The Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War At the end of the nineteenth century, tensions were rising between Spain and its colony in Cuba. Cuban patriot José Martí launched a war for independence from Spain in 1895. Many Americans supported the Cubans, whose struggle for freedom and democracy reminded Americans of their own struggle for independence. Newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst heightened the public’s dislike of the Spanish government. Their publications, known as the Yellow Press, pushed for war with Spain by printing exaggerated stories of Spanish atrocities. In February 1898, Hearst’s New York Journal published a letter written by Spain’s ambassador, which called McKinley a weak and stupid politician. The letter fueled American jingoism, or aggressive nationalism. Soon after, the American battleship Maine exploded in Havana harbor. The Yellow Press promptly accused Spain of blowing up the battleship. In April 1898, the U.S. Congress declared war on Spain, beginning the Spanish-American War. In the Spanish-held Philippines, Commodore George Dewey quickly destroyed a large part of the Spanish fleet. While Dewey was defeating the Spanish navy, Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo were defeating the Spanish army. In August, Spanish troops surrendered to the United States. Meanwhile, U.S. troops landed in Cuba in June 1898. Although the troops were poorly trained, wore unsuitable uniforms, and carried old, outdated weapons, they were successful. Spanish forces in Cuba surrendered to the United States. Future President Theodore Roosevelt organized a force known as the Rough Riders. Joined by African American soldiers from the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry regiments, the Rough Riders played a key role in the war. In December 1898, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris, officially ending the Spanish-American War. Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam. It also sold the Philippines to the United States. During the Spanish-American War, Filipino nationalist Emilio Aguinaldo viewed America as an ally in the Filipino struggle for independence. However, when the United States kept possession of the Philippines after the war, Aguinaldo grew disillusioned. He helped organize an insurrection, or rebellion, against U.S. rule. The Filipino insurgents relied on guerilla warfare tactics, including surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks. In turn, the U.S. military used extraordinary measures to crush the rebellion. The war in the Philippines highlighted the rigors of fighting against guerilla insurgents. Nearly 5,000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos were killed in the fighting.