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B.Sc. (H) BOTANY THREE-YEAR FULL-TIME PROGRAMME (Six-Semester Course)

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B.Sc. (H) BOTANY THREE-YEAR FULL-TIME PROGRAMME (Six-Semester Course)
B.Sc. (H) BOTANY
THREE-YEAR FULL-TIME PROGRAMME
(Six-Semester Course)
COURSE CONTENTS
(Effective from the Academic Year 2010-2011)
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI
DELHI – 110 007
Course Structure
YEAR-1
PART I: Semester – 1
Paper 1
LSPT 101
Biology-I (Introduction to Biology)
Paper 2
BTHT 101
Biodiversity I: Algae and Microbiology
Paper 3
CHCT 301
Chemistry-I
Paper 4
ENAT 101*/
CSAT 101*
Technical writing and Communication in English /
Computational skills
PART I: Semester – 2
Paper 5
BTHT 202
Biodiversity II: Mycology & Phytopathology
Paper 6
BTHT 203
Biodiversity III: Archegoniatae
Paper 7
CHCT 402
Chemistry -II
Paper 8
ENAT 201*/
CSAT 201*
Technical writing and Communication in English / Computational
skills
*The college will have an option to take either of the two papers in a particular semester for a
particular course, while students have to appear in both the papers
In addition, there shall be one qualifying paper in self-learning mode called Environmental Studies
offered in Semester-2
YEAR-2
PART II: Semester – 3
Paper 9
BTHT 304
Plant Resource Utilization
Paper 10
MACT 303
Mathematics and Statistics
Paper 11
CBHT 301
Cell Biology - I
Paper 12
MBHT 301
Molecular Biology - 1
1|Page
PART II: Semester – 4
Paper 13
BTHT 405
Plant Development and Anatomy
Paper 14
BTHT 406
Ecology and Phytogeography
Paper 15
CBHT 402
Cell Biology II
Paper 16
MBHT 402
Molecular Biology - II
YEAR-3
PART III: Semester – 5
Paper 17
BTHT 507
Plant Systematics & Evolution
Paper 18
BTHT 508
Plant Physiology
Paper 19
a/b
BTHT 509 /
LSPT 409
Environmental Management / Bioinformatics
Paper 20
GGHT 501
Genetics & Genomics -I
PART III: Semester – 6
Paper 21
BTHT 610
Plant Metabolism & Biochemistry
Paper 22
BTHT 611
Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms
Paper 23
BTHT 612
Plant Biotechnology
Paper 24
GGHT 602
Genetics & Genomics - II
2|Page
PREAMBLE
The ongoing B.Sc. (H) Botany course was introduced by the Faculty of Sciences from the academic
year 2005-2006. The new course that will be effective from the academic year 2010-2011, will follow
the Semester mode. It has been prepared keeping in view the unique requirements of B.Sc. (H)
Botany students.
The contents have been drawn-up to accommodate the widening horizons of the discipline of
Biological Sciences. They reflect the current changing needs of the students; specifically, the subjects
on Mathematics and Statistics and Computation skills have been included. A special feature of this
program has been the introduction of six new papers on Cell and Molecular Biology and Genetics
that cover major disciplines in newer areas of Biological Sciences where tremendous progress has
been made during the past decade. A new paper on Biotechnology will also provide a glimpse of the
application aspect.
The endeavor has been to provide students with the latest information
alongwith due weightage to the concepts of classical botany so that students are able to understand
and appreciate the current inter-disciplinary approaches in the study of plant sciences and its role in
societal development.
The course content also lists the new practical exercises so that the students get a hands-on
experience of the latest techniques that are currently in use.
