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9.4 The Tangent Ratio Essential Question

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9.4 The Tangent Ratio Essential Question
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
G.9.A
G.9.B
The Tangent Ratio
Essential Question
How is a right triangle used to find the tangent
of an acute angle? Is there a unique right triangle that must be used?
B
Let △ABC be a right triangle with acute ∠A.
The tangent of ∠A (written as tan A) is defined
as follows.
opposite
9.4
BC
length of leg opposite ∠A
tan A = ——— = —
length of leg adjacent to ∠A AC
A
C
adjacent
Calculating a Tangent Ratio
Work with a partner. Use dynamic geometry software.
— to form right
a. Construct △ABC, as shown. Construct segments perpendicular to AC
triangles that share vertex A and are similar to △ABC with vertices, as shown.
B
6
K
5
L
Sample
M
4
N
3
O
2
P
Q
1
J
0
A
USING PRECISE
MATHEMATICAL
LANGUAGE
To be proficient in math,
you need to express
numerical answers with
a degree of precision
appropriate for the
problem context.
0
1
I
2
H
3
G
4
F
5
E
6
D
C
7
Points
A(0, 0)
B(8, 6)
C(8, 0)
Angle
m∠BAC = 36.87°
8
b. Calculate each given ratio to complete the table for the decimal value of tan A for
each right triangle. What can you conclude?
Ratio
BC
AC
—
KD
AD
—
LE
AE
—
MF
AF
—
NG
AG
—
OH
AH
—
PI
AI
—
QJ
AJ
—
tan A
Using a Calculator
Work with a partner. Use a calculator that has a tangent key to calculate the tangent
of 36.87°. Do you get the same result as in Exploration 1? Explain.
Communicate Your Answer
3. Repeat Exploration 1 for △ABC with vertices A(0, 0), B(8, 5), and C(8, 0).
—
Construct the seven perpendicular segments so that not all of them intersect AC
at integer values of x. Discuss your results.
4. How is a right triangle used to find the tangent of an acute angle? Is there a
unique right triangle that must be used?
Section 9.4
The Tangent Ratio
491
9.4 Lesson
What You Will Learn
Use the tangent ratio.
Solve real-life problems involving the tangent ratio.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
trigonometric ratio, p. 492
tangent, p. 492
angle of elevation, p. 494
READING
Remember the following
abbreviations.
tangent → tan
opposite → opp.
adjacent → adj.
Using the Tangent Ratio
A trigonometric ratio is a ratio of the lengths of two sides in
a right triangle. All right triangles with a given acute angle are
similar by the AA Similarity Theorem (Theorem 8.3). So,
KL JL
△JKL ∼ △XYZ, and you can write — = —. This can be
YZ XZ
KL YZ
rewritten as — = —, which is a trigonometric ratio. So,
JL
XZ
trigonometric ratios are constant for a given angle measure.
K
J
L
Y
Z
X
The tangent ratio is a trigonometric ratio for acute angles
that involves the lengths of the legs of a right triangle.
Core Concept
Tangent Ratio
Let △ABC be a right triangle with acute ∠A.
B
leg
opposite
∠A
The tangent of ∠A (written as tan A) is defined
as follows.
length of leg opposite ∠A
BC
tan A = ——— = —
length of leg adjacent to ∠A AC
hypotenuse
C
leg adjacent
to ∠A
A
In the right triangle above, ∠A and ∠B are complementary. So, ∠B is acute. You can
use the same diagram to find the tangent of ∠B. Notice that the leg adjacent to ∠A is
the leg opposite ∠B and the leg opposite ∠A is the leg adjacent to ∠B.
USING PRECISE
MATHEMATICAL
LANGUAGE
Unless told otherwise, you
should round the values
of trigonometric ratios
to four decimal places
and round lengths to the
nearest tenth.
Finding Tangent Ratios
S
Find tan S and tan R. Write each answer as a
fraction and as a decimal rounded to four places.
