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STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
CAROLE MIGDEN
First District, San Francisco
450 N STREET, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA
PO BOX 942879, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 94279-0080
LOUIS AMBROSE (916) 445-5580
DIANE OLSON (916) 322-9569
FAX (916) 324-3984
BILL LEONARD
Second District, Ontario
CLAUDE PARRISH
Third District, Long Beach
www.boe.ca.gov
JOHN CHIANG
Fourth District, Los Angeles
STEVE WESTLY
State Controller, Sacramento
May 23, 2003
Timothy W. Boyer
Interim Executive Director
No. 2003/038
TO COUNTY ASSESSORS,
COUNTY COUNSELS, AND
OTHER INTERESTED PARTIES:
NOTICE OF PROPOSED REGULATORY ACTION
BY THE
STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
AMEND PROPERTY TAX RULE 462.040 – CHANGE IN OWNERSHIP JOINT
TENANCIES AMEND PROPERTY TAX RULE 462.240 – THE FOLLOWING TRANSFERS
DO NOT CONSTITUTE A CHANGE IN OWNERSHIP
PUBLIC HEARING: JULY 9, 2003 AT 9:30 A.M.
NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN:
The State Board of Equalization, pursuant to the authority vested in the Board by section
15606 (c) of the Government Code, proposes to amend Rule 462.040 Change in Ownership –
Joint Tenancies and Rule 462.240 The Following Transfers do not Constitute a Change in
Ownership. A public hearing on the proposed amendments of the regulations will be held in
Room 121, 450 N Street, Sacramento, at 9:30 a.m., or as soon thereafter as the matter may be
heard, on July 9, 2003. Any person interested may present statements or arguments orally at that
time and place. Written statements or arguments will be considered by the Board if received by
July 9, 2003.
INFORMATIVE DIGEST/POLICY STATEMENT OVERVIEW
1. Rule 462.040 Change in Ownership - Joint Tenancies
The proposed amendments clarify existing statutory provisions governing creation of
“original transferor” status by amending the rule language to provide that co-owners may
become “original transferors” by transferring to themselves in joint tenancy without requiring a
third person among the transferees or by transferring to a trust or will for the benefit of the other
TO INTERESTED PARTIES
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MAY 23, 2003
joint tenant. Under the amendments, the assessor would have authority (a) to presume that every
joint tenant is an “original transferor”, if the assessor has reasonable cause based on specific
types of evidence to make such a presumption, and (2) to apply the step transaction doctrine to
transfers made for the purpose of avoiding a change in ownership and not for estate planning
purposes. The proposed addition of a subdivision to specify that the rule provisions apply only to
transfers between individuals, and not legal entities or commercial transactions, in recognition of
the fact and in accord with the Legislature’s determination that joint tenancies are estate planning
tools. The amendments also add a sentence to clarify that the “original transferor” status
terminates upon the termination of the joint tenancy and an example to illustrate the termination
of “original transferor” status..
2. Rule 462.240 The Following Transfers do not Constitute a Change in Ownership
The proposed amendment adds a subdivision to apply Probate Code provisions that treat
transfers of property upon the death of a registered domestic partner to a surviving domestic
partner in the same manner as transfers from a deceased spouse to a surviving spouse.
COST TO LOCAL AGENCIES AND SCHOOL DISTRICTS
The State Board of Equalization has determined that proposed amendments to Rule
462.040 and Rule 462.240 do not impose a mandate on local agencies or school districts.
Further, the Board has determined that the proposed rule will not result in direct or indirect
costs or savings to any State agency, any costs to local agencies or school districts that are
required to be reimbursed under Part 7 (commencing with Section 17500) of Division 4 of
Title 2 of the Government Code, or other non-discretionary costs or savings imposed on
local agencies, or cost or savings in federal funding to the State of California.
EFFECT ON BUSINESS
Pursuant to Government Code section 11346.5 (a)(8), the Board of Equalization makes
an initial determination that the adoption of the proposed amendments to Rule 462.040 and Rule
462.240 will not have a significant statewide adverse economic impact directly affecting
business because the proposed rule amendments merely clarify and interpret existing code
provisions which generally apply to transfers among individuals in close family and personal
relationships.
The proposed rule amendments will neither create nor eliminate jobs in the State of
California nor result in the elimination of existing businesses nor create or expand business in the
State of California.
