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Literary Routes: A Birds Eye View of the Forest

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Literary Routes: A Birds Eye View of the Forest
Literary Routes: A Birds Eye View of the Forest
How literature awakens society to a greater appreciation of the forest
Rosalinda Ruiz Scarfuto, University of Alcalá, Spain (Ph.D. Candidate 2012). Thesis
director: Enrique Alonso Garcia. This paper was presented during the Harvard Forest
summer program on June 27, 2012 at the Fisher Museum. Many thanks to Dr. John
O’Keefe and Dr. David Foster.
INTRODUCTION:
The forest and its surrounding rivers have had a major impact on the works of nature
writers as well as novelists and poets, whose styles, although different on the surface,
are equally inspired by the landscapes around them. Their writings tend to alter society
through a legacy of landscapes and their dimensions of sound, color, smells, and
contour. Forests inspire authors through trees, birds, meadows, animals, and plants.
Novelists and poets describe the natural setting for their plots and ideas, while nature
writers describe flora and fauna for their surveying purposes. The two styles of writing
work in tandem to awaken society to nature’s beauty, and consequently raise awareness
of its fragile harmony.
Furthermore, this rich, literary view of the forest entices visitors and community
members to engage in a variety of activities related to the landscape as portrayed
through the eyes of eloquent writers. Literary routes that connect these inspirational
landscapes, embodied by writers, not only inspire society to read but can move their
perspective to a broader scope, as compared to a contemporary guidebook that gives
information in chunks rather than a holistic view.
In addition, viewing the forest as a literary legacy from a birds eye view can shift the
paradigm from a single discipline experience of pure science to a multi-discipline
experience, especially when linked to the world cannon of literature, both written and
oral. Signposting of a literary route inspired by landscapes can give explanations of the
ecological and literary context for a location, which in turn enhances the visitor’s
knowledge base for the future. We expect that this phenomenon of the intangible
experience indoors transferred in situ to a tangible experience outdoors increases the
awareness of the forest as a significant contribution to natural and cultural heritage.
I. NEW ENGLAND LANDSCAPE INSPIRATION AS LEGACY: When Beauty
Surpasses Purpose
The Berkshires Mountains form part of the treasured New England forests and rivers
that are continuously being preserved by conservation efforts such as Berkshire Natural
Resource Council (BNRC) land trusts 1 or Wildlands and Woodlands.2 These
1
Berkshire Natural Resource Council (2012) Internet <http://www.bnrc.net/land-trusts/> [Accessed May 2009, June 2012].
mountains are accessible from both New York and Boston. These forests have attracted
writers for over two hundred years with their beauty, solitude, and convenient location.
This inspiring landscape was set apart from early agricultural settlements in
Massachusetts, mainly due to geological constraints on the farming potential.3 For a
long time, the Berkshires were left alone with little human impact. Consequently these
mountains became rare, untouched forest and that served no other purpose than
backdrops of beauty to neighboring farming communities until a literary inspirational
value was discovered by European writers in the 1800's.
As a young boy Oliver Weldon Holmes, Sr., (1809-1894) from Boston, grew to enjoy
spending his family summer holidays in the Berkshires area. Over time he became
inspired to write poetry during his stays there. Holmes entered a poetry contest, and
finally his prose and poetry were publicly known. Later, he took a second residence in
the Berkshires to enjoy the landscape more and more on a permanent basis. Although
trained as a medical doctor, Holmes, Sr. was more known in American literary circles
during his lifetime and became a major draw for writers to the Berkshires of the 19th
century. For example, Hawthorne, Longfellow, Melville, and Wharton set up
residences near Holmes in the Berkshires, seeking the inspiration of the landscape to
improve their writing.
The spectacular changing colors in autumn of the Berkshire forests and the relief from
the busy New York or Bostonian social life became a turning point in the lives of these
writers. Melville found the solitude refreshing, and finished his novel Moby Dick,
looking out of his window at Greylock Mountain, imagining the back of a whale.4
Henry James on his visits to the Berkshires encouraged Edith Wharton to concentrate on
her writing. While living in the Berkshires, Wharton finally made her mark with her
novel House of Mirth. The residences of Wharton and Melville (Arrowhead and The
Mount) remain preserved in the Berkshires with surrounding grounds that contribute to
the historical landmarks of the area. For example, in 2011 The Mount accounted for
over $US 1.7 M total revenues and support.5 In addition, other literary landmarks are
conserved, such as the Emily Dickinson Residence-Museum, Susan B. Anthony
Birthplace Museum, and the W.E.B. Du Bois Riverwalk and Pine Memorial Grove.
Longfellow, who was a professor in Harvard University and who entertained guests
such as Charles Dickens and Oscar Wilde in his home at Cambridge,6 often visited the
Berkshires for inspiration. In Sudbury, mid-way to the Berkshires from Cambridge, the
Longfellow Wayward Inn still functions as a historical inn. It boasts its literary heritage
as inspiring Longfellow’s novel Wayward Inn.7 (See Annex I, II).
