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11.1 Circumference and Arc Length Essential Question

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11.1 Circumference and Arc Length Essential Question
11.1
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
G.12.B
G.12.D
Circumference and Arc Length
Essential Question
How can you find the length of a circular arc?
Finding the Length of a Circular Arc
Work with a partner. Find the length of each red circular arc.
a. entire circle
b. one-fourth of a circle
5
y
5
3
1
−5
−3
−1
3
1
A
1
3
−4
−5
5x
−3
−1
−3
−5
−5
B
3
5x
d. five-eighths of a circle
y
y
4
4
2
2
A
−2
A
1
−3
c. one-third of a circle
C
y
C
B
2
4
−4
x
−2
C
−4
A
−2
B
2
4
x
−2
−4
Using Arc Length
ANALYZING
MATHEMATICAL
RELATIONSHIPS
To be proficient in math,
you need to notice if
calculations are repeated
and look both for general
methods and for shortcuts.
Work with a partner. The rider is attempting to stop with
the front tire of the motorcycle in the painted rectangular
box for a skills test. The front tire makes exactly
one-half additional revolution before stopping.
The diameter of the tire is 25 inches. Is the
front tire still in contact with the
painted box? Explain.
3 ft
Communicate Your Answer
3. How can you find the length of a circular arc?
4. A motorcycle tire has a diameter of 24 inches. Approximately how many inches
does the motorcycle travel when its front tire makes three-fourths of a revolution?
Section 11.1
Circumference and Arc Length
597
11.1 Lesson
What You Will Learn
Use the formula for circumference.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
Use arc lengths to find measures.
circumference, p. 598
arc length, p. 599
radian, p. 601
Measure angles in radians.
Solve real-life problems.
Using the Formula for Circumference
Previous
circle
diameter
radius
The circumference of a circle is the distance around the circle. Consider a regular
polygon inscribed in a circle. As the number of sides increases, the polygon
approximates the circle and the ratio of the perimeter of the polygon to the diameter
of the circle approaches π ≈ 3.14159. . ..
For all circles, the ratio of the circumference C to the diameter d is the same. This
C
ratio is — = π. Solving for C yields the formula for the circumference of a circle,
d
C = πd. Because d = 2r, you can also write the formula as C = π(2r) = 2πr.
Core Concept
Circumference of a Circle
r
The circumference C of a circle is C = πd
or C = 2πr, where d is the diameter of the
circle and r is the radius of the circle.
d
C
C = π d = 2π r
Using the Formula for Circumference
USING PRECISE
MATHEMATICAL
LANGUAGE
Find each indicated measure.
a. circumference of a circle with a radius of 9 centimeters
You have sometimes used
3.14 to approximate the
value of π. Throughout this
book, you should use the
π key on a calculator, then
round to the hundredths
place unless instructed
otherwise.
b. radius of a circle with a circumference of 26 meters
SOLUTION
a. C = 2πr
⋅ ⋅
=2 π 9
= 18π
≈ 56.55
The circumference is about
56.55 centimeters.
Monitoring Progress
b.
C = 2πr
26 = 2πr
26
2π
—=r
4.14 ≈ r
The radius is about 4.14 meters.
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
1. Find the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 5 inches.
2. Find the diameter of a circle with a circumference of 17 feet.
598
Chapter 11
Circumference and Area
Using Arc Lengths to Find Measures
An arc length is a portion of the circumference of a circle. You can use the measure of
the arc (in degrees) to find its length (in linear units).
Core Concept
Arc Length
In a circle, the ratio of the length of a given arc to the
circumference is equal to the ratio of the measure of the
arc to 360°.
Arc length of AB
m
AB
2πr
360°
A
P
r
—— = —, or
B
m
AB
Arc length of AB = — 2πr
360°
⋅
Using Arc Lengths to Find Measures
Find each indicated measure.
a. arc length of AB
8 cm
60°
P
c. m
RS
b. circumference of ⊙Z
A
4.19 in.