The rule amendments as proposed will not be detrimental to California businesses in
competing with businesses in other states.
TO INTERESTED PARTIES
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MAY 23, 2003
The proposed rule amendments will not affect small business because the amendments
interpret and make specific existing statutory law and do not impose any additional compliance
or reporting requirements on taxpayers.
COST IMPACT ON PRIVATE PERSONS OR BUSINESSES
There will be no adverse economic impact on private businesses or persons because the
proposed rule amendments interpret and make specific existing statutory law and do not impose
any additional compliance or reporting requirements on privates businesses or persons.
SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON HOUSING COSTS
No significant effect.
FEDERAL REGULATIONS
Rule 462.040 and Rule 462.240 have no comparable Federal regulations.
AUTHORITY
Government Code section 15606, subdivision (c).
REFERENCE
Sections 62 and 65, Revenue and Taxation Code; Sections 37 and 6401, Probate Code .
CONTACT
Questions regarding the substance of the proposed rule should be directed to: Mr. Louis
Ambrose, Supervising Tax Counsel, at P.O. Box 942879, 450 N Street, MIC:82, Sacramento,
CA 94279-0082. Telephone: (916) 445-5580; FAX (916) 323-3387.
The Board will consider comments on the proposed amendments and the proposed rule if
received by July 9, 2003. Written comments for the Board's consideration, notice of intent to
present testimony or witnesses, and inquiries concerning the proposed administrative action
should be directed to Ms. Diane Olson, Regulations Coordinator, telephone (916) 322-9569, fax
(916) 324-3984, email [email protected] or to Ms. Joann Richmond, Property Taxes
Analyst, telephone (916) 322-1931, email [email protected] or by mail to the State
Board of Equalization, Attn: Diane Olson or Joann Richmond, MIC: 80, P.O. Box 942879,
Sacramento, CA 94279-0080.
ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED
The Board must determine that no reasonable alternative considered by it or that has
otherwise been identified and brought to its attention would be more effective in carrying out the
TO INTERESTED PARTIES
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MAY 23, 2003
purpose for which this action is proposed, or be as effective and less burdensome to affected
private persons than the proposed action.
AVAILABILITY OF INITIAL STATEMENT OF REASONS AND TEXT OF PROPOSED
REGULATIONS
The Board has prepared an initial statement of reasons and an underscored version
(express terms) of the proposed rule amendments. Those documents and all information on
which the proposal is based are available to the public upon request. The rulemaking file is
available for public inspection at 450 N Street, Sacramento, California. Requests for copies
should be addressed to Ms. Diane Olson, Regulations Coordinator, (916) 322-9569, at P. O. Box
942879, 450 N Street, MIC:80, Sacramento, CA 94279-0080. The express terms of the proposed
regulation (rule) amendments are available on the Internet at the Board’s website
http://www.boe.ca.gov.
AVAILABILITY OF FINAL STATEMENT OF REASONS
The final statement of reasons will be made available on the Internet at the Board’s web
site following its public hearing of the proposed rule amendments. It is also available for public
inspection at 450 N Street, Sacramento, California.
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
Following the hearing, the State Board of Equalization may, in accordance with law,
adopt the proposed rule amendments if the text remains substantially the same as described in the
text originally made available to the public. If the State Board of Equalization makes
modifications which are substantially related to the originally proposed text, the Board will make
the modified text, with the changes clearly indicated, available to the public for fifteen days
before adoption of the rule amendments. The text of the modified rule amendments will be
mailed to those interested parties who commented on the proposed regulatory action orally or in
writing or who asked to be informed of such changes. The modified rule amendments will be
available to the public from Ms. Olson. The State Board of Equalization will consider written
comments on the modified rule amendments for fifteen days after the date on which the modified
rule amendments are made available to the public.
STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
/s/ Deborah Pellegrini
Deborah Pellegrini
Chief, Board Proceedings Division
DP:dgo
Enclosures
Rule 462.040
CHANGE IN OWNERSHIP--JOINT TENANCIES.
(a) The creation, transfer, or termination of a joint tenancy interest is a change in
ownership of the interest transferred.
Example 1: The purchase of property by A and B, as joint tenants, is a change in
ownership of the entire property.
Example 2: The transfer from A and B, as joint tenants, to C and D, as joint
tenants, is a change in ownership of the entire property.