2
Harvard Forest, Harvard University (2012) Internet <http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/other-tags/wildlands-woodlands>
[Accessed July 2012].
3
O’Keefe, John and Foster, David R. (1998) Arnoldia, The Magazine of the Arnold Arboretum. “An Ecological History of
Massachusetts Forests,” p. 10. Jamaica Plain, MA USA: The President and Fellows of Harvard College
4
Arrowhead (2012) Internet <http://berkshirehistory.org/herman-melville/herman-melville-and-arrowhead/> [Accessed May 2009,
June 2012].
5
The Mount (2012) Internet and interviews. Edith Wharton Restoration, Inc. March 31, 2011, 2010. Financial Statement, August
2011. Exhibit B, p.3 <http://www.edithwharton.org/uploaded_files/March%2031,%202011%20Financial%20Statements%20%20v001.pdf> [Accessed June 2012].
6
National Parks Service (2102) Longfellow House. Internet and interviews on site. Tour guide monologue discusses Longfellow
guests from Europe. <http://www.nps.gov/long/index.htm> [Accessed October 2010, June 2012].
7
Longfellow’s Wayward Inn (2012) Internet <http://www.wayside.org/> [Accessed May 2009, June 2012]
Recognition of this unique cannon of literary heritage inspired by the Berkshires is
attractive for local and national target audiences; this is demonstrated by Mass
Vacations “Literary Trail of Greater Boston” listed on their website for the Berkshires,8
and Friends of Oceanside Library “Literary Tour to New England” located nearly 4,000
km away in California.9
10
“Can't get enough of Louisa May Alcott? Come with us as we tour Literary New England,
visiting the homes, gardens, special libraries, and museums that make this area a bibliophile's
paradise.” (New England Literary Tour, Oceanside Library)
Limited Protection
The literary heritage sites, with the background of the Berkshires' inspiring landscape,
function as individual entities and therefore have limited protection solely within their
property lines. Many of these sites are registered as official historical sites of local,
regional, and/or national importance. However, the surrounding forests that originally
inspired these writers on their daily walks or excursions are not included in a
conservation scheme per se.
Isolated Rural
Literary Sites:
Limited Protection
Location (town, village)
Sudbury
Harvard
Wachusett Mountain
Amherst
Great Barrington:
Lenox
Pittsfield
Pittsfield
Adams:
8
Writer
Longfellow
Alcotts
Thoreau
Emily Dickinson;
W.E.B. Du Bois
Edith Wharton;
Herman Melville
Holmes Sr.
Susan B. Anthony
Site
Wayside Inn
Fruitlands
State Reserve Park
Museum (residence)
Riverwalk
The Mount (residence)
Arrowhead (residence)
No remaining site.
Museum (birthplace)
Commonwealth of Massachusetts (2012) Massachusetts Office of Tourism and Travel. Internet
<http://www.massvacation.com/find/details.php?oid=2404> [Accessed May 2009, June 2012]
9
Oceanside Library (2012) Friends of Oceanside Library, Public Library, Oceanside California. Internet.
<http://www.oplfriends.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Flyer-Itinerary.pdf> [Accessed June 2012]
10
Google Maps (2012) Distance Calculator (km). <http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm>
[Accessed June 2012]
By linking all the literary sites together with a literary route, a wider area of protection
can be obtained. GPS coordinates can be assigned to the route to ensure that future
generations enjoy the creative inspiration as well.
Widen the Area of Protection
American Literary Route
Longfellow
Susan B. Anthony
Adams
Boston
Susan. B.
Anthony
Benjamin Franklin,
Longfellow
Berkshires Mountains
Oliver W. Holmes
Melville
Hawthorne
Wharton
Barrington
Du Bois
Mt.
Wachusett
Thoreau
Concord River
Emerson,
Thoreau,
Louisa May Alcott
Fruitlands
B. Alcotts
Wayside Inn
Longfellow
Emily
Dickinson
Total 345 miles
Native American Literary Component
The First Nations (Native Americans) lay the foundation for routes in the present day
New England landscapes. Maps as early as 1600 (Champlain) show the trails of the
First Nations as an underlying layer to the current roads and transportation means
throughout the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In fact, the commonwealth name is
derived from the Massachusett’s Nation. Further research to include legends, myths,
and symbolism from these First Nations would provide an added value to the literary
heritage of New England.11
11
University of Massachusetts Amherst (1991) Historical Atlas of Massachusetts. Ed. Richard Wilke and Jack Tager. P. 12
Champlain’s map, “Les Voyages (Paris 1613). Further information; Sources: p.144. University of Massachusetts Amherst: MA,
USA.
Indeed, including indigenous symbolism, legends, or myths into the literary heritage of
forests can enrich the literary dimension of the landscape, while at the same time
support conservation efforts for both language and ecosystems. These indigenous
routes can be signposted as parallel routes to European routes in areas such as Canada,
the USA, or South America. Indigenous literary contributions can ensure the full depth
of the literary landscape with a deeper “landscape stratification”; Longfellow refers to
the Omahas and Wabash Nations in his poetry, reminding society of their heritage
value, while at the same time adding value to the landscape.
