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10.2 Finding Arc Measures Essential Question Communicate Your Answer

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10.2 Finding Arc Measures Essential Question Communicate Your Answer
10.2 Finding Arc Measures
Essential Question
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
How are circular arcs measured?
A central angle of a circle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle.
A circular arc is a portion of a circle, as shown below. The measure of a circular
arc is the measure of its central angle.
G.3.C
G.12.A
AB .
If m∠AOB < 180°, then the circular arc is called a minor arc and is denoted by A
circular arc
B
59°
central angle
O
mAB = 59°
Measuring Circular Arcs
Work with a partner. Use dynamic geometry software to find the measure
of BC . Verify your answers using trigonometry.
a.
Points
A(0, 0)
B(5, 0)
C(4, 3)
6
4
C
2
0
−6
−4
−2
A
0
4
0
−2
−6
−6
Points
A(0, 0)
B(4, 3)
C(3, 4)
C
0
−2
d.
4
6
Points
A(0, 0)
B(4, 3)
C(−4, 3)
B
2
−6
6
4
4
C
0
2
B
2
6
A
0
A
0
−4
2
To be proficient in
math, you need to use
technological tools to
explore and deepen your
understanding of concepts.
−4
−4
B
SELECTING TOOLS
−6
−2
4
−4
2
6
6
C
4
B
2
Points
A(0, 0)
B(5, 0)
C(3, 4)
6
−2
c.
−6
b.
−4
−2
A
0
−2
−2
−4
−4
−6
−6
2
4
6
Communicate Your Answer
2. How are circular arcs measured?
3. Use dynamic geometry software to draw a circular arc with the given measure.
a. 30°
c. 60°
b. 45°
d. 90°
Section 10.2
Finding Arc Measures
541
10.2 Lesson
What You Will Learn
Find arc measures.
Identify congruent arcs.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
Prove circles are similar.
central angle, p. 542
minor arc, p. 542
major arc, p. 542
semicircle, p. 542
measure of a minor arc, p. 542
measure of a major arc, p. 542
adjacent arcs, p. 543
congruent circles, p. 544
congruent arcs, p. 544
similar arcs, p. 545
Finding Arc Measures
A central angle of a circle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle. In the
diagram, ∠ACB is a central angle of ⊙C.
If m∠ACB is less than 180°, then the points on ⊙C that lie in the interior of ∠ACB
form a minor arc with endpoints A and B. The points on ⊙C that do not lie on the
minor arc AB form a major arc with endpoints A and B. A semicircle is an arc with
endpoints that are the endpoints of a diameter.
A
minor arc AB
B
C
D
major arc ADB
Minor arcs are named by their endpoints. The minor arc associated with ∠ACB is
named AB . Major arcs and semicircles are named by their endpoints and a point on
the arc. The major arc associated with ∠ACB can be named ADB .
STUDY TIP
The measure of a minor
arc is less than 180°. The
measure of a major arc is
greater than 180°.
Core Concept
Measuring Arcs
The measure of a minor arc is the measure of
its central angle. The expression m
AB is read as
“the measure of arc AB.”
The measure of the entire circle is 360°. The
measure of a major arc is the difference of 360°
and the measure of the related minor arc. The
measure of a semicircle is 180°.
A
50°
C
D
— is a diameter.
Find the measure of each arc of ⊙P, where RT
R
b. RTS
c. RST
P
110°
T
S
SOLUTION
is a minor arc, so m
a. RS
RS = m∠RPS = 110°.
b. RTS is a major arc, so m
RTS = 360° − 110° = 250°.
— is a diameter, so c. RT
RST is a semicircle, and m
RST = 180°.
542
Chapter 10
Circles
B
m
ADB = 360° − 50° = 310°
Finding Measures of Arcs
a. RS
mAB = 50°
Two arcs of the same circle are adjacent arcs when they intersect at exactly one point.
You can add the measures of two adjacent arcs.
Postulate
Postulate 10.1 Arc Addition Postulate
A
The measure of an arc formed by two adjacent arcs
is the sum of the measures of the two arcs.
B
C
mABC = mAB + mBC
Using the Arc Addition Postulate
Find the measure of each arc.
a. GE
b. GEF
G
c. GF
H
40°
R
SOLUTION
a. m
GE = m
GH + m
HE = 40° + 80° = 120°
80°
110°
b. m
GEF = m
GE + m
EF = 120° + 110° = 230°
E
F
c. m
GF = 360° − m
GEF = 360° − 230° = 130°
Finding Measures of Arcs
Whom Would You Rather Meet?
C
A recent survey asked teenagers whether
they would rather meet a famous musician,
athlete, actor, inventor, or other person. The
circle graph shows the results. Find the
indicated arc measures.
a. m
AC
Musician:
1088
b. m
ACD
c. m
ADC
d. m
EBD
SOLUTION
a. m
AC = m
AB + m
BC
B
Inventor:
298
A
= 137°
d.
m
EBD = 360° − m
ED
= 360° − 137°
= 360° − 61°
= 223°
= 299°
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Identify the given arc as a major arc, minor arc,
or semicircle. Then find the measure of the arc.
