Right Triangles
477
Solving Real-Life Problems
Modeling with Mathematics
36 in.
The road sign is shaped like an equilateral triangle.
Estimate the area of the sign by finding the area of the
equilateral triangle.
YIELD
SOLUTION
First find the height h of the triangle by dividing it into
two 30°- 60°- 90° triangles. The length of the longer leg
of one of these triangles is h. The length of the shorter leg
is 18 inches.
⋅
—
—
h = 18 √3 = 18√3
30°- 60°- 90° Triangle Theorem
18 in.
60°
36 in.
18 in.
60°
h
—
36 in.
Use h = 18√3 to find the area of the equilateral triangle.
—
Area = —12 bh = —12 (36)( 18√ 3 ) ≈ 561.18
The area of the sign is about 561 square inches.
Finding the Height of a Ramp
A tipping platform is a ramp used to unload trucks. How high is the end of an
80-foot ramp when the tipping angle is 30°? 45°?
height
of ramp
ramp
tipping
angle
80 ft
SOLUTION
When the tipping angle is 30°, the height h of the ramp is the length of the shorter leg
of a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle. The length of the hypotenuse is 80 feet.
80 = 2h
30°- 60°- 90° Triangle Theorem
40 = h
Divide each side by 2.
When the tipping angle is 45°, the height h of the ramp is the length of a leg of a
45°- 45°- 90° triangle. The length of the hypotenuse is 80 feet.
⋅
—
80 = h √ 2
80
—
— = h
√2
56.6 ≈ h
45°- 45°- 90° Triangle Theorem
—
Divide each side by √2 .
Use a calculator.
When the tipping angle is 30°, the ramp height is 40 feet. When the tipping angle
is 45°, the ramp height is about 56 feet 7 inches.
Monitoring Progress
14 ft
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
5. The logo on a recycling bin resembles an equilateral triangle with side lengths of
60°
6 centimeters. Approximate the area of the logo.
6. The body of a dump truck is raised to empty a load of sand. How high is the
14-foot-long body from the frame when it is tipped upward by a 60° angle?
478
Chapter 9
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
Exercises
9.2
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. VOCABULARY Name two special right triangles by their angle measures.
2. WRITING Explain why the acute angles in an isosceles right triangle always measure 45°.
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
In Exercises 3–6, find the value of x. Write your answer
in simplest form. (See Example 1.)
3.
12.
By the Triangle Sum
Theorem (Theorem 5.1),
45°
the measure of the
third angle must be 45°.
5
So, the triangle is a
45°- 45°- 90° triangle.
—
—
hypotenuse = leg leg √ 2 = 5√ 2
—
So, the length of the hypotenuse is 5 √2 units.
4.
7
45°
5.
x
5 2
5 2
x
9
x
5
⋅ ⋅
6.
3 2
✗
45°
x
x
In Exercises 7–10, find the values of x and y. Write your
answers in simplest form. (See Example 2.)
7.
8.
y
9
x
9.
60°
5 centimeters. Find the length of an altitude.
14. The perimeter of a square is 36 inches. Find the length
60°
10.
y
13. The side length of an equilateral triangle is
3 3
x
30°
In Exercises 13 and 14, sketch the figure that is
described. Find the indicated length. Round decimal
answers to the nearest tenth.
of a diagonal.
y
In Exercises 15 and 16, find the area of the figure. Round
decimal answers to the nearest tenth. (See Example 3.)
12 3
24
30°
y
x
x
15.
16.
8 ft
5m
4m
4m
60°
5m
ERROR ANALYSIS In Exercises 11 and 12, describe and
correct the error in finding the length of the hypotenuse.
11.
✗
17. PROBLEM SOLVING Each half of the drawbridge is
about 284 feet long. How high does the drawbridge
rise when x is 30°? 45°? 60°? (See Example 4.)
7
30°
By the Triangle Sum Theorem (Theorem 5.1),
the measure of the third angle must be 60°.
So, the triangle is a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle.
—
—
hypotenuse = shorter leg √3 = 7√ 3
⋅
284 ft
x
—
So, the length of the hypotenuse is 7√3 units.
Section 9.2
Special Right Triangles
479
18. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS A nut is shaped like
22. THOUGHT PROVOKING A special right triangle is
a regular hexagon with side lengths of 1 centimeter.
Find the value of x. (Hint: A regular hexagon can be
divided into six congruent triangles.)
a right triangle that has rational angle measures and
each side length contains at most one square root.
There are only three special right triangles. The
diagram below is called the Ailles rectangle. Label
the sides and angles in the diagram. Describe all three
special right triangles.
1 cm
x
19. PROVING A THEOREM Write a paragraph proof of the
45°- 45°- 90° Triangle Theorem (Theorem 9.4).
Given △DEF is a 45°- 45°- 90°
D
triangle.
45°
Prove The
hypotenuse is
—
√ 2 times as long
45°
as each leg.
F
isosceles right triangles are similar to each other.
E
24. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Each triangle in the
diagram is a 45°- 45°- 90° triangle. At Stage 0, the
legs of the triangle are each 1 unit long. Your brother
claims the lengths of the legs of the triangles added
are halved at each stage. So, the length of a leg of
1
a triangle added in Stage 8 will be —
unit. Is your
256
brother correct? Explain your reasoning.
the Wheel of Theodorus.
1
1
1
3
4
2
1
5
6
1
60°
23. WRITING Describe two ways to show that all
20. HOW DO YOU SEE IT? The diagram shows part of
1
2
2
1
1
1
7
Stage 1
Stage 0
a. Which triangles, if any, are 45°- 45°- 90° triangles?
Stage 2
b. Which triangles, if any, are 30°- 60°- 90° triangles?
21. PROVING A THEOREM Write a paragraph proof of
the 30°- 60°- 90° Triangle Theorem (Theorem 9.5).
(Hint: Construct △JML congruent to △JKL.)
K
Given △JKL is a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle.
60° x
Prove The hypotenuse is twice
as long as the shorter
30°
J
L
leg, —and the longer leg
x
is √ 3 times as long as
the shorter leg.
Stage 3
Stage 4
25. USING STRUCTURE △TUV is a 30°- 60°- 90° triangle,
where two vertices are U(3, −1) and V(−3, −1),
— is the hypotenuse, and point T is in Quadrant I.
UV
Find the coordinates of T.
M
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
Find the value of x. (Section 8.1)
26. △DEF ∼ △LMN
N
30
E
480
L
20
Chapter 9
F
M
S
B
x
12
D
27. △ABC ∼ △QRS
4
x
3.5
A
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
Q
R
7
C
Fly UP