To the Driving Cloud
“O chief of the mighty Omahas;
Gloomy and dark as the driving cloud, whose name thou hast taken!
Wrapped in thy scarlet blanket. I see thee stalk through the city’s
Narrow and populous street, as once by the margin of rivers
Stalked those birds unknown, that have left us only their foot-prints.
What, in a few short years, will remain of thy race but the foot-prints?
How canst thou breathe this air, who has breathed the sweet air
of the mountains?
…Back then, back to thy woods in the regions west of the Wabash!
There as a monarch thou reignest. In the autumn the leaves of the maple
Pave the floor of thy palace-halls with gold, and in summer
Pine trees waft through its chambers the odorous breath of their branches…”
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 1807-1882
New England forests have played a significant role in the United States cannon of
literature with their solitude and inspiring colors of the changing leaves in autumn.
Unfortunately this cultural heritage value is endangered once these forests are forgotten
or their literary heritage contribution is no longer remembered. In order to pass on this
legacy for future generations and maintain this emotional link to the land, we are called
upon to preserve their beauty and solitude through the eyes and ears of these writers.
By providing continued access to the creative force behind this beauty, we should be
aware of our social responsibility; to enable society to sustain this landscape as an
inspiration for creativity, and at the same time be the caretakers of this unique heritage.
Forest management, with a sound plan for its caretakers, can be the bridge for this
natural and cultural heritage.
II. HOW CAN LITERARY ROUTES BE LINKED TO FOREST
MANAGEMENT?
We can ask three important questions to understand how literary landscapes fit into
forest management as an added value to the natural heritage and contribute to long-term
conservation:
Literary Routes Inspired by
Landscapes & Conservation
• What is a literary landscape?
Literary Landscape
Add Value
• How do literary routes add
value to a landscape?
• Where do literary routes fit
into long-term conservation?
Long-Term
Conservation Goals
Natural/Cultural
Heritage
1. What is a Literary Landscape?
Contact with landscapes gives rise to creativity. A reader or writer can imagine a
landscape, but the tangible experience in situ begins with actual contact with the
landscape. This initial contact may be only visual from a distance such as a scenic
driving route; however the emotional link is established with a direct interaction with
the landscape (walking, kayaking, horseback riding). This close contact is a visceral
experience combining sensory and cognitive elements such as auditory, visual, and
olfactory inputs linked to the literary heritage. Emotional responses from the senses can
trigger inspiration for readers and writers leading to creativity, appreciation, or both.
Interaction with the landscape raises appreciation by making a direct emotional link to
the landscape that is expressed in oral or written memoirs after contact; e.g. the moors
of the Bronte Sisters or the plains of La Mancha in Don Quijote.12 Literature
transforms the landscape and the landscape transforms the literature. This
transformation is how a landscape becomes a literary landscape. GPS identification for
a literary landscape (heritage area) preserves the area for future generations, and its
value can increase over time with clearly defined markers and boundaries.13
2. How do literary routes add value to a landscape?
Literary landscapes linked together form a literary route with a greater value than a
single historical landmark or natural ecosystem. The area highlighted by a literary route
inspired by landscapes is a summation of the natural and cultural heritage. Natural
Heritage Value+ Cultural Heritage Value = new added value (NCH). This new value is
a natural/cultural heritage value.
Added Value:
Natural/ Cultural Heritage (NCH)
NCH
Value
Natural Heritage Value
(NH)
Cultural Heritage Value
(CH)
Cultural Heritage
Value
Natural Heritage
Value
The accumulated heritage value linked to the literary landscape can be determined by
the level of literary heritage value. Stories, fables, legends, and myths are repeated over
time. However, once a tangible library (digital, virtual, signpost, building) is
constructed to house this literary heritage society has increased its heritage value with a
long-term preservation plan to maintain it. Furthermore, once the literary heritage is
taught in a cannon of literature for society, its value increases again on a local level.
Literary works listed in databases from the World Catalogue can move the heritage
value to a global level. Currently, the maximum number of publications is 10,000 in the
World Catalogue database.
12
Smithsonian (2012) Arts & Culture, Internet <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/The-Full-Bronte.html#> [Accessed
May 2009, June 2012].
13
B.O.E. (2005), Official Spanish Bulletin, Don Quijote Route Law 2005, 7673. (LEY 7/2006, de 20 de diciembre, de Ordenación
de la Ruta de Don Quijote). Annex I. All sections of the route are registered with GPS coordinates.