3|Page
Paper 1-LSPT 101: BIOLOGY-I (INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY)
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1. Biological systems, evolution and biodiversity
a. Introduction to concepts of biology
(Ch 1 Campbell) (4 Periods)
Themes in the study of biology; A closer look at ecosystem; A closer look at cell; The process of
Science; Biology and everyday life
b. Evolutionary history of biological diversity
(Ch 25 Campbell) (6 Periods)
Early earth and the origin of life; Major events in the history of life; Mechanism of Macroevolution;
Phylogeny and the tree of life
c. Classifying the diversity of life
(Ch 25 Raven) (8 Periods)
Kingdoms of Life –Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Archaea
d. Darwinian view of life and origin of species
(Ch22, 24 Campbell) (10 Periods)
Darwin’s theory of evolution; The evolution of populations; Concepts of species; Mechanism of
speciation
e. Genetic approach to Biology
(Ch 1 Griffiths) (8 Periods)
Patterns of inheritance and question of biology; Variation on Mendel’s Law; The molecular basis of
genetic information; The flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein; Genetic Variation;
Methodologies used to study genes and gene activities; Developmental noise; Detecting macromolecules
of genetics; Model organisms for the genetic analysis; Distinction between Phenotype and Genotype
Unit 2. Chemical context of living systems
a. Chemistry of life
(Ch 2 Campbell) (6 Periods)
The constituents of matter; Structure of an atom; The energy level of electron; The formation and
function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms; Chemical reaction make or break
chemical bonds
b. Water and life
(Ch 3 Campbell) (5 Periods)
The water molecule is polar; Properties of water; Ionization of water
c. Carbon and life
(Ch 4 Campbell) (5 Periods)
Organic chemistry-the study of carbon compounds; What makes carbon special? Properties of organic
compounds
d. Structure and function of biomolecules
4|Page
(Ch 5 Campbell) (8 Periods)
Most macromolecules are Polymers; Carbohydrates act as fuel and building materials; Lipids are group
of hydrophobic molecules; Protein have diverse structures and functions; Nucleic acids store and
transmit hereditary information
LSPP 101: BIOLOGY-I (INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY)
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. To learn a) use of microscope b) principles of fixation and staining.
2. Preparation of Normal, molar and standard solutions, phosphate buffers, serial
dilutions
3. Use of micropipettes
4. Separation of A) amino acids B) chloroplast pigments by paper chromatography.
5. To perform gram staining of bacteria.
6. To study the cytochemical distribution of nucleic acids and mucopolysaccharides with in cells/tissues
from permanent slides.
7. To perform quantitative estimation of protein using the Lowry's method. Determine the concentration
of the unknown sample using the standard curve plotted.
8. To separate and quantify sugars by thin layer chromatography.
9. To raise the culture of E. coli and estimate the culture density by turbidity
method. Draw a growth curve from the available data.
10. Isolation of genomic DNA from E.coli.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Campbell, N.A. and Reece, J. B. (2008) Biology 8th edition, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San
Francisco.
2. Raven, P.H et al (2006) Biology 7th edition Tata McGrawHill Publications, New Delhi
3. Griffiths, A.J.F et al (2008) Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 9th edition, W.H. Freeman & Co.
NY
5|Page
Paper 2-BTHT 101 – Biodiversity-I -ALGAE AND MICROBIOLOGY
THEORY
Marks: 100
SECTION A: ALGAE
Unit 1: Introduction
(Ch 1 Lee) (7 Periods)
General characteristics; Ecology and distribution; range of thallus organization; Cell structure and
components; cell wall, pigment system, reserve food (of only groups represented in the syllabus),
flagella; and methods of reproduction, classification; criteria, system of Fritsch, and evolutionary
classification of Lee (only upto groups); significant contributions of important phycologists (F.E.
Fritsch, G.M. Smith, R.N. Singh, T.V. Desikachary, H.D. Kumar, M.O.P. Iyengar)
Unit 2: Cyanophyta
(Ch 2 Lee) (6 Periods)
Ecology and distribution; thallus organization; cell structure; chromatic adaptation; physiology;
reproduction; economic importance; role in biotechnology; morphology and life cycle of Nostoc
Unit 3: Chlorophyta
(Ch 5 Lee) (3 Periods)
General characteristics; range of thallus organization; pigment systems; methods of reproduction;
evolutionary significance of Prochloron; morphology and life cycles of Chlamydomonas, Volvox,
Oedogonium, Coleochaete
Unit 4: Charophyta
(Lee, Bold) (3Period/ 1 Period)
General characteristics; morphology and life cycle of Chara; fossils, evolutionary significance
Unit 5: Xanthophyta
(3 Period)
General, characteristics; range of thallus organization; methods of reproduction; morphology and life
cycle of Vaucheria
Unit 6: Phaeophyta
(Ch 19 Lee) (6 Period)
characteristics; range of thallus structure; methods of reproduction; morphology and life cycles of
Ectocarpus and Fucus.