Z
40° Y
B
S
15.28 m
X
T
R
44 m
SOLUTION
60°
a. Arc length of AB = — 2π(8)
360°
≈ 8.38 cm
⋅
Arc length of m
RS
RS
c. —— = —
2πr
360°
Arc length of m
XY
XY
b. —— = —
C
360°
4.19
C
40°
360°
4.19
C
1
9
44
2π(15.28)
—=—
m
RS
360°
—=—
44
360° — = m
RS
2π(15.28)
⋅
—=—
37.71 in. = C
Monitoring Progress
165° ≈ m
RS
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Find the indicated measure.
3. arc length of PQ
4. circumference of ⊙N
61.26 m
Q
9 yd
75°
R
P
5. radius of ⊙G
E
G
270°
S
150°
N
L
Section 11.1
M
10.5 ft
Circumference and Arc Length
F
599
Solving Real-Life Problems
Using Circumference to Find Distance Traveled
The dimensions of a car tire are shown. To the
nearest foot, how far does the tire travel when
it makes 15 revolutions?
5.5 in.
SOLUTION
15 in.
Step 1 Find the diameter of the tire.
d = 15 + 2(5.5) = 26 in.
5.5 in.
Step 2 Find the circumference of the tire.
C = π d = π 26 = 26π in.
⋅
COMMON ERROR
Always pay attention to
units. In Example 3, you
need to convert units to
get a correct answer.
Step 3 Find the distance the tire travels in 15 revolutions. In one revolution, the tire
travels a distance equal to its circumference. In 15 revolutions, the tire travels
a distance equal to 15 times its circumference.
Distance
traveled
Number of
revolutions
=
⋅
Circumference
⋅
= 15 26π ≈ 1225.2 in.
Step 4 Use unit analysis. Change 1225.2 inches to feet.
⋅
1 ft
1225.2 in. — = 102.1 ft
12 in.
The tire travels approximately 102 feet.
Using Arc Length to Find Distances
The curves at the ends of the track shown are 180° arcs
of circles. The radius of the arc for a runner on the
red path shown is 36.8 meters. About how far does
this runner travel to go once around the track? Round
to the nearest tenth of a meter.
44.02 m
36.8 m
84.39 m
SOLUTION
The path of the runner on the red path is made of two straight sections and two
semicircles. To find the total distance, find the sum of the lengths of each part.
Distance
=
⋅
2 Length of each
straight section
(⋅ ⋅
⋅
2 Length of
each semicircle
+
= 2(84.39) + 2 —12 2π 36.8
)
≈ 400.0
The runner on the red path travels about 400.0 meters.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
6. A car tire has a diameter of 28 inches. How many revolutions does the tire make
while traveling 500 feet?
7. In Example 4, the radius of the arc for a runner on the blue path is 44.02 meters,
as shown in the diagram. About how far does this runner travel to go once around
the track? Round to the nearest tenth of a meter.
600
Chapter 11
Circumference and Area
Measuring Angles in Radians
Recall that in a circle, the ratio of the length of a given arc
to the circumference is equal to the ratio of the measure of
the arc to 360°. To see why, consider the diagram.
A circle of radius 1 has circumference 2π, so the arc
m
CD
length of CD is — 2π.
360°
A
C
r
⋅
1
D
B
Recall that all circles are similar and corresponding lengths
of similar figures are proportional. Because m
AB = m
CD ,
AB and CD are corresponding arcs. So, you can write the following proportion.
Arc length of AB
r
1
—— = —
Arc length of CD
Arc length of AB = r Arc length of CD
⋅
m
CD
Arc length of AB = r ⋅ — ⋅ 2π
360°
This form of the equation shows that the arc length associated with a central angle
mCD
is proportional to the radius of the circle. The constant of proportionality, — 2π,
360°
is defined to be the radian measure of the central angle associated with the arc.