10000
9000
8000
World Cannon
7000
Cannon
6000
Library
5000
Myth
4000
Legend
3000
Fable
2000
Story
1000
0
Heritage Value
Furthermore, “Literary Stratification” 14 can be applied to the literary landscape to
deepen the cultural heritage value, whereby literary influences that were essential to a
particular author may be taken into account. New England writers were influenced by
Homer and Virgil. Homer wrote the Iliad in 1194 A.C.; Europe and North America are
culturally linked to this literary work. Part of Homer’s accumulated cultural value is
more than 3000 years old with publications, monuments, and events. All subsequent
authors inspired by Homer can gain part of this heritage value. Literature inspired by
landscapes in the European Cannon had an influence on the following New England
writers:
–
–
–
–
–
Dumas: France 1861 (Du Bois)
Sir Walter Scott: Scotland 1819 (Thoreau)
Cervantes: Spain 1605 (Wharton)
Virgil: Roman Empire A.C. 41 (All)
Homer: Greek 1194 A.C. (All)
Virgil was a Roman classic writer, whose work was traditionally studied in European
and early American letters (Cervantes, Dumas, Scott, L.M. Alcott, Emerson, Du Bois,
Holmes, Longfellow, Thoreau, and Wharton). Virgil’s writing expresses early
ecological wisdom from his agricultural native land, and later incorporated into his
writings in Rome.15 (See Annex III). For example, a long line of literary heritage
Ruiz, Rosalinda Scarfuto (2012) “Literary Stratification” or “Literary Succession” is a term used to identify the accumulated value
of a literary landscape taking into consideration the influences of literary figures or cultures for a particular author. Seminar
“Literary Routes: Contributions to Natural/Cultural Heritage Tourism. How landscape transforms literature and tourism.”
Quebec, Canada “International Conference Tourist and Cultural Itineraries: From Memory to Development June 13th to 15th, 2012,
Québec, Canada.
15
Virgil (41 A.D.) Eloques Vol. 1 Henry Colburn 1830 translation. Pennsylvania State University. Reprint. Internet
<http://books.google.com> [Accessed June 2012].
14
unfolds beneath the surface when Thoreau, upon reaching the summit of Mt.
Wasachusett, remembers Virgil in his journal.16
Literary Landscape Stratification
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Homer
Virgil
Dante
Chaucer
Cervantes
Accumulated Literary
Landscape Value
Shakespeare
Scott
Wordsworth
Coleridge
Emerson
Thoreau
The cultural heritage value linked to a literary landscape for each author can be
evaluated with tangible components (publications, monuments, events). A literary
landscape tool (LLT)17 can be utilized to create a quantitative analysis of the cultural
heritage (CH) value for each author. The CH value of a landscape can be subsequently
combined with the natural heritage (NH) value using the same GPS coordinates for an
added value; CH+NH=NCH. This tool can also be utilized for other artistic heritage
values (dance, music, and/or visual arts). In this manner, future generations will be
better able to enjoy the landscapes that created literature with a conservation plan,
which takes into consideration the natural and cultural heritage values.
NCH
Value
GPS
Cultural
Heritage
Natural
Heritage
Value
Value
Young. Robert M. Young (2008) Walking to Wachusett: A Re-Enactment of Henry David Thoreau’s “A Walk to Wachusett.” p.
183-188. Leominster. MA: LuLu.
17
Ruiz Scarfuto, Rosalinda (2012) Literary Landscape Tool (LLT) was developed in thesis project.
16
3. Where do literary routes fit into long-term conservation?
The NCH value can increase over time with clear markers and boundaries to match
long-term conservation plans for society. Literary routes inspired by landscapes
promote NCH from a multidisciplinary approach by combining efforts from both the
humanities and science fields. A particular landscape targeted for natural heritage
conservation can be complimented with its literary dimension, and visa versa. This
multidisciplinary approach is often advantageous to coordinate large-scale conservation
campaigns for delicate bio-diverse landscapes. Parallel conservation plans of action
from sciences and humanities can be merged. As a result, a broader audience for
support (literary fans) is available to draw upon. Literary fans become involved in
ecological long-term conservation, while at the same time scientists get involved in
literary heritage to supplement their projects e.g. Thoreau’s Country by D. Foster.18
Science +
Humanities
National Endowment
for the Humanities
National Science
Foundation
Funding sources from both fields such as the National Endowment for the Humanities
(NEH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) can be merged with a literary
dimension. The emotional links to a landscape invoked by an author or storyteller
produce sensory connections to nature. When replicated in situ, the lasting impression
is a deeper connection to the landscape that can be called upon in the future.
Specific examples of such long-term conservation can be observed in:
1.
2.
3.
4.
