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European explorers came to the New World for all of... except searching for riches by finding new industrial centers to produce...
Part 1- Colonization & Colonialism
8.2A- understand the causes of exploration and colonization eras and be able to identify
reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America
European explorers came to the New World for all of the following reasons,
except
 searching for riches by finding new industrial centers to produce goods
 searching for fame through the establishment of successful colonies and
discovery of new lands
 searching for wealth through the discovery of natural resources and
minerals
 religious expansion and/or tolerance
8.2B- understand the causes of exploration and colonization eras and be able to compare
political, economic, religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13
English colonies
Which of these colonies was established by former members of the Puritan
church?
 Connecticut
 New York
 North Carolina
 Pennsylvania
8.12B- understand why various sections of the United States developed different patterns
of economic activity and be able to explain reasons for the development of the
plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery
Before turning to slavery, much of the early colonial work force came from all of
these except:
 subsistence farmers working their own fields
 imprisoned workers from England
 white indentured servants whose passage had been paid for
 captives of native tribes who were forced in to labor
8.10B- understand the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United
States, past and present and be able to compare places and regions of the United States
in terms of physical and human characteristics
Which statement best describes the governmental establishment in New York?
 founded on religious tolerance and acceptance of men, women, and
Natives as equal
 local settlers fought for an elected assembly, which was granted at times
by the ruling landlords
 a representative assembly made up of a monogamous body of church
members
 founded on the idea of separation between church and state
Which colonial region’s origins were most closely related to the ideas of religious
freedom?
 New England
 Middle Colonies
 Midwestern Colonies
 Southern Colonies
8.10C- understand the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United
States, past and present and be able to analyze the effects of physical and human
geographic factors on major historical and contemporary events in the United States
The Appalachian Mountains were a significant geographic feature during the
colonial period because they
 provided fresh water to regions up river
 created a natural barrier to protect settlements from the harsh storms of
the Great Plains
 provided a natural barrier to westward expansion
 were abundant in rich soils for farming
8.11A- understand the physical characteristics of North America and how humans
adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century and be able to
analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population
distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States during
the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries
The Appalachian Mountains were a significant geographic feature during the
colonial period because they
 provided fresh water to regions up river
 created a natural barrier to protect settlements from the harsh storms of
the Great Plains
 provided a natural barrier to westward expansion
 were abundant in rich soils for farming
Which colonial leader is most closely associated with the idea of equality for
everyone?
 Thomas Hooker
 John Locke
 William Penn
 William Blackstone
Part 2- Government
8.3A- understand the foundations of representative government in the United States and
be able to explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and
institutions during the colonial period
Which statement best describes the governmental establishment in New York?
 founded on religious tolerance and acceptance of men, women, and
Natives as equal
 local settlers fought for an elected assembly, which was granted at times
by the ruling landlords
 a representative assembly made up of a monogamous body of church
members
 founded on the idea of separation between church and state
Which of the following best replaces the question mark in the diagram above?
 created a general council to manage the colonies
 experienced strict control by Parliament
 established their own representative institutions
 appointed governors who reported to the king
8.3B- understand the foundations of representative government in the United States and
be able to analyze the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders
of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses to the growth of representative
government
Which of the following is considered the first written constitution in colonial
America?
 Mayflower Compact
 Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges
 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
 Virginia’s Colonial Burgesses
The Virginia House of Burgesses is noteworthy for being
 the first representative body in the colonies
 the first colonial body to be founded on an ideal of religious tolerance
 the first government to be appointed by the crown of England
 the only one of the thirteen colonies that was not originally English
“ [This document] represented the first known time when a working
government was framed completely independently, without a charter or some
other concession from a previously existing regime [ruling power], but by the
people themselves. It provided for regular elections, while setting strict limits on
the power of those elected. In [other colonies], the franchise was limited to
proven church members, "visible saints." [Here], however, voters merely had to
be inhabitants of "honest conversation," according to Perry Miller, though they
could not be Quakers, Jews, or Atheists. Elected officials had to be property
owners, believers in the Trinity, and of good behavior. And the governor had to
be a member in good standing of an approved congregation. Today, these
requirements would seem severe, but in the 17th century such an easygoing
regime was unprecedented.