Unit 7: Rhodophyta
(Ch 4 Lee; Cole & Sheath Ch 12, 13, 14) (5 Period)
General characteristics; range of thallus organization; methods of reproduction; morphology and life
cycles of Polysiphonia
Unit 8: Applied Phycology
Role in ecosystem; aquaculture, industry, biotechnology, agriculture
6|Page
(Ch 23 Lee) (3 Period)
SECTION B: MICROBIOLOGY
Unit 1: General Microbiology
(Ch 10, 11 Pelczar) (2 Periods/14 Periods)
Introduction to microbial world, microbial nutrition, growth and metabolism.
Virus :
(Ch 20, 21 Pelczar) (6 periods)
Discovery, physiochemical and biological characteristics;Classification; replication, lytic and lysogenic
cycle ; special types: DNA virus (coliphage T-2), RNA virus (TMV). Economic importance; Symptoms,
Transmission and management of diseases caused by viruses on plants.
Bacteria
(Ch 13- 16 Pelczar) (6 periods)
General characteristics, comparison of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria , Wall-less forms (L forms,
Mycoplasma and sphaeroplasts), cell structure, nutrition; reproduction: vegetative, asexual, sexual (
conjugation, transformation , transduction ), Economic importance.
Unit 2: Applied microbiology
(Ch 7, 8, 25, 26, 27, 29 Pelczar) (4 Period)
Microbial culturing technique, culture media, and microbial growth, microbes used in agriculture,
mycorrhizae, environmental management and industry, Indian Institutes and their research activities in
microbiology
7|Page
BTHP 101 – Biodiversity-I -ALGAE AND MICROBIOLOGY
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
SECTION A
Study of the vegetative and reproductive structures in Nostoc, Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium,
Coleochaete, Chara, Vaucheria, Bacillariophyta,
Ectocarpus, Fucus, Polysiphonia, Procholoron
through, EM, temporary preparations and permanent slides.
SECTION B
1.
EMs/models of viruses and virus infected plants.
2.
Types of bacteria from temporary/permanent slides/EM. Study of bacterial infected plants and root
nodules. Gram staining.
SUGGESTED READINGS- SECTION A
1.
Bold, H.C. & Wayne, M.J. 1996 (2nd Ed.) Introduction to Algae.
2.
Van den Hoek, C.; Mann, D.J. & Jahns, H.M. 1995. Algae: An introduction to Phycology.
Cambridge Univ. Press.
3.
Lee, R.E. 2008. Phycology, Fourth Edition, Cambridge University Press, USA.
4.
Kumar, H.D. 1999. Introductory Phycology. Aff. East-west Press Pvt ltd., Delhi.
SUGGESTED READINGS- SECTION B
1.
Pelczar, M.J. (2001) Microbiology, 5th edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Co, New Delhi.
2.
Presscott, L. Harley, J. and Klein, D. (2005) Microbiology, 6th edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Co.
New Delhi.
8|Page
Paper 3-CHCT 301: CHEMISTRY-I
THEORY
Marks: 100
Section A: Inorganic Chemistry
(30 Periods)
Unit 1 : Atomic Structure: Recapitulation of: Bohr’s theory and its limitations, dual behaviour of
matter and radiation, de-Broglie’s relation, Heisenberg Uncertainty principle. Need of a new approach
to Atomic structure.
What is Quantum mechanics? Time independent Schrodinger equation (H Ψ = EΨ) and meaning of
various terms in it. Significance of Ψ and Ψ2, Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atom in Cartesian
coordinates (x,y,z). Need of polar coordinates, transformation of Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) into polar
coordinates (r,θ,φ). Radial and angular parts of the hydogenic wavefunctions (atomic orbitals) and their
variations for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals. (Only graphical representation), Radial and angular
nodes and their significance. Radial distribution functions and the concept of the most probable
distances with special reference to 1s and 2s atomic orbitals. Significance of quantum numbers, orbital
angular momentum and quantum numbers mr and ms. Shapes of s, p and d atomic orbitals, nodal planes.