USA: Private/Public/ Protection (Thoreau Walking Tour)19
Spain: Official/Law/Protection GPS (Don Quijote Route Law)20
Japan: Private /Travelogue/Appreciation (Basho’s Trail)21
New Zealand: Official/Library Promotion/Educational (Literary Map)22
Foster, David (1999) Thoreau’s Country; Journey through a transformed landscape. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walden Woods Project (2009, 2012) Internet and Interviews
<http://www.walden.org/Explore/Walden_Woods_Ecosystem/Brister's_Hill>
<http://www.walden.org/About_Us/Biographies/Don_Henley> [Accessed May 2009, June 2012]
20
Ruta Don Quijote (2012) Internet and Interviews <http://www.quijote.es/IVCentenario_RutaDonQuijote.php> [Accessed June
2012]
21
National Geographic Magazine (2012) Internet <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/02/bashos-trail/bashos-trail-interactive>
[Accessed May 2008, June 2012]
18
19
USA:
In Concord, Massachusetts, the Walden Woods Project (private) grew out of a
community effort to save the forested area around Walden Pond State Reserve (public)
that had been threatened with a business park plan to urbanize the surrounding areas.
The original campaign solicited many local citizens to appreciate this forest with press
events, drawing on their childhood experiences with field trips to Walden Pond from
local schools and exposure to Thoreau in their school curriculum. Childhood memories
were invoked after years of building bridges with local schools for field trips to explore
Thoreau’s inspiration on site. These emotional links were a contributing factor to this
campaign. A prominent musician, (Don Henley; Eagles) became deeply involved in the
campaign after seeing a report on TV. The outcome of his commitment was to found the
Walden Woods Project in 1990 (NGO). As a result of his success with the Walden
Woods Project (WWP), Henley went on to found Caddo Lake Institute (Ramsar
Wetland) in his native land in East Texas.23 Consequently, the long-term conservation
of Thoreau’s literary legacy, inspired by Walden Pond, reached a wider audience with
international implications, as demonstrated with the advisory board in 2009 for WWP. 24
(See Annex IV). The final project included a “Thoreau Walking Tour” dedicated to his
legacy.
Data obtained for this study through interviews with administrative staff of WWP in
2009 revealed a robust fundraising effort over 19 years. This culminated in US$ 50 M.
The area of Walden Woods Project expanded Thoreau’s legacy to reach 4 times the
original acreage of the State Reserve. The campaign was able to increase local,
regional, and global appreciation of the forest linked to this literary heritage.
Natural/Cultural Heritage Value: 1990
Walden Woods Project Expansion
WWP is a non-profit organization:
• Created an international network to raise consciousness
about the inspirational value of Thoreau’s landscape.
• Expanded the landscape reservation from 462 acres
assigned to the State Reservation to over 2,000 acres.
• Prevented development plans of a business park in the
1990’s on Brister’s Hill to conserve the landscape.
• Raised over 50 million dollars to save and maintain
Brister’s Hill that now is home to Thoreau’s Walking Tour.
22
Book Council New Zealand (2012) Internet
<http://www.bookcouncil.org.nz/Readers/Introduction/Booklovers%20Guide%20to%20New%20Zealand.htm>[Accessed June
2012]
23
Caddo Lake Institute (2012) Internet <http://www.caddolakeinstitute.us/index.html> Ramsar Wetland Designation:
<http://www.caddolakeinstitute.us/ramsar.html> and D. Henley interview as founder:
<http://www.caddolakeinstitute.us/docs/Press/Henley_Preserves_Lake_4.26.11_DMN.pdf> [Accessed June 2012]
24
Walden Woods Project (2009) Internet <http://www.walden.org/html> [Accessed May 2009].
A combined management system has been implemented with public funding for the
original site (Walden Pond State Reserve) and private donations for the surrounding
forests (Walden Woods Project). 25
Walden Pond State Reserve: Thoreau Cabin Site (Massachusetts) 26
Spain:
In 2005, the Don Quijote Route was opened for the 400-year anniversary celebration of
the 17th century publication of Miguel Cervantes’ novel (1605). The Don Quijote Route
Law was enacted in 2006 and written into law in 2007. This project was a regional
government initiative for cultural heritage in accordance with Article 33 of the
Constitution that permitted the route to be considered of social value.
“EXPLANATORY STATEMENT
The Government of Castilla-La Mancha has undertaken task of organizing around places related
to Cervantes, a route that would articulate the territory of the community around the universal
figure of Don Quixote. For such purposes, the mapping has included a number of public roads,
old railroad tracks and cattle trails that joined together, which allow a tour of some of the most
notable Castilian-La Mancha landscapes and to know the towns and cities of the Community.”
(Official Spanish Bulletin).27
25
Ruiz, Rosalinda (2009) Interview with administrative staff for Walden Woods Project.
Ruiz, Rosalinda (2009) Field study at Walden Pond State Reserve. Sign is dedicated to Thoreau’s cabin site that inspired Walden.
27
B.O.E. (2005), Official Spanish Bulletin, Don Quijote Route Law 2005, 7673. (LEY 7/2006, de 20 de diciembre, de Ordenación
de la Ruta de Don Quijote). Translation mine.
26
It was supported with a budget of € 40 M by the Castilla-La Mancha Autonomous
government. The complete route divided into sections and registered into the law with
GPS coordinates to ensure long-term conservation.