From Faith and Freedom, by Benjamin Hart
From the passage above, which document/text is most likely being described?
 The Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges
 The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
 The Charter of the Virginia Colony of 1607
 Framers of Government
8.15C- understand the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of
Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents and be
able to identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and
explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of
Rights
Excerpts from the Declaration of Independence
The history of the present king of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries [such as:]
. . . quartering large bodies of armed troops among us . . .
. . . depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by jury . . .
. . . transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses . . .
. . . [answering] our repeated petitions . . .only by repeated injury.
These colonial grievances were directly addressed in
 the Articles of Confederation
 presidential decrees
 congressional legislation
 the Bill of Rights
Part 3- Government continued
8.15C- understand the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of
Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents and be
able to identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and
explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of
Rights
Excerpt from the Declaration of Independence
[King George III] has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent
[approval] to laws for establishing judiciary powers.
Which of the following was included in the U.S. Constitution in order to deal
with the grievance expressed above?
 the process for amendment
 the establishment of a chief executive
 the process for territorial statehood
 the establishment of the Supreme Court
8.15D- understand the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of
Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents and be
able to analyze how the U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited
government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers,
popular sovereignty, and individual rights
Which principle of U.S. government is most clearly reflected in the amendment
above?
 Checks and balances
 Federalism
 Separation of powers
 Due process
Which constitutional principle best protects the public from abuse by one branch
of government?
 Separation of powers
 Checks and balances
 Popular sovereignty
 Federalism
The Preamble of the United States Constitution says that the power to govern
originates with the
 states
 people
 Supreme Court
 President
Article V, excerpted above, is included in the U.S. Constitution to allow for the
 adaptation of laws to reflect changes in society
 revision of laws by the executive branch
 resolution of conflicts through the judicial system
 validation of elections by a national authority
Speaker A: “The president does not like the law Congress is voting on. He does
not think it is the right thing for the government to do.”
Speaker B: “If the president really wants to stop the law, he has the power to do
so.”
Speaker C: “Even if the president does stop the law, Congress can still have its
way if two-thirds of the members are willing to vote for it.”
Speaker D: “Congress may get its way, but the president is confident that when
the law is heard by the Supreme Court, it will be declared unconstitutional.”
Identify which principle is reflected in the above examples.
 Separation of Powers
 Federalism
 Republicanism
 Checks and Balances
What is one feature of the political system created by the original Constitution of
the United States?
 guaranteeing equal legal rights to all persons
 requiring the federal government to maintain a balanced budget
 dividing powers between the national and state governments
 granting more power to the executive branch than to the other branches
of government
8.19A- understand the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States and be
able to define and give examples of unalienable rights
Which right best completes the diagram?
 The right to bear arms
 Freedom to speak without fear of punishment
 Protection from cruel and unusual punishment
 Freedom of the press to report on court proceedings
8.20A- understand the importance of voluntary individual participation in the
democratic process and be able to explain the role of significant individuals such as
Thomas Hooker, Charles de Montesquieu, John Locke, William Blackstone, and William
Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following
question.
It is natural for a republic to have only a small territory; otherwise it cannot long subsist.
In an extensive republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less
moderation; there are trusts too considerable to be placed in any single subject; he has
interests of his own; he soon begins to think that he may be happy and glorious, by
oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of
his country… In an extensive republic the public good is sacrificed to a thousand private
views; it is subordinate to exceptions, and depends on accidents. In a small one, the
interest of the public is more obvious, better understood, and more within the reach of
every citizen; abuses have less extent, and, of course, are less protected.