82
18
SOLUTION
T
80
R
opp. ∠S
RT 80 40
tan S = — = — = — = — ≈ 4.4444
adj. to ∠S ST 18
9
opp. ∠R
ST 18
9
tan R = — = — = — = — = 0.2250
adj. to ∠R RT 80 40
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Find tan J and tan K. Write each answer as a fraction and as a decimal rounded
to four places.
1.
K
40
J
492
Chapter 9
32
24
L
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
2.
L
8
K
15
17
J
Finding a Leg Length
Find the value of x. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
11
SOLUTION
32°
x
Use the tangent of an acute angle to find a leg length.
opp.
tan 32° = —
adj.
11
tan 32° = —
x
x tan 32° = 11
SELECTING TOOLS
You can also use the Table of
Trigonometric Ratios available
at BigIdeasMath.com to find
the decimal approximations
of trigonometric ratios.
⋅
Write ratio for tangent of 32°.
Substitute.
Multiply each side by x.
11
x=—
tan 32°
x ≈ 17.6
Divide each side by tan 32°.
Use a calculator.
The value of x is about 17.6.
STUDY TIP
The tangents of all 60°
angles are the same
constant ratio. Any right
triangle with a 60° angle
can be used to determine
this value.
You can find the tangent of an acute angle measuring 30°, 45°, or 60° by applying what
you know about special right triangles.
Using a Special Right Triangle to Find a Tangent
Use a special right triangle to find the tangent of a 60° angle.
SOLUTION
Step 1 Because all 30°-60°-90° triangles are similar, you can simplify your
calculations by choosing 1 as the length of the shorter leg. Use the 30°-60°-90°
Triangle Theorem (Theorem 9.5) to find the length of the longer leg.
⋅
—
longer leg = shorter leg √3
⋅
—
= 1 √3
—
= √3
30°-60°-90° Triangle Theorem
Substitute.
1
Simplify.
60°
3
Step 2 Find tan 60°.
opp.
tan 60° = —
adj.
—
√3
tan 60° = —
1
—
tan 60° = √ 3
Write ratio for tangent of 60°.
Substitute.
Simplify.
—
The tangent of any 60° angle is √ 3 ≈ 1.7321.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Find the value of x. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
3.
x
4.
61°
x
13
56°
22
5. WHAT IF? In Example 3, the side length—of the shorter leg is 5 instead of 1. Show
that the tangent of 60° is still equal to √ 3 .
Section 9.4
The Tangent Ratio
493
Solving Real-Life Problems
The angle that an upward line of sight makes with a horizontal line is called the angle
of elevation.
Modeling with Mathematics
You are measuring the height of a spruce tree. You stand 45 feet from the base of the
tree. You measure the angle of elevation from the ground to the top of the tree to be
59°. Find the height h of the tree to the nearest foot.
h ft
59°
45 ft
SOLUTION
1. Understand the Problem You are given the angle of elevation and the distance
from the tree. You need to find the height of the tree to the nearest foot.
2. Make a Plan Write a trigonometric ratio for the tangent of the angle of elevation
involving the height h. Then solve for h.
3. Solve the Problem
opp.
tan 59° = —
adj.
h
tan 59° = —
45
45 tan 59° = h
⋅
Write ratio for tangent of 59°.
Substitute.
Multiply each side by 45.
74.9 ≈ h
Use a calculator.
The tree is about 75 feet tall.
4. Look Back Check your answer. Because 59° is close to 60°, the value of h should
be close to the length of the longer leg of a 30°-60°-90° triangle, where the length
of the shorter leg is 45 feet.
⋅
—
longer leg = shorter leg √3
⋅
—
= 45 √ 3
≈ 77.9
30°-60°-90° Triangle Theorem
Substitute.
Use a calculator.
The value of 77.9 feet is close to the value of h.
Monitoring Progress
h in.
✓
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
6. You are measuring the height of a lamppost. You stand 40 inches from the base of
70°
40 in.
494
Chapter 9
the lamppost. You measure the angle of elevation from the ground to the top of the
lamppost to be 70°. Find the height h of the lamppost to the nearest inch.
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
Exercises
9.4
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. COMPLETE THE SENTENCE The tangent ratio compares the length of _______ to the length of ________.