28
Japan:
Basho’s Trail featured in National Geographic Travelogue is an interactive map
following the route taken by the 17th monk from Tokyo to Kyoto. Basho is well known
in Japanese literary heritage as an innovative poet with roots in Chinese literature.
On the Poet’s Trail (National Geographic-website)
28
29
Ibid. (Anexo I). Example of a section from Toledo to Mora. Tramos/Etapas (sections) listed with their coordinates X and Y.
Each site on the map opens a screen with a journal entry by a journalist and Basho’s
original poetry. This route could be expanded into an official literary route for Japan to
conserve the landscapes along the route.
30
On the Poet’s Trail Close Up (National Geographic-website)
New Zealand:
The Book Council, Public Libraries, and Ministry of Tourism have teamed up to create
a literary map of New Zealand. Historical sites and landmarks for writers are part of the
literary map with several routes available in all regions of New Zealand. The
downloadable map is available on the Book Council website with additional
information about writers, publications, and history. Local libraries market brochures
and literary routes specific to an area as well.
National Geographic (2012) On the Poet’s Trail, .Howard Norman with photographs and field notes by Michael Yamashita
Originally published in February 2008 in paper edition. Internet <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/02/bashos-trail/howardnorman-text> Travelogue for Basho as interactive: <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/02/bashos-trail/bashos-trailinteractive> [Accessed June 2012].
30
Ibid.
29
Book Council New Zealand Literary Map31
The New Zealand government encourages a person to register their literary heritage
properties as historical landmarks on these routes, which in turn increases the
connection between tangible literary sites and inspiring landscapes for long-term
conservation.
Book Council New Zealand Literary Map Close up.
31
32
New Zealand, Book Council (2012) Internet <http://www.bookcouncil.org.nz/users/Image/General/Downloads//LiteraryMap.pdf>
[Accessed June 2012].
32
Ibid.
Conclusions: Local
•
•
•
•
Literary routes inspired by landscapes rekindle literature in situ with stimulating
sensory connections to nature.
Literary routes inspired by landscapes move cultural values closer to natural
values with their symbiotic relationship as shown with the New England forests
and rivers.
Literary routes boost local appreciation of cultural legacies linked to the local
nature by providing an interactive literary component to landscapes.
Literary routes inspired by landscapes conserve larger tracts of land than a single
literary landmark in rural areas and contribute to natural heritage sites.
Conclusions: Global
•
•
•
•
•
Literary routes created with GPS coordinates can match areas of natural heritage
of an ecosystem to solidify its overall NCH heritage value.
New added values for NCH simultaneously support ecological goals in natural
heritage and cultural heritage preservation schemes.
Over time, literary routes with their unique natural/cultural heritage may be
interconnected through a network to support global targets in conservation.
A literary landscape tool kit would be useful to effectively evaluate NCH values
for long-term conservation goals.
Literary routes inspired by landscapes have a dynamic interdisciplinary
approach to conservation schemes, supporting both humanities and science
research worldwide.
Email: [email protected]
Tel: (+34) 616 500 607 Spain
Annex I (A)
Ralph Waldo Emerson: Concord River
Nature (1841)
Chapter III BEAUTY
“In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our
pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this
pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new
ornament.”
Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the
ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that
perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms,
-- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty "il piu nell' uno."
Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole.33
Chapter IV LANGUAGE
“Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things?
Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of
all influence
“At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and
shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with
these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands.”
“There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night,
river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary…”
Chapter V DISCIPLINE
“The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its
laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away. The river, as it flows,
resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light, which traverses it with more
subtle currents; the light resembles the heat, which rides with it through Space. Each creature is
only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their
radical law is one and the same.”34
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, The Essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Nature”, p. 320. 1979 Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (2010) Ralph Waldo Emerson Organization, “Nature” [Internet] <http://www.rwe.org> [Accessed May
2010].
33
34
Annex I (B)
Henry David Thoreau: Concord River
Journal, 1857 June 1:
“I hear the note of a bobolink concealed in the top of an apple tree behind me...He is
just toughing the strings of his theorbo, his glassichord, his water organ, and one or two
notes globe themselves and fall in liquid bubbles from his teeming throat. It is as if he
touched his harp within a vase of liquid melody, and when he lifted it out, the notes fell
like bubbles from the trembling string… the meadow is all bespattered with melody.
His notes fall with the apple blossoms, in the orchard.”
Thoreau Influences;
John James Audubon
Ornithological Biography (1831)
Opening passage in an essay on the Mississippi Kite:
“When, after many a severe conflict, the southern breezes, in alliance with the sun,
have, as if through a generous effort, driven back for a season to their desolate abode the
chill blasts of the north; when warmth and plenty are insured for a while to our happy
lands; when clouds of anxious Swallows, returning from the far south, are guiding
millions of Warblers to their summer residence; when numberless insects, cramped in
their hanging shells, are impatiently waiting for the full expansion of their wings; when
the vernal flowers, so welcome to all, swell out of their bursting leaflets, and the richleaved Magnolia opens its pure blossoms to the Humming Bird;—then you will see the
Mississippi Kite, as he comes sailing over the scene. He glances toward the earth with
his fiery eye; sweeps along, now with the gentle breeze, now against it; seizes here and
there the high-flying giddy bug, and allays his hunger without fatigue to wing or talon.”