—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, 1748
Why is this excerpt of Montesquieu used by antifederalists to argue against the
ratification of the U.S. Constitution?
 a large, national republic would lead to corruption
 a small republic can be easily taken over by one person
 a national government needs to be led by a chief executive
 a republican form of government would protect the common good
Part 4- The American Revolution
8.4C- understand significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era and
be able to explain the issues surrounding important events of the American
Revolution, including declaring independence; writing the Articles of Confederation;
fighting the battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring the winter
at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783
The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the Revolutionary War because it
 ended the British threat to the South
 guaranteed Canadian help for the colonists
 convinced the French to support the Americans
 forced the British to withdraw from North America
The signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was a political victory for the United
States because it meant that
 Florida became part of the United States
 France agreed to give military aid to the United States
 Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation
 the United States could purchase the Louisiana Territory from France
“By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world.”
— Ralph Waldo Emerson
The above poems both reference which event during the Revolutionary War?
 the Winter spent at Valley Forge
 British surrender at Yorktown
 Battle of Bunker Hill
 Battles of Lexington and Concord
8.4A- understand significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era and
be able to analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of
1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act, mercantilism, lack of representation in
Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War
The belief that colonies exist to benefit the economy of the mother country is
known as
 triangular trade
 mercantilism
 free trade
 nativism
The main goal of most of the policies shown in the illustration was to
 allow American colonists greater self-government
 enable Great Britain to raise revenues and control trade
 encourage immigration to the colonies
 encourage Americans to trade with other European countries
8.4B- understand significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era and be
able to explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American
Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams, Samuel Adams, James Armistead,
Crispus Attucks, Wentworth Cheswell, Benjamin Franklin, Bernardo de Gálvez, King
George III, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine,
Mercy Otis Warren, Haym Salomon, and George Washington
Which Founding Father of the United States had the most significant role in
writing the Declaration of Independence?
 Thomas Jefferson
 George Washington
 John Adams
 Benjamin Franklin
Which of the following best completes this table?
 Governor of Massachusetts
 Minister to France
 Commander in chief
 Leader of the Sons of Liberty
How did John Adams and Benjamin Franklin help the colonial effort during the
American Revolution?
 both men served in the colonial navy leading the attack at Yorktown
 both men organized supplies for the Minutemen and fought at Lexington
and Concord
 both men were elected as members of Parliament and argued for
representation
 both men worked to gain the support of European allies and argued for
independence
An important effect of Common Sense was that it persuaded many —
 ordinary people to support independence from Great Britain
 rich merchants to leave the colonies
 loyalists to support the king
 loyalists and patriots to unite against Great Britain
Which statement is most consistent with the views of Loyalists in the 1770s?
 The colonists should be grateful to be under British rule and protection
 Taxation without representation is tyranny
 Citizens, under British rule, have the right to declare independence
 The king is violating the rights of British citizens
Part 5- The Constitution
8.4E- understand significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era and be
able to analyze the arguments for and against ratification
Use the excerpts and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following questions
If these states should either be wholly disunited, or only united in partial confederacies, a
man must be far gone in Utopian speculations, who can seriously doubt that the
subdivisions into which they might be thrown, would have frequent and violent contests
with each other. To presume a want of motives for such contests, as an argument against
their existence, would be to forget that men are ambitious, vindictive, and rapacious. To
look for a continuation of harmony between a number of independent unconnected
sovereignties, situated in the same neighbourhood, would be to disregard the uniform
course of human events, and to set at defiance the accumulated experience of ages.
—Alexander Hamilton, Federalist #6, 1787
Why does Hamilton argue to ratify the U.S. Constitution?
 a constitution would separate power among several branches
 a national government would have be a constitutional republic
 a constitutional government would protect the rights of the people
 independent states would not live peacefully without a national
government
It is natural for a republic to have only a small territory; otherwise it cannot long subsist.