Example 3: The subsequent transfer from C and D, as joint tenants, to C, as sole
owner, is a change in ownership of 50% of the property.
(b) The following transfers do not constitute a change in ownership:
(1) The transfer creates or transfers any joint tenancy interest, including an interest in a
trust or will, and after such creation or transfer, all the transferor(s) are among is one of
the joint tenants. Such a transferor(s) who are is also a transferee(s) in this situation are
and is, therefore, considered to be an “original transferor(s)” for purposes of determining
the property to be reappraised upon subsequent transfers. If a spouse of an original
transferor acquires an interest in the joint tenancy property either during the period that
the original transferor holds an interest or by means of a transfer from the original
transferor, such spouse shall also be considered to be an original transferor. Any joint
tenant may also become an original transferor by transferring his or her joint tenancy
interest to the other joint tenant(s) through his or her trust if the trust instrument names
the other joint tenant(s) as the present beneficiary or beneficiaries or through his or her
will, if the will provisions name the other joint tenant(s) as the devisee(s). All other
initial and subsequent joint tenants are considered to be “other than original transferors.”
Example 4: A and B own property as tenants in common and transfer the property to
A and B as joint tenants. A and B are not both “original transferors.” To become
original transferors, the transfer must be from A and B to A and B at least one other
person.
Example 4(a): A and B purchase property as joint tenants. Later A and B transfer their
property interests to each other as joint tenants through their respective trusts or wills. A
and B are transferors who are among the joint tenants and are, therefore, considered to be
“original transferors.”
Example 5: A and B, as joint tenants, transfer to A, B, C, and D as joint tenants. No
change in ownership because A and B, the transferors, are included among the transferees
and are, therefore, “original transferors”. (C and D are “other than original transferors”.)
Likewise, if A, as the sole owner, had transferred to A, B, C, and D as joint tenants, no
change in ownership. A would be an “original transferor” and B, C, and D would be
“other than original transferors”.
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1
The proposed amendments contained in this document may not be adopted. Any revisions that are adopted
may differ from this text.
Example 6: A and B, as joint tenants, transfer to A, B, C, D and E as joint tenants. E is
B’s wife. No change in ownership because A and B, the transferors, are included among
the transferees and are, therefore, “original transferors.” E is also an “original transferor.”
(C and D are “other than original transferors.”)
Example 7-1: A, B, and C are joint tenants and A is an “original transferor”. A dies. B
and C transfer to B, C, and D as joint tenants. D is A’s husband. D does not become an
original transferor because he did not acquire his interest during the period that A held an
interest in the joint tenancy.
Example 7-2: A and B, as joint tenants, transfer to B and C, as joint tenants, and C is A’s
spouse. C is an original transferor because he was the spouse of an original transferor and
he acquired an interest by means of a transfer from A.
Example 7-3: A and B are joint tenants and A is an “original transferor”. C is A’s spouse.
A and B as joint tenants transfer to A, B, and C. C is an original transferor
Example 8: A and B, as joint tenants, transfer to B, C and D, as joint tenants. 66 2/3%
change in ownership of the transferred interests because A is not of one the transferees.
Example 9: A and B transfer to A, B and C as joint tenants and, thereafter, C transfers his
or her interest to A and B purchase property as joint tenants and transfer their joint
tenancy interests to each other through their respective trusts. A and B become “original
transferors”. A and B sell a 50% interest to C and D, with the deed showing A, B, C and
D as joint tenants. C and D then transfer their joint tenancy interests to each other
through their trusts, so that both become “original transferors”. A and B then sell their
remaining 50% to C and D, and go off title. Under circumstances where application of
the step-transaction doctrine to disregard the form of the transaction would be appropriate
due to their intent to avoid a change in ownership, A, B, C, and B D do not become
“original transferors” as a the result of the their transfers to A, B and C each other.
(2) The transfer terminates an original transferor’s interest in a joint tenancy described
in (b)(1) and the interest vests in whole or in part in the remaining original
transferor(s); except that, upon the termination of the interest of the last surviving
original transferor, there shall be a reappraisal of the property as if it had undergone a
100 percent change in ownership.
Example 10: A and B transfer to A, B, C, and D as joint tenants. A dies or grants his
interest to the remaining joint tenants, B, C, and D. No change in ownership because B,
an original transferor, remains as a joint tenant.