Sir Walter Scott: Scotland
Audubon’s Influence.
Bride of Lammermoor, (1819) P.90
“The morning, which had arisen calm and bright, gave a pleasant effect even to the
waste moorland view which was seen from the castle on looking to the landward; and
the glorious ocean, crisped with a thousand rippling waves of silver, extended on the
other side, in awful yet complacent majesty, to the verge of the horizon. With such
scenes of calm sublimity the human heart sympathises even in its most disturbed mood,
and deeds of honour and virtue are inspired by their majestic influence”
Annex I (C)
Inspired by Thoreau:
Louisa May Alcott: Concord River
“I had an early run in the woods before the dew was off the grass. The moss was like velvet, and as I ran
under the arches of yellow and red leaves I sang for joy, my heart was so bright and the world so
beautiful. ... A very strange and solemn feeling came over me, as I stood there, with no sound but the
rustle of the pines, no one near me, and the sun so glorious as for me alone. It seemed as if I felt God as I
never did before, and I prayed in my heart that I might keep that happy sense of nearness all my life.”
(Louisa May Alcott, age 12) 35
“Wild roses are fairest, and nature a better gardener than art."36
The Frost King: of the Power of Love
“THREE little Fairies sat in the fields eating their breakfast; each among the leaves of her favorite flower,
Daisy, Primrose, and Violet, were happy as Elves need be.
“The morning wind gently rocked them to and fro, and the sun shone warmly down upon the dewy grass,
where butterflies spread their gay wings, and bees with their deep voices sung among the flowers; while
the little birds hopped merrily about to peep at them.”
“…The morning sun looked softly down upon the broad green earth, which like a mighty altar was
sending up clouds of perfume from its breast, while flowers danced gaily in the summer wind, and birds
sang their morning hymn among the cool green leaves. Then high above, on shining wings, soared a little
form. The sunlight rested softly on the silken hair, and the winds fanned lovingly the bright face, and
brought the sweetest odors to cheer her on.
On and on she went, over hill and valley, broad rivers and rustling woods, till the warm sunlight passed
away, the winds grew cold, and the air thick with falling snow. Then far below she saw the Frost-King’s
home.” 37
William Least Heat-Moon: Kansas Grasslands
Prairy Erth (1991)
The land my hometown sat just out of sight of…I also began to see the prairies as native
ground. At last I realized I was not a man of the sea or coasts or mountains but a fellow
of the grasslands. I like the clarity of line of a place that seemed to require me to bring
something to it…The prairie does not give up something easily, unless its horizon and
sky. I had to begin thinking open and lean, seeing without points of obvious focus,
noticing first the horizon and then drawing my vision back toward the middle distance
where so little appears to exist.
35
Alcott, Louisa May (2010) [Internet] <http://www.louisamayalcott.org/witandwisdom_garden.html [Accessed May 2010].
Alcott, Louisa May (2010) [Internet] <http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/1315.Louisa_May_Alcott> [Accessed May
2010].
37
Alcott, Louisa May (2010) [Internet] <http://alcott.classicauthors.net/flowerfables/flowerfables2.html> [Accessed May 2010].
36
Annex II (A)
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Berkshires
To the Driving Cloud (1807-1882)
Gloomy and dark art thou. O chief of the mighty Omahas;
Gloomy and dark as the driving cloud, whose name thou hast taken!
Wrapped in thy scarlet blanket. I see thee stalk through the city’s
Narrow and populous street, as once by the margin of rivers
Stalked those birds unknown, that have left us only their foot-prints.
What, in a few short years, will remain of thy race but the foot-prints?
How canst thou walk these streets, who has trod the green turf
of the prairies?
How canst thou breathe this air, who has breathed the sweet air
of the mountains?
Ah! ‘tis in vain that with lordly looks of disdain thou dost challenge
Looks of disdain in return, and question these walls and these
pavements.
Claiming the soil for they hunting-grounds, while down-trodden
millions
Starve in the garrets of Europe, and cry from the caverns that they,
too,
Have been created heir of the earth, and claim its divisions!
Back then, back to thy woods in the regions west of the Wabash!
There as a monarch thou reignest. In the autumn the leaves of the maple
Pave the floor of thy palace-halls with gold, and in summer
Pine trees waft through its chambers the odorous breath of their
branches.
There thou art strong and great, a hero, a tamer of horses!
There thou chasest the stately stag on the banks of the elkhorn.
Or by the roar of the Running-Water, or where the Omaha
Calls thee, and leaps through the wild ravine like a brave of the Blackfeet!...
Oliver Weldon Holmes, Sr.: Berkshires
“Children of earth, our half-weaned nature clings
To earth’s fond memories, and her whispered name
Untunes, our quivering lips, our saddened strings:
For there we loved, and where we love is home.”