In an extensive republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less
moderation; there are trusts too considerable to be placed in any single subject; he has
interests of his own; he soon begins to think that he may be happy and glorious, by
oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of
his country… In an extensive republic the public good is sacrificed to a thousand private
views; it is subordinate to exceptions, and depends on accidents. In a small one, the
interest of the public is more obvious, better understood, and more within the reach of
every citizen; abuses have less extent, and, of course, are less protected.
—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, 1748
Why is this excerpt of Montesquieu used by antifederalists to argue against the
ratification of the U.S. Constitution?
 a large, national republic would lead to corruption
 a small republic can be easily taken over by one person
 a national government needs to be led by a chief executive
 a republican form of government would protect the common good
In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by the people is first
divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each
subdivided among distinct and separate departments. Hence a double security arises to
the rights of the people. The different governments will control each other, at the same
time that each will be controlled by itself.
—James Madison, Federalist #51, February, 1788
According to the excerpt, why did James Madison support ratification of the
Constitution?
 It provided a list of enumerated rights.
 It provided a series of checks on government power.
 It provided the people the ability to retake government power.
8.17A- understand the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and
state governments in a federal system and be able to analyze the arguments of the
Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including those of Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry,
James Madison, and George Mason
Many gentlemen, whom I respect, take different sides of this question. We wish this
amendment to be introduced, to remove our apprehensions. There was a clause in the
Confederation reserving to the states respectively every power, jurisdiction, and right,
not expressly delegated to the United States. This clause has never been complained of,
but approved by all. Why not, then, have a similar clause in this Constitution, in which it
is the more indispensably necessary than in the Confederation, because of the great
augmentation of power vested in the former? In my humble apprehension, unless there
be some such clear and finite expression, this clause now under consideration will go to
any thing our rulers may think proper. Unless there be some express declaration that
every thing not given is retained, it will be carried to any power Congress may please.
—George Mason, speech at the Virginia Ratifying Convention, June, 1788
Why did Mason want to include the amendment he describes in this excerpt?
 He feared the national government would take too much power.
 He believed individual states should choose delegates to Congress.
 He believed Congress should have any power necessary and proper.
8.4D- understand significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era and
be able to analyze the issues of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, including the
Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise
How did the Northwest Ordinance ensure the orderly expansion of the United
States?
 It required a republican state government.
 It provided a procedure for a territory to become a state.
 It established a state constitution for newly admitted states.
 It granted state governments the power to set official state boundaries.
Which of the following was the result of the Great Compromise?
 two house legislature
 right to bear arms
 freedom of speech
 slavery
At the Constitutional Convention, the Virginia Plan included a proposal for
 Bill of Rights
 bicameral legislature based on population
 states’ rights
 electoral college to be used to determine the President
The Three-Fifths Compromise concerned which issue below?
 counting of slaves for determining representation and taxation
 the establishment of upper and lower legislative bodies
 the counting of rights for states in the Bill of Rights
8.15A- understand the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of
Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents and be
able to identify the influence of ideas from historic documents, including the Magna
Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Federalist Papers, and
selected Anti-Federalist writings, on the U.S. system of government
Which document in English and Colonial history contributed to the big ideas
found in our Constitution that first conceived of limiting the power of a ruling
party?
 Mayflower Compact
 The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
 The English Bill of Rights
 The Magna Carta
8.15B- understand the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of
Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents and be
able to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
After the end of the Revolutionary War, states were eager to expand into newly
available territory. The states of New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and
Virginia argued over competing claims to land west of the Appalachian
Mountains.
This conflict was addressed by the—
 Missouri Compromise
 Wilmot Proviso
 Northwest Ordinance
 Kansas- Nebraska Act
8.16A- understand the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of
amendments on American society and be able to summarize the purposes for and
process of amending the U.S. Constitution
Articles of Confederation
No Executive
No power to tax
One vote in Congress for each state
United States Constitution
Electors choose the President
Congress can pass revenue bills
Two Houses of Congress: one with
equal representation & one based on
population
Amended by a unanimous vote of the
?
states
Which of the following completes the chart?