⋅
In a circle of radius 1, the radian measure of a given central angle can be thought of
as the length of the arc associated with the angle. The radian measure of a complete
circle (360°) is exactly 2π radians, because the circumference of a circle of radius 1
is exactly 2π. You can use this fact to convert from degree measure to radian measure
and vice versa.
Core Concept
Converting between Degrees and Radians
Degrees to radians
Multiply degree measure by
2π radians
360°
π radians
180°
—, or —.
Radians to degrees
Multiply radian measure by
360°
2π radians
180°
π radians
—, or —.
Converting between Degree and Radian Measure
a. Convert 45° to radians.
3π
b. Convert — radians to degrees.
2
SOLUTION
π radians π
a. 45° — = — radian
180°
4
⋅
π
So, 45° = — radian.
4
Monitoring Progress
8. Convert 15° to radians.
Section 11.1
3π
180°
b. — radians — = 270°
2
π radians
⋅
3π
So, — radians = 270°.
2
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
4π
3
9. Convert — radians to degrees.
Circumference and Arc Length
601
11.1 Exercises
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. WRITING Describe the difference between an arc measure and an arc length.
2. WHICH ONE DOESN’T BELONG? Which phrase does not belong with the other three? Explain
your reasoning.
π times twice the radius
the distance around a circle
π times the diameter
the distance from the center to any point on the circle
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
12. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error in
In Exercises 3–10, find the indicated measure.
(See Examples 1 and 2.)
finding the length of GH .
✗
3. circumference of a circle with a radius of 6 inches
4. diameter of a circle with a circumference of 63 feet
Arc length of GH
= mGH 2πr
= 75 2π(5)
= 750π cm
G
75°
H
C 5 cm
5. radius of a circle with a circumference of 28π
⋅
⋅
6. exact circumference of a circle with a diameter of
13. PROBLEM SOLVING A measuring wheel is used to
5 inches
7. arc length of AB
C
P
8 ft
calculate the length of a path. The diameter of the
wheel is 8 inches. The wheel makes 87 complete
revolutions along the length of the path. To the nearest
foot, how long is the path? (See Example 3.)
8. m
DE
D
A
45°
Q
8.73 in.
E
B
9. circumference of ⊙C
your bicycle is 32.5 centimeters. You ride 40 meters.
How many complete revolutions does the front
wheel make?
10. radius of ⊙R
L
F
76°
7.5 m
14. PROBLEM SOLVING The radius of the front wheel of
10 in.
C
38.95 cm
260° R
In Exercises 15–18, find the perimeter of the shaded
region. (See Example 4.)
15.
M
G
6
11. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error in
13
finding the circumference of ⊙C.
✗
602
Chapter 11
9 in.
C
C = 2πr
= 2π(9)
=18π in.
Circumference and Area
16.
6
3
3
6
17.
18.
2
90°
5
90°
5
25. x2 + y2 = 16
6
120°
90°
90°
In Exercises 25 and 26, find the circumference of the
circle with the given equation. Write the circumference
in terms of π.
5
6
26. (x + 2)2 + (y − 3)2 = 9
27. USING STRUCTURE A semicircle has endpoints
In Exercises 19–22, convert the angle measure.
(See Example 5.)
(−2, 5) and (2, 8). Find the arc length of the
semicircle.
28. REASONING EF is an arc on a circle with radius r.
19. Convert 70° to radians.
Let x° be the measure of EF . Describe the effect on
the length of EF if you (a) double the radius of the
circle, and (b) double the measure of EF .
20. Convert 300° to radians.
11π
12
21. Convert — radians to degrees.
29. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your friend claims that it is
π
22. Convert — radian to degrees.
8
possible for two arcs with the same measure to have
different arc lengths. Is your friend correct? Explain
your reasoning.
23. PROBLEM SOLVING The London Eye is a Ferris
wheel in London, England, that travels at a speed of
0.26 meter per second. How many minutes does it
take the London Eye to complete one full revolution?