Example 11: Following the example set forth in Example 10 (above), B dies or grants his
interest to C and D. 100 percent change in ownership because both A’s and B’s interests
had previously been excluded from reappraisal and B was the last surviving original
transferor.
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2
The proposed amendments contained in this document may not be adopted. Any revisions that are adopted
may differ from this text.
(3) The transfer terminates a joint tenancy interest held by other than an original
transferor in a joint tenancy described in (b)(1) and the interest is transferred either to an
original transferor, or to all the remaining joint tenants, provided that one of the
remaining joint tenants is an original transferor. The original transferor status of any
remaining joint tenants ceases when a joint tenancy is terminated.
Example 12: Following the example set forth in Example 10 (above), C, not an original
transferor, grants his interest to B and D. No change in ownership because C grants to
the remaining joint tenants, B and D, and B is an original transferor.
Example 13: A owns real property and transfers a 50% interest to B as a tenant in
common resulting in a change in ownership of that 50% interest. They subsequently
transfer to themselves in joint tenancy and, as a result, become “original transferors”. A
dies and A’s joint tenancy interest passes to B by operation of law without a change in
ownership because B is an “original transferor.” Upon A’s death, the joint tenancy is
terminated and B ceases to be an “original transferor.”
(4) For other than joint tenancies described in (b)(1), the transfer is between or among
co-owners and results in a change in the method of holding title but does not result in a
change in the proportional interests of the co-owners, such as:
(A) a transfer terminating the joint tenancy and creating separate ownerships of the
property in equal interests.
(B) a transfer terminating the joint tenancy and creating a tenancy in common of
equal interests.
(C) a transfer terminating a joint tenancy and creating or transferring to a legal entity
when the interests of the transferors and transferees remain the same after the transfer.
(Such transferees shall be considered to be the "original co-owners" for purposes of
determining whether a change in ownership occurs upon the subsequent transfer(s) of
the ownership interests in the property.)
(5) The transfer is one to which the interspousal exclusion applies.
(6) The transfer is of a joint tenancy interest of less than five percent of the value of the
total property and has a value of less than $10,000; provided, however, that transfers of
such interests during any one assessment year (the period from January 1 through
December 31) shall be accumulated for the purpose of determining the percentage
interest and value transferred. When the accumulated interests transferred during any
assessment year equals or exceeds five percent of the value of the total property or
$10,000, exclusive of any interest transferred to a spouse or other exempt transfer, only
that percentage of the property represented by the transferred accumulated interests shall
be reappraised. For purposes of this subsection, the “accumulated interests transferred”
shall not include any transfer of an interest that is otherwise excluded from change in
ownership.
_____
3
The proposed amendments contained in this document may not be adopted. Any revisions that are adopted
may differ from this text.
(7) The transfer is one to which the parent-child or grandparent-grandchild exclusion
applies, and for which a timely claim has been filed as required by law.
(c) For purposes of this section, for joint tenancies created on or before March 1, 1975,
it shall be rebuttably presumed that each joint tenant holding an interest in property as
of March 1, 1975, shall be an "original transferor." This presumption is not applicable
to joint tenancies created after March 1, 1975.
(d) For purposes of this section, the assessor may consider persons holding joint title
to property, such as tenants in common, to be joint tenants and “original transferors” if
there is “reasonable cause” to believe that the parties intended to create a joint
tenancy and each person was a transferor among the persons holding title.
“Reasonable cause” means a deed, Affidavit of Death of Joint Tenant, a trust, will, or
estate plan indicating that a joint tenant was a transferor among the joint tenants,
unless circumstances causing the application of the step transaction exist.
Example 14: A and B jointly purchase their primary residence and title is recorded as
tenants in common. The sales contract states that A and B intended to take title as joint
tenants. Subsequently, A and B each execute revocable living trusts transferring their
respective interests in the property to their trusts for the benefit of each other. The
assessor may determine that the sales contract and trust instruments establish that A and
B intended to hold title as joint tenants upon purchase and that each subsequently became
an “original transferor.”
(e) This rule and chapter interpret, implement and make specific the provisions of section
65 of the Revenue and Taxation Code which provide that the creation, transfer or
termination of a joint tenancy interest results in a change in ownership unless the
transferor, classified as an “original transferor”, remains as one of the joint tenants. This
treatment was intended by the Legislature to protect family joint tenancy interests and
those of the original owners from changes in ownership until the termination of the last
original transferor’s interest. The Legislature found that a joint tenant’s survivorship
rights in property replicate a transfer to the beneficiary under a trust or will who is
usually a family member or another person in an intimate personal relationship with the
decedent. In applying these provisions, therefore, “original transferors” shall not include
legal entities.