4.
E
= 220°
Monitoring Progress
1.
Other:
618
= 137° + 83°
m
ADC = 360° − m
AC
TQ
QS
Actor:
798
D
b. m
ACD = m
AC + m
CD
= 29° + 108°
c.
Athlete:
838
2.
5.
QRT
TS
3.
6.
T
TQR
RST
120°
60°
80°
S
Section 10.2
Finding Arc Measures
Q
R
543
Identifying Congruent Arcs
Two circles are congruent circles if and only if a rigid motion or a composition
of rigid motions maps one circle onto the other. This statement is equivalent to the
Congruent Circles Theorem below.
Theorem
Theorem 10.3 Congruent Circles Theorem
Two circles are congruent circles if and only
if they have the same radius.
C
B
A
D
⊙A ≅ ⊙B if and only if AC ≅ BD.
Proof Ex. 35, p. 548
Two arcs are congruent arcs if and only if they have the same measure and they are
arcs of the same circle or of congruent circles.
Theorem
Theorem 10.4 Congruent Central Angles Theorem
In the same circle, or in congruent circles, two minor
arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding
central angles are congruent.
C
D
A
B
E
BC ≅ DE if and
only if ∠ BAC ≅ ∠ DAE.
Proof Ex. 37, p. 548
Identifying Congruent Arcs
Tell whether the red arcs are congruent. Explain why or why not.
D E
a.
C
The two circles in part (c)
are congruent by the
Congruent Circles Theorem
because they have the
same radius.
Chapter 10
B
T
c.
U
R
F
Q
S
U
T
95°
V
Y
95°
Z
X
SOLUTION
STUDY TIP
544
80° 80°
b.
Circles
a. CD ≅ EF by the Congruent Central Angles Theorem because they are arcs of the
same circle and they have congruent central angles, ∠CBD ≅ ∠FBE.
RS and TU have the same measure, but are not congruent because they are arcs
b. of circles that are not congruent.
c. UV ≅ YZ by the Congruent Central Angles Theorem because they are arcs of
congruent circles and they have congruent central angles, ∠UTV ≅ ∠YXZ.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Tell whether the red arcs are congruent. Explain why or why not.
7.
B
A
8.
C
145°
145°
D
N
M
P
120°
5
120°
Q
4
Proving Circles Are Similar
Theorem
Theorem 10.5 Similar Circles Theorem
All circles are similar.
Proof p. 545; Ex. 33, p. 548
Similar Circles Theorem
All circles are similar.
Given ⊙C with center C and radius r,
⊙D with center D and radius s
Prove ⊙C ∼ ⊙D
D
C
s
r
First, translate ⊙C so that point C maps to point D. The image of ⊙C is ⊙C′ with
center D. So, ⊙C′ and ⊙D are concentric circles.
D
C
s
s
D
r
r
circle C′
⊙C′ is the set of all points that are r units from point D. Dilate ⊙C′ using center of
s
dilation D and scale factor —.
r
D
s
D
r
s
circle C′
This dilation maps the set of all the points that are r units from point D to the set of all
s
points that are —(r) = s units from point D. ⊙D is the set of all points that are s units
r
from point D. So, this dilation maps ⊙C′ to ⊙D.
Because a similarity transformation maps ⊙C to ⊙D, ⊙C ∼ ⊙D.
Two arcs are similar arcs if and only if they have the same measure. All congruent
arcs are similar, but not all similar arcs are congruent. For instance, in Example 4, the
pairs of arcs in parts (a), (b), and (c) are similar but only the pairs of arcs in parts (a)
and (c) are congruent.
Section 10.2
Finding Arc Measures
545
10.2 Exercises
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. VOCABULARY Copy and complete: If ∠ACB and ∠DCE are congruent central angles of ⊙C,
then AB and DE are ______________.
2. WHICH ONE DOESN’T BELONG? Which circle does not belong with the other three? Explain
your reasoning.
1 ft
6 in.
6 in.
12 in.
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
In Exercises 3–6, name the red minor arc and find
its measure. Then name the blue major arc and find
its measure.
3.
4.
A
In Exercises 15 and 16, find the measure of each arc.
(See Example 2.)
15. a. JL
b. KM
E
B
68°
5.
F
C
D
N
170°
C
M
120°
J
K
16. a. RS
6.
C
d. JM
M
L
G
K
P
538
688
798
c. JLM
135°
C
J
P
b.
c.
d.
QRS
QST
QT
R
Q
428
P
S
T
L
17. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS A recent survey
In Exercises 7–14, identify the given arc as a major arc,
minor arc, or semicircle. Then find the measure of the
arc. (See Example 1.)
7. BC
8. DC
9. ED
10. AE
11. EAB
E
12. ABC
13. BAC
Chapter 10
1108
B
708 F
708
458
658
C
D
Favorite Type of Music
B
Country:
A
Pop:
R&B: 178
C
668 558
H
Hip-Hop/Rap:
268
G 288
898
Other:
Folk:
F 328 478
Christian: E
D
Rock:
a. m
AE
14. EBD
546
A
asked high school students their favorite type of
music. The results are shown in the circle graph.