Discovery of spin, spin quantum number (s) and magnetic spin quantum number (ms).
Rules for filling electrons in various orbitals, Electronic configurations of the atoms. Stability of halffilled and completely filled orbitals, concept of exchange energy. Relative energies of atomic orbitals,
Anomalous electronic configurations.
Unit 2: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Ionic Bonding: General characteristics of ionic bonding. Energy considerations in ionic bonding, lattice
energy and salvation energy and their importance in the context of stability and solubility of ionic
compounds. Statement of Born-Lande equation for calculation of lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle and
its applications, polarizing power and polarizability. Fajan’s rules, ionic character in covalent
compounds, bond moment, dipole moment and percentage ionic character.
Covalent bonding: VB Approach Shapes of some inorganic molecules and ions on the basis of VSEPR
and hybridization with suitable examples of, linear, trigonal planar, square planar, tetrahedral, trigonal
bipyramidal and octahedral arrangements. Concept of resonance and resonating structures.
9|Page
Section B: Physical Chemistry
(30 Periods)
Unit 3: Chemical Thermodynamics
What is thermodynamics? State of a system, state variables, intensive and extensive variables,
concept of heat and work, thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic properties, various types of syste
ms and processes. First Law of thermodynamics. Calculation of work (w), heat (q), changes in internal e
nergy (∆U) and enthalpy (∆H) for expansion or compression of ideal gases under isothermal and adiabat
ic conditions for both reversible and irreversible processes. Calculation of w, q, ∆U and ∆H for processe
s involving changes in physical states.
Important principles and definitions of thermochemistry. Concept of standard state and standard enthalpi
es of formations, integral and differential enthalpies of solution and dilution.
Calculation of bond energy, bond dissociation energy and resonance energy from thermochemical data.
Variation of enthalpy of a reaction with temperature – Kirchhoff’s equation.
Various statements of Second Law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, concept of entropy, Gibbs free ene
rgy and Helmholtz energy, Calculations of entropy change and free energy change for reversible and irre
versible processes under isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Criteria of spontaneity. Gibbs Helmholtz equation. Maxwell’s relations.
Statement of Third Law of thermodynamics and calculation of absolute entropies of substances.
Unit 4: Ionic Equilibria
Strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, factors affecting degree of ionization, ioni
zationconstant and ionic product of water. Ionization of weak acids and bases, pH scale, common ion eff
ect, Salt hydrolysis-calculation of hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis and pH for different salts.Bu
ffer solutions.
Solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts -applications of solubility product principle.
Qualitative treatment of acid base titration curves (calculation of pH at various stages of HCl –NaOH
titration only). Theory of acid – base indicators.
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CHCP 301: CHEMISTRY-I
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
Section A: Inorganic Chemistry
Volumetric Analysis
1. Estimation of sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate present in a mixture.
2. Estimation of oxalic acid by titrating it with KMnO4.
3. Estimation of water of crystallization in Mohr’s salt by titrating with KMnO4.
4. Estimation of Fe(II) ions by titrating it with K2Cr2O7 using internal indicator.
5. Estimation of Cu(II) ions iodometrically using Na2S2O3.
6. Estimation of (i) Mg2+ or (ii) Zn2+ by complexometric titrations using EDTA.
Section B: Physical Chemistry
(I) Surface tension measurement (use of organic solvents excluded)
Determination of the surface tension of a liquid or a dilute solution using a stalagmometer.
(II) Viscosity measurement (use of organic solvents excluded)
Determination of the relative and absolute viscosity of a liquid or dilute solution using an Ostwald’s
viscometer.