 Two-thirds vote of Congress and ratification by three-fourths of the states
 Presidential proposal and two-thirds vote of the Senate
 Unanimous vote of the Supreme Court Justices
 Majority of both Houses of Congress
Part 6- The Early Republic & Social Reforms
8.5E- understand the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the
early years of the republic and the Age of Jackson and be able to identify the foreign
policies of presidents Washington through Monroe and explain the impact of
Washington's Farewell Address and the Monroe Doctrine
“Of the complicated European systems of national polity we have heretofore been
independent. From their wars, their tumults, and anxieties we have been, happily, almost
entirely exempt. Whilst these are confined to the nations which gave them existence . . .
they can not affect us except as they appeal to our sympathies in the cause of human
freedom and universal advancement.”
—President Franklin Pierce, inaugural address, 1853
These remarks best reflect a confirmation of which U.S. president’s foreignpolicy goals?
 George Washington
 James Madison
 James Monroe
 John Quincy Adams
8.6A- understand westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and
social development of the nation and be able to explain how the Northwest Ordinance
established principles and procedures for orderly expansion of the United States
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was passed by Congress to outline a
government for the Northwest Territory- the lands north of the Ohio River, and
east of the Mississippi River. It also provided for __________ and prohibited
____________ in the territories.
 farmers' rights, tariffs
 public education, slavery
 religious tolerance, republics
8.22B- understand the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic and
be able to describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military
leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe,
Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
President Andrew Jackson defended the spoils system as a benefit to democracy
because it
 granted the right to vote to more people
 increased the power of the states
 filled government jobs with common citizens
8.23C- understand the relationships between and among people from various groups,
including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries
and be able to identify ways conflicts between people from various racial, ethnic, and
religious groups were resolved
One attempt to resolve this issue without violence involved which action?
 The Cherokee Nation challenged Georgia’s anti-Cherokee laws before the
U. S. Supreme Court.
 Georgia asked the federal government for funds to purchase Cherokee
land.
 The Cherokee Nation asked President Andrew Jackson to negotiate with
Georgia.
8.23E- understand the relationships between and among people from various groups,
including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries
and be able to identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to
American society
The Declaration of Sentiments at the Seneca Falls Convention helped advance the
 temperance movement
 women’s suffrage movement
 prison-reform movement
 education-reform movement
8.24B- understand the major reform movements of the 19th century and be able to
evaluate the impact of reform movements, including educational reform, temperance,
the women's rights movement, prison reform, abolition, the labor reform movement, and
care of the disabled
The primary goal of the American Temperance Society was to
 ban the spread of slavery to new territories
 decrease the consumption of alcohol
 gain the release of mentally ill people from prisons
 create a self-sufficient utopian society
8.25B- understand the impact of religion on the American way of life and be able to
describe religious motivation for immigration and influence on social movements,
including the impact of the first and second Great Awakenings
As one of the first shared experiences among the colonies, the First Great
Awakening taught colonists that
 it was both acceptable and right to want change when leadership is
failing
 God had designed a “manifest destiny” for the colonists to reach west for
 “sleepy” governments were better for the people than active ones
 they were better as a united nation than thirteen independent units
8.26C- understand the relationship between the arts and the times during which they
were created and be able to analyze the relationship between fine arts and continuity
and change in the American way of life
The writings of Nathanial Hawthorne, James Fenimore Cooper, and Washington
Irving are all similar in that they:
 wrote about the American Revolution
 directly influenced the works of British authors
 used photographs to illustrate their work
 featured historical American settings in their works
8.16A- understand the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of
amendments on American society and be able to summarize the purposes for and
process of amending the U.S. Constitution
Chief Justice John Marshall once said that the Constitution was "intended to
endure for ages to come, and consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of
human affairs." Which of the following makes his statement true?
 due process
 separation of powers
 amendment process
Part 7- Growth & Westward Expansion
8.6B- understand westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and
social development of the nation and be able to explain the political, economic, and
social roots of Manifest Destiny
“Resolved, That our title to the whole of the Territory of Oregon is clear and
unquestionable; that no portion of the same ought to be ceded to England or any other
power, and that here occupation of Oregon and there annexation of Texas at the earliest
practicable period are great American measures, which this Convention recommends to
the cordial support of the Democracy of the Union.”