Find each indicated arc measure. (See Example 3.)
d. m
BHC
Circles
b. m
ACE
e. m
FD
c. m
GDC
f. m
FBD
18. ABSTRACT REASONING The circle graph shows the
percentages of students enrolled in fall sports at a
high school. Is it possible to find the measure of each
minor arc? If so, find the measure of the arc for each
category shown. If not, explain why it is not possible.
26. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your friend claims that
there is not enough information given to find the value
of x. Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.
A
x8
M
High School Fall Sports
V
Football: 20%
W
None: 15%
P
4x8
Z
Soccer:
30%
Cross-Country: 20%
Y
Volleyball: 15%
27. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error in
naming the red arc.
X
In Exercises 19–22, tell whether the red arcs are
congruent. Explain why or why not. (See Example 4.)
19.
20.
A
V
W
S
Z
F
G
1808
K
L
M
E
(2x − 30)8
P
Q
R
m
CD = 70°, and m
DE = 20°. Find two possible
measures of AE .
H
24.
N
= 60°, m
30. REASONING In ⊙R, mAB
BC = 25°,
1808
B
JK ≅ NP
— and CD
—. Find m
AB
ACD and m
AC when m
AD = 20°.
MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS In Exercises 23 and 24,
find the value of x. Then find the measure of the red arc.
P
J
29. ATTENDING TO PRECISION Two diameters of ⊙P are
12
23.
✗
16
Y
10
Q
AD
naming congruent arcs.
O
928
T
D
B
X
928
R
708
C
28. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error in
858
P
N
22.
A
L
D
8
✗
M
B
708
1808
408
C
21.
N
x8
B
4x8
R
6x8
Q
31. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS On a regulation
dartboard, the outermost circle is divided into twenty
congruent sections. What is the measure of each arc
in this circle?
S
P
A
x8
C
7x8
7x8
T
25. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your friend claims that
any two arcs with the same measure are similar.
Your cousin claims that any two arcs with the same
measure are congruent. Who is correct? Explain.
Section 10.2
Finding Arc Measures
547
32. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS You can use the
34. ABSTRACT REASONING Is there enough information
to tell whether ⊙C ≅ ⊙D? Explain your reasoning.
time zone wheel to find the time in different locations
across the world. For example, to find the time in
Tokyo when it is 4 p.m. in San Francisco, rotate
the small wheel until 4 p.m. and San Francisco
line up, as shown. Then look at Tokyo to see that
it is 9 a.m. there.
Denv
y
Ca
es
e
o
nd ha
rna ron e
Fe No
nn
de
Azor
Belfast
10
11 12
He
lsin
ki
Rom
e
b. Given ⊙A ≅ ⊙B
— ≅ BD
—
Prove AC
9
9
8
3
Ha
lifa
x
Bost
on
5
nF
A.M.
6 7
nc
New Orleans
er
co
cis
ran ge
ra
ho
— ≅ BD
—
a. Given AC
Prove ⊙A ≅ ⊙B
8
kent
Tash
w ity
sco t C
o
M
ai
w
Ku
4
A
Sa
Astana
544 to prove each part of the biconditional in the
Congruent Circles Theorem (Theorem 10.3).
P.M.
6 7
Bang
5
a
kok
35. PROVING A THEOREM Use the diagram on page
4
nil
3
ky
To
ey
k
uts
o
Sydn
k
Ya
Ma
D
2
H
o
no
lul
u
Well
ingto
n
Anadyr
Noon
11 12 1
10
C
36. HOW DO YOU SEE IT? Are the circles on the target
2
1
Midnight
similar or congruent? Explain your reasoning.
a. What is the arc measure between each time zone
on the wheel?
b. What is the measure of the minor arc from the
Tokyo zone to the Anchorage zone?
c. If two locations differ by 180° on the wheel, then
it is 3 p.m. at one location when it is _____ at the
other location.
33. PROVING A THEOREM Write a coordinate proof of
the Similar Circles Theorem (Theorem 10.5).
37. PROVING A THEOREM Use the diagram to prove each
Given ⊙O with center O(0, 0) and radius r,
⊙A with center A(a, 0) and radius s
part of the biconditional in the Congruent Central
Angles Theorem (Theorem 10.4).
Prove ⊙O ∼ ⊙A
a. Given ∠BAC ≅ ∠DAE
y
Prove BC ≅ DE
C
Prove ∠BAC ≅ ∠DAE
B
b. Given BC ≅ DE
r
s
O
A
x
D
A
38. THOUGHT PROVOKING Write a formula for the
length of a circular arc. Justify your answer.
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
Find the value of x. Tell whether the side lengths form a Pythagorean triple. (Section 9.1)
39.
40.
8
17
41.
13
13
14
7
x
548
Chapter 10
x
Circles
42.
x
11
10
x
E
Fly UP