67.5 m
30. PROBLEM SOLVING Over 2000 years ago, the Greek
scholar Eratosthenes estimated Earth’s circumference
by assuming that the Sun’s rays were parallel. He
chose a day when the Sun shone straight down into
a well in the city of Syene. At noon, he measured the
angle the Sun’s rays made with a vertical stick in the
city of Alexandria. Eratosthenes assumed that the
distance from Syene to Alexandria was equal to about
575 miles. Explain how Eratosthenes was able to use
this information to estimate Earth’s circumference.
Then estimate Earth’s circumference.
t
ligh
m∠2 = 7.2°
Alexandria
sun
stick
t
ligh
sun
2
well
24. PROBLEM SOLVING You are planning to plant a
circular garden adjacent to one of the corners of a
building, as shown. You can use up to 38 feet of fence
to make a border around the garden. What radius
(in feet) can the garden have? Choose all that apply.
Explain your reasoning.
1
1
Syene
center
of Earth
Not drawn to scale
31. ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS In ⊙C, the ratio of the
length of PQ to the length of RS is 2 to 1. What is the
ratio of m∠PCQ to m∠RCS?
A 4 to 1
○
B 2 to 1
○
C 1 to 4
○
D 1 to 2
○
32. ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS A 45° arc in ⊙C and a
A 7
○
B 8
○
C 9
○
D 10
○
30° arc in ⊙P have the same length. What is the ratio
of the radius r1 of ⊙C to the radius r2 of ⊙P? Explain
your reasoning.
Section 11.1
Circumference and Arc Length
603
33. PROBLEM SOLVING How many revolutions does the
38. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS What is the
smaller gear complete during a single revolution of
the larger gear?
measure (in radians) of the angle formed by the hands
of a clock at each time? Explain your reasoning.
a. 1:30 p.m.
3
b. 3:15 p.m.
39. MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS The sum of the
7
circumferences of circles A, B, and C is 63π. Find AC.
x B
3x
34. USING STRUCTURE Find the circumference of each
5x
A
circle.
C
a. a circle circumscribed about a right triangle whose
legs are 12 inches and 16 inches long
b. a circle circumscribed about a square with a side
length of 6 centimeters
c. a circle inscribed in an equilateral triangle with a
side length of 9 inches
40. THOUGHT PROVOKING Is π a rational number?
35. REWRITING A FORMULA Write a formula in terms of
the measure θ (theta) of the central angle (in radians)
that can be used to find the length of an arc of a circle.
Then use this formula to find the length of an arc of a
circle with a radius of 4 inches and a central angle of
3π
— radians.
4
355
Compare the rational number — to π. Find a
113
different rational number that is even closer to π.
41. PROOF The circles in the diagram are concentric
— ≅ GH
—. Prove that have the
and FG
JK and NG
same length.
M
36. HOW DO YOU SEE IT?
L
Compare the circumference
of ⊙P to the length of DE .
Explain your reasoning.
N
F
D
C
P
E
G
H
K
J
37. MAKING AN ARGUMENT In the diagram, the measure
of the red shaded angle is 30°. The arc length a is 2.
Your classmate claims that it is possible to find the
circumference of the blue circle without finding the
radius of either circle. Is your classmate correct?
Explain your reasoning.
r
— is divided into four
42. REPEATED REASONING AB
congruent segments, and semicircles with radius r
are drawn.
A r
a. What is the sum of the four arc lengths?
2r
a
b. What would the sum of the arc lengths be if
— was divided into 8 congruent segments?
AB
16 congruent segments? n congruent segments?
Explain your reasoning.
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
Find the area of the polygon with the given vertices. (Section 1.4)
43. X(2, 4), Y(8, −1), Z(2, −1)
604
Chapter 11
Circumference and Area
B
44. L(−3, 1), M(4, 1), N(4, −5), P(−3, −5)
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