(III) Kinetic studies
Study of the kinetics of the following reaction by integrated rate method: Acid hydrolysis of methyl
acetate with hydrochloric acid volumetrically
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Barrow, G. M. 2007 Physical Chemistry Tata McGraw-Hill
2. Castellan, G. W. 2004 Physical Chemistry 4th edition. Narosa .
3. Kotz, J. C., Treichel, P. M. & Townsend, J. R. 2009 General Chemistry Cengage Learning India
Pvt. Ltd.: New Delhi
4. Mahan, B. H. 1998 University Chemistry 3rd Ed. Narosa .
5. J. D. Lee: A new Concise Inorganic Chemistry, E L. B. S.
6. F. A. Cotton & G. Wilkinson: Basic Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley.
7. Douglas, McDaniel and Alexader : Concepts and Models in Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley.
8. James E. Huheey, Ellen Keiter and Richard Keiter : Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of
and Reactivity, Pearson Publication.
11. Vogel’s Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, A.I. Vogel, Prentice Hall, 7th edition.
12. Vogel’s Quantitative Chemical Analysis, A.I. Vogel, Prentice Hall, 6th edition.
13. Senior Practical Physical Chemistry, B.D.Khosla, R. Chand & Co.
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Structure
Paper 4/8-ENAT 101/201: TECHNICAL WRITING AND COMMUNICATION IN
ENGLISH
Marks: 100
Unit 1
Communication: Language and communication, differences between speech and writing, distinct
features of speech, distinct features of writing.
Unit 2
Writing Skills; Selection of topic, thesis statement, developing the thesis; introductory, developmental,
transitional and concluding paragraphs, linguistic unity, coherence and cohesion, descriptive, narrative,
expository and argumentative writing.
Unit 3
Technical Writing: Scientific and technical subjects; formal and informal writings; formal
writings/reports, handbooks, manuals, letters, memorandum, notices, agenda, minutes; common errors to
be avoided.
SUGGESTED READINGS
1. M. Frank. Writing as thinking: A guided process approach, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall Reagents.
2. L. Hamp-Lyons and B. Heasely: Study Writing; A course in written English. For academic and
professional purposes, Cambridge Univ. Press.
3. R. Quirk, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech and J. Svartik: A comprehensive grammar of the English language,
Longman, London.
4. Daniel G. Riordan & Steven A. Panley: “Technical Report Writing Today” - Biztaantra.
Additional Reference Books
5. Daniel G. Riordan, Steven E. Pauley, Biztantra: (2004 Technical Report Writing Today, 8th Edition
6. Contemporary Business Communication, 2004.Scot Ober, Biztantra, 5th Edition
12 | P a g e
Paper 4/8-CSAT 101/201: COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS
THEORY
Marks: 100
Computer Fundamentals
(12 Periods)
Introduction to Computers: Characteristics of Computers, Uses of computers, Types and generations of
Computers; Basic Computer Organization - Units of a computer, CPU, ALU, memory hierarchy,
registers, I/O devices; User Interface with the Operating System, System Tools
Data Representation
(8 Periods)
Binary representation of integers and real numbers, 1's Complement, 2's Complement, Addition and
subtraction of binary numbers, BCD, ASCII, Unicode;
Networks terminology
(4 Periods)
Types of networks, router, switch, server-client architecture
Multimedia
(4 Periods)
Introduction, Characteristics, Elements, Applications
Problem Solving
(10 Periods)
Notion of algorithms, stepwise methodology of developing an algorithm, developing macros in
spreadsheet
General Awareness
IT Act, System Security (virus/firewall etc.), I-Tax, Reservations, Banking.
13 | P a g e
(4 Periods)
CSAP 101/201: COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. Defined projects will be done by the students and evaluated by the instructor.
2. Document Preparation
3. Presentation Software
4. Familiarizing with the Operating System, Control Panel, Networking Configuration, Firewall
setting
5. Spreadsheet Handing, Working with worksheets, Creating a spreadsheet, entering and formatting
information, basic functions and formulas, creating charts, tables and graphs.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
[1] V Rajaraman, Fundamentals of Computers, 4th edition, PHI.
[2] Anita Goel, Fundamentals of Computers; Forthcoming title in Pearson-Education
Note: Use of Open Office/Star Office is recommended, as they are freely downloadable.