Authority cited:
Reference:
Section 15606, Government Code
Sections 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 65.1, 67, Revenue and Taxation
Code; Section 662, Evidence Code.
H:/property/drafts/ambrose/Rule462-040draft.doc
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4
The proposed amendments contained in this document may not be adopted. Any revisions that are adopted
may differ from this text.
Rule 462.240
THE FOLLOWING TRANSFERS DO NOT CONSTITUTE A
CHANGE IN OWNERSHIP.
The following transfers do not constitute a change in ownership:
(a) The transfer of bare legal title, e.g.,
(1) Any transfer to an existing assessee for the purpose of perfecting title to the
property.
(2) Any transfer resulting in the creation, assignment, or reconveyance of a security
interest not coupled with the right to immediate use, occupancy, possession or profits.
(b) Any transfer caused by the substitution of a trustee.
(c) Any purchase, redemption or other transfer of the shares or units of participation
of a group trust, pooled fund, common trust fund, or other collective investment fund
established by a financial institution.
(d) Any contribution of real property to an employee benefit plan, any acquisition by
an employee benefit plan of the stock of the employer corporation pursuant to which
the employee benefit plan obtains direct or indirect ownership or control of more than
50 percent of the voting stock in the employer corporation, or the creation, vesting,
transfer, distribution, or termination of a participant’s or beneficiary’s interest in such
a plan. The terms used herein shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which is codified as United States
Code annotated, Title 29, Section 1002. (The term "any contribution" as used in
Section 66 (b) of the Revenue and Taxation Code and this section means only those
original contributions of real property made to an employee benefit plan by an
employer, a group of employees, or both, without any consideration.)
(e)Any transfer of property or an interest therein between a corporation sole, a
religious corporation, a public benefit corporation, and a holding corporation as
defined in Section 23701h of the Revenue and Taxation Code holding title for the
benefit of any of the aforementioned corporations, or any combination thereof
(including any transfer from one such entity to the same type of entity), provided that
both the transferee and the transferor are regulated by laws, rules, regulations, or
canons of the same religious denomination.
(f) Any transfer, occurring on or after January 1, 1983, which results from the
reformation or correction of a deed which, by mistake, inaccurately describes the
property intended to be conveyed, or adds or omits some term not agreed to by the
parties, or in some other manner fails to express the true intentions of the parties.
_____
1
The proposed amendments contained in this document may not be adopted. Any revisions that are adopted
may differ from this text.
Example 1: A agrees to sell one acre to B. The deed mistakenly describes a
two-acre area. Reformation of the deed to describe the original acre
intended to be transferred is not a change in ownership.
(g) Any transfer, occurring on or after January 1, 1983, of an eligible dwelling unit
from a parent(s) or legal guardian(s) to a minor child or children or among minor
siblings resulting from a court order or judicial decree due to the death of one or
both of the parents. An “eligible dwelling unit” means the dwelling which was the
principal place of residence of the minor child or children prior to the transfer and
remains such after the transfer.
(h) Any transfer of property to a disabled child, whether minor or adult, upon the
death of a parent pursuant to Section 62(n) of the Revenue and Taxation Code.
(i) Any transfer, on or after January 1, 1985, of a mobilehome park or of rental
spaces in a mobilehome park pursuant to Section 62.1 of the Revenue and Taxation
Code.
(j) Any transfer of a mobilehome park or of rental spaces in a mobilehome park
pursuant to Section 62.2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.
(k) Any transfer of separate property as defined in Revenue and Taxation Code section
401.4, inherited by a surviving domestic partner, as defined in subdivision (b) of section
37 of the Probate Code, whether by intestate succession, will, or trust, or other estate
plan, upon the death of a registered domestic partner.
Note: Authority: Section 15606, Government Code.
Reference: Sections 60, 61, 62, 62.1, 62.2, 64, 66, and 67, Revenue and Taxation
Code; Sections 37, 6401, Probate Code.
H:/property/drafts/ambrose/Rule462-240draft.doc
_____
2
The proposed amendments contained in this document may not be adopted. Any revisions that are adopted
may differ from this text.
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