2. WRITING Explain how you know the tangent ratio is constant for a given angle measure.
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
In Exercises 3–6, find the tangents of the acute angles
in the right triangle. Write each answer as a fraction
and as a decimal rounded to four decimal places.
(See Example 1.)
3.
4.
R
T
5.
6.
G 1 J
5
F
L
11.0
18
tan 55° = —
11.0
55°
21.9
C
In Exercises 13 and 14, use a special right triangle
to find the tangent of the given angle measure.
(See Example 3.)
13. 45°
14. 30°
5
3
2
18
30°
A
25
D
S
B
7
24
45
✗
E
53
28
12.
15. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS
J
H
K
34
In Exercises 7–10, find the value of x. Round your
answer to the nearest tenth. (See Example 2.)
7.
8.
15
27°
12
x
41°
x
9.
16. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS Scientists can
10.
22
A surveyor is standing 118 feet
from the base of the Washington
Monument. The surveyor
measures the angle of elevation
from the ground to the top of
the monument to be 78°. Find
the height h of the Washington
Monument to the nearest foot.
(See Example 4.)
x
6
37°
x
58°
measure the depths of craters on the moon by looking
at photos of shadows. The length of the shadow cast
by the edge of a crater is 500 meters. The angle of
elevation of the rays of the Sun is 55°. Estimate the
depth d of the crater.
ERROR ANALYSIS In Exercises 11 and 12, describe the
Sun’s ray
error in the statement of the tangent ratio. Correct the
error if possible. Otherwise, write not possible.
11.
✗
55°
55°
D
12
E
37
35
F
35
tan D = —
37
d
500 m
17. USING STRUCTURE Find the tangent of the smaller
acute angle in a right triangle with side lengths 5, 12,
and 13.
Section 9.4
The Tangent Ratio
495
18. USING STRUCTURE Find the tangent of the larger
24. THOUGHT PROVOKING To create the diagram
acute angle in a right triangle with side lengths 3, 4,
and 5.
below, you begin with an isosceles right triangle with
legs 1 unit long. Then the hypotenuse of the first
triangle becomes the leg of a second triangle, whose
remaining leg is 1 unit long. Continue the diagram
until you have constructed an angle whose tangent
1
is —
— . Approximate the measure of this angle.
√6
19. REASONING How does the tangent of an acute
angle in a right triangle change as the angle measure
increases? Justify your answer.
20. CRITICAL THINKING For what angle measure(s) is the
tangent of an acute angle in a right triangle equal to 1?
greater than 1? less than 1? Justify your answer.
1
1
1
21. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your family room has a
sliding-glass door. You want to buy an awning for the
door that will be just long enough to keep the Sun out
when it is at its highest point in the sky. The angle of
elevation of the rays of the Sun at this point is 70°,
and the height of the door is 8 feet. Your sister claims
you can determine how far the overhang should
extend by multiplying 8 by tan 70°. Is your sister
correct? Explain.
25. PROBLEM SOLVING Your class is having a class
picture taken on the lawn. The photographer is
positioned 14 feet away from the center of the class.
The photographer turns 50° to look at either end of
the class.
Sun’s ray
8 ftt
10°
14 ft
50° 50°
10°
7
70°
0°
a. What is the distance between the ends of the class?
b. The photographer turns another 10° either way to
see the end of the camera range. If each student
needs 2 feet of space, about how many more
students can fit at the end of each row? Explain.
22. HOW DO YOU SEE IT? Write expressions for the
tangent of each acute angle in the right triangle.
Explain how the tangent of one acute angle is related
to the tangent of the other acute angle. What kind of
angle pair is ∠A and ∠B?
26. PROBLEM SOLVING Find the perimeter of the figure,
where AC = 26, AD = BF, and D is the midpoint
of —
AC .
B
a
C
c
A
b
B
A
H
E
23. REASONING Explain why it is not possible to find the
tangent of a right angle or an obtuse angle.
50°
D
F
35°
G
C
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
Find the value of x. (Section 9.2)
27.
x
3
496
Chapter 9
28.
29.
7
30°
5
60°
x
45°
x
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
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