Annex II (B)
Edith Wharton: Berkshires
Smithsonian Institute
“In her long career, which stretched over forty years and included the publication of
more than forty books, Edith Wharton (1862-1937) portrayed a fascinating segment of
the American experience. She was a born storyteller, whose novels are justly celebrated
for their vivid settings, satiric wit, ironic style, and moral seriousness. Her characters,
such as Ellen Olenska in The Age of Innocence, Ethan Frome, and the charming but
ineffectual Lily Bart in The House of Mirth, are some of the most memorable in
American literature.”38
Wharton's autobiography, A Backward Glance (1934):
"On a slope overlooking the dark waters and densely wooded shores of Laurel Lake we
built a spacious and dignified house, to which we gave the name of my greatgrandfather's place, The Mount…There for over ten years I lived and gardened and
wrote contentedly… The Mount was to give me country cares and joys, long happy
rides and drives through the wooded lanes of that loveliest region, the companionship of
a few dear friends, and the freedom from trivial obligations which was necessary if I
was to go on with my writing. The Mount was my first real home…its blessed influence
still lives in me."39
Wharton wrote about nature from a close eye view, as shown with Ethan Frome.40
“On such an afternoon Charity Royall lay on a ridge above a sunlit hollow, her face
pressed to the Earth and the warm currents of the grass running through her. Directly in
line of vision a blackberry branch laid its frail white flowers and blue-green leaves
against the sky. Just beyond, a tuft of sweet-fern uncurled between the headed shoots of
the grass, and a small yellow butterfly vibrated over them like a fleck of sunshine. This
was all she saw; but she felt above her the strong growth of the beeches clothing the
ridge, the rounding of the pale green cones on countless spruce branches…”41
38
Smithsonian Institute (2010) Edith Wharton, [Internet] <http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/wharton/whar3.htm> [Accessed June 2010].
The Mount (2010) Edith Wharton, Residence Museum, [Internet] <http://www.edithwharton.org/index.php?catId=6> [Accessed
June 2010].
40
Wharton, Edith (1982) Ethan Frome, New York: Oxford University Press
41
Ibid.p.124.
39
Annex III (A)
Eloques Vol. 1;
Georgic IV
www.google.books
Annex III (B)
Annex III (C)
Annex IV
Walden Woods Advisory Board 2009
John H. Adams, executive director, Natural Resources Defense Council
Kirstie Alley, actress
Chester G. Atkins, director, ADS Ventures, Inc.
Irving Azoff, entertainment executive
Chris Ballantyne, regional representative, Sierra Club
Edward P. Bass, The Philecology Trust
Ed Begley, Jr., actor
Jimmy Buffett, recording artist/author
Thomas Callahan, director, Mass. Affordable Housing Alliance
Buzz Constable, Lincoln Land Conservation Trust
Ted Danson, actor
John P. DeVillars, managing partner, Bluewave Strategies
Annie Dillard, author
E. L. Doctorow, author
Michael Douglas, actor/director
Robert A. Durand, president, Durand & Anastas Environmental Strategies
Brock Evans, executive director, Endangered Species Coalition
David M. Gabrielsen, president and c.e.o., Ranpak Corporation
Arun Gandhi, author/philosopher
Whoopi Goldberg, actress
Arlo Guthrie, recording artist
John D. Hamilton, Jr., Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
Harry Hamlin, actor
George Hartner, president, Hartner Entertainment
Michael R. Houser, c.e.o., Cascio Interstate Music Co.
John A. Hoyt, chief executive, Humane Society of the United States
Tom Jones, c.e.o., Exit 41
James S. Hoyte, associate vice president, Harvard University
Vidar Jorgensen, trustee, Thoreau Country Conservation Alliance
Michael Kellett, executive director, RESTORE: The North Woods
Senator Edward M. Kennedy (honorary)
Senator John F. Kerry (honorary)
Anne LaBastille, Ph.D., author
Bill McKibben, author
Ed McMahon, The Conservation Fund
Dr. John McQuillan, president, McQuillan Ventures
Karin McQuillan, author/environmentalist
Congressman Martin T. Meehan (honorary)
Bette Midler, actress/recording artist
Wesley T. Mott, Ph.D., president, The Emerson Society
Wendy Nicholas, NE Regional Director National Trust for Historic Preservation
Bonnie Raitt, recording artist
Robert D. Richardson, Jr., author
Will Rogers, president, Trust For Public Land
Jon Rost, president, Jon Rost Associates
Ruth A. Salinger, president, The Salinger Group
Bob Seger, recording artist
Bill Sipper, environmentalist
Meryl Streep, actress
Trudie Styler and Sting, co-founders, The Rainforest Foundation International
Marian Thornton, Concord Open Land Foundation
John Tyson, chairman, president and c.e.o., Tyson Foods, Inc.
Marsha and Robin Williams
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