—Democratic Party Platform of 1844
This excerpt provides evidence that in 1844 Democrats supported making Manifest Destiny an official federal policy
 social Darwinism as a justification for expansion
 prohibiting the expansion of slavery into new areas of the United States
8.6E- understand westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and
social development of the nation and be able to identify areas that were acquired to
form the United States, including the Louisiana Purchase
What landform set the western border for Area 1?
 Rocky Mountains
 Appalachian Mountains
 Great Lakes
 Mississippi River
8.10B- understand the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United
States, past and present and be able to compare places and regions of the United States
in terms of physical and human characteristics
What natural barrier would a pioneer traveling west to California encounter that
a pioneer traveling to Oregon would not?
 Mississippi River
 Rocky Mountains
 Sierra Nevada
 Great Plains
8.12C- understand why various sections of the United States developed different patterns
of economic activity and be able to explain the reasons for the increase in factories and
urbanization
In the nineteenth century, the availability of the resources in this list resulted in
 an increase in the number of factories in the Northeast
 the development of industrial labor unions in the South
 an increase in the number of immigrants moving to the South
8.12D- understand why various sections of the United States developed different patterns
of economic activity and be able analyze the causes and effects of economic differences
among different regions of the United States at selected times in U.S. history
Southern dependence on slavery and an agricultural economy resulted in
 an excellent railroad system
 a lack of factories
 several new political parties
8.23A- understand the relationships between and among people from various groups,
including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries
and be able to identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the
United States and explain their reasons for immigration
In the 1840s, thousands of Irish immigrants came to the United States seeking to
escape:
 a famine caused by the failure of a staple food crop
 a series of violent conflicts between the British and Irish governments
 a series of small pox epidemics
Part 8- Sectionalism & the Road to Civil War
8.7C- understand how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of
sectionalism and the Civil War and be able to analyze the impact of slavery on different
sections of the United States
In 1854, Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Alexandria, Virginia, was arrested in
Boston and returned to Virginia.
Which federal legislation provided the basis for Burns’ arrest?
 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
 The Homestead Act
 The Compromise of 1850
 The Gadsden Purchase
8.7D- understand how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of
sectionalism and the Civil War and be able to identify the provisions and compare the
effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the
roles of John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster
After the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, states were eager to expand but
had questions about the boundaries of slavery. This conflict was addressed by
the
 Missouri Compromise
 Compromise of 1850
 Northwest Ordinance
 Kansas-Nebraska Act
Identify the legislation written by Congress that is illustrated here:
 Louisiana Purchase
 Kansas-Nebraska Act
 Adams-Onis Treaty
 Missouri Compromise
Part 9- Applying Geography
8.10A- understand the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United
States, past and present and be able to locate places and regions of importance in the
United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries
The general boundary line separating the Southern and Middle colonial regions
is between…
 North Carolina and Virginia
 Virginia and Maryland
 Maryland and Pennsylvania
 Pennsylvania and New York




Located at the mouth of the Mississippi River
Was the scene of an important battle in the War of 1812
Became the largest port for exports during the 1830s and 1840s
Captured by the Union army during the Civil War
The information given in the box above best describes which U.S. city?
 New York
 Charlestown
 Boston
 New Orleans
8.10B- understand the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United
States, past and present and be able to compare places and regions of the United States
in terms of physical and human characteristics
How did geography influence the early economic development of New York,
Boston, and Charleston?
 long coastlines offered abundant natural resources
 proximity to flooding rivers limited development
 natural harbors provided access to markets
 extreme climates limited productive activity
8.10A- understand the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United
States, past and present and be able to locate places and regions of importance in the
United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries
Use the map above to answer the following questions:
In which colonial region does the event depicted on the map take place?
 Canadian province of Quebec
 New England
 Middle Colonies
 Southern Colonies
Which description most accurately reflects the battle at Yorktown?
 Washington’s troops overran the fort despite the French assistance to
Britain
 Washington’s troops held off attacks by Rochambeau while taking the
fort
 French ships blocked the harbor, preventing any assistance or retreat by
Britain
 British troops fled across the river to Gloucester Point, leaving
Washington to stroll in to Yorktown unimpeded
Part 10- Economy and Industry
8.13A- understand how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in
the 19th century and be able to analyze the War of 1812 as a cause of economic changes
in the nation
How did the disruption in Atlantic shipping prior to and during the War of 1812
significantly affect the U.S. economy?
 Americans emigrated to Europe to find manufacturing jobs.
 Cotton sales from southern states to Europe increased.
 American industries expanded to provide replacements for foreign
goods.
8.13B- understand how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in
the 19th century and be able to identify the economic factors that brought about rapid
industrialization and urbanization
Which of the following best completes the table?
 Immigration expands the labor force.
 Overland trade routes become obsolete.
 A scarcity of raw materials causes prices to rise.
8.20C- understand the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic
process and be able to analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil
disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau's
refusal to pay a tax
In the American colonies, boycotts were an effective way of protesting British
policies, mainly because the boycotts
 ended trade within the colonies
 forced Britain to remove most troops
 kept out products from other European nations
 caused economic hardships for British merchants
8.27B- understand the impact of science and technology on the economic development of
the United States and be able to analyze the impact of transportation and
communication systems on the growth, development, and urbanization of the United
States
What was one major effect of the opening of the Erie Canal?
 The cost of shipping goods on eastern roads increased.
 The number of ships passing through northern ports decreased
 The cost of shipping goods from the Midwest decreased.
 The volume of trade passing through southern ports increased.
The growth of railroads during the nineteenth century affected U.S .businesses
by
 discouraging Congress from instituting tariffs
 increasing the cost of raw materials
 decreasing the wages of unskilled workers
 opening new markets for goods
8.28B- understand the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on
daily life in the United States and be able to identify examples of how industrialization
changed life in the United States
Which of these was an effect of the Industrial Revolution on U.S. women in the
early nineteenth century?
 Women in unions gained bargaining power with employers
 The government passed laws to improve safety for women in the
workplace
 Women seeking work migrated from rural communities to cities
 State governments called convention in support of women’s suffrage
Part 11- Crossovers
8.22B- understand the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic and
be able to describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military
leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe,
Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
In 1787, Congress awarded John Paul Jones the Congressional Gold Medal in
honor of his “valor and brilliant services” during the Revolutionary War.
Which accomplishment was Congress recognizing?
 leading the evacuation of Washington, D.C., during the British invasion
 preparing the strategy for the American victory at Yorktown
 persuading France to provide military assistance to the Continental army
 commanding a victory at sea against the British navy
8.1A- understand traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877
and be able to identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877,
including colonization, revolution, drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation
and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals such as the Second Great
Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements,
sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects
“…give me liberty or give me death!”
“A government of our own is our natural right…”
“We must indeed all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang
separately.”
During the period of the American Revolution, these statements were made by
members of which group?
 Parliament
 Patriots
 Loyalists
Identify the time period in American History that was inspired by the
philosophy of “good works” in the 2nd Great Awakening.
 Western Expansion
 Age of Jackson
 Era of Reform
8.1B- understand traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877
and be able to apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of
significant individuals, events, and time periods
Which of the following events occurred last?
 Congress determined the boundaries for slavery in the unorganized territory.
 The Supreme Court evaluated the Fifth Amendment and ruled on slavery in the
territories.
 Two separate legislatures were elected in the Kansas Territory leading to
violence.
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