Reference manual for Open Office available at: http://www.openffice.org
Reference manual for Star Office available at: http://www.sun.com/software/staroffice/
14 | P a g e
Paper 5- BTHT 202: Biodiversity II-MYCOLOGY AND PHYTOPATHOLOGY
THEORY
Marks: 100
SECTION A: MYCOLOGY (Fungi and allied organisms)
Unit I: Introduction
(Ch 1 Webster & Weber, Ch 1 Alexopoulos et al.) (10 periods)
Definition; Why study fungi? General characteristics; Ecology and Distribution; Thallus organization;
EM of haustorium and septum; Wall composition; Nutrition; Growth; Reproduction and spores;
Heterokaryosis and parasexuality; Sexual compatibility; Life cycle patterns.
Unit 2: Myxomycota
(Ch 2 Webster & Weber, Ch 29 Alexopoulos et al.) (3 periods)
Introduction, Occurrence; Importance (Physrum as an experimental tool); General characteristics;
Thallus organization; Reproduction
Unit 3: Oomycota
(Ch 5 Webster & Weber, Ch 23 Alexopoulos et al.) (5 periods)
General characteristics; Ecology; Significance; Thallus organization; Reproduction; Classification;
Generalized life cycle of the class with special emphasis on the reproductive structures of Phytophthora,
Albugo.
Unit 4: Zygomycota
(Ch 7 Webster &Weber, Ch 5 & 6 Alexopoulos et al.) (4 periods)
General characteristics; Ecology; Significance; Thallus organization; Reproduction; with special
reference to Rhizopus.
Unit 5: Ascomycota
(Ch 8 Webster & Weber) (8 periods)
General characteristics; Ecology; Significance; Thallus organization; Reproduction; Classification with
special reference to Yeasts (Saccharomyces),Eurotium (Aspergillus), Penicillium, General account of
Powdery mildews, Neurospora, Peziza
Unit 6: Basidiomycota
(Ch 18 Webster & Weber) (7 periods)
General characteristics; Ecology; Significance; Thallus organization; Reproduction; Classification with
special reference to Wheat Rusts (Puccinia), Loose & Covered Smuts; Mushrooms (Agaricus);
Mushroom cultivation
Unit 7: Deuteromycota
(Ch 8 Alexopoulos et al.) (3 periods)
General characteristics; Ecology, Significance; Thallus organization; Reproduction; Classification with
special reference to Alternaria, and Colletotrichum
Unit 8: Applied Mycology
(Ch 18 Wickens) (8 periods)
Role of fungi in biotechnology, Application of fungi in food industry (Flavour & texture, Fermentation,
Baking, Organic acids, Enzymes, Mycoproteins); Secondary metabolites (Pharmaceutical preparations);
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Agriculture (Biofertilizers); Mycotoxins; Biological control (Mycofungicides, Mycoherbicides,
Mycoinsecticides, Myconematicides); Medical mycology.
Unit 9: Lichens
(Ch 16 Webster & Weber) (3 periods)
Occurrence, General Characteristics; Growth forms and range of thallus organization; Nature of
association of algal and fungal partners; Reproduction; Ecological significance; Applied importance.
SECTION B: PHYTOPATHOLOGY
Unit 10: Plant Pathology
(Ch 1 Agrios) (4 periods)
Introduction: Definition; Importance; Terms and Concepts; Classification; Causes; Symptoms; HostPathogen relationships
Unit 11:
(Ch 2, 7, 8 Agrios) (5 periods)
Geographical distribution of diseases; etiology; symptomology; disease cycle and environmental
relation; prevention and control of plant diseases, and role of quarantine.
BTHP 202: Biodiversity II-MYCOLOGY AND PHYTOPATHOLOGY
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
SECTION A
1.
Study of Phaneroplasmodium from actual specimens and/or photograph. Study of Physarum
sporangia.
2.
Study of symptoms of plants infected with
Albugo; asexual and sexual structures through
sections/tease mounts and permanent slides.
3.
Rhizopus: Students to culture Black bread mould in the laboratory to study asexual stage from
temporary mounts. Sexual stages of mould to be studied from permanent slides.
4.
Aspergillus and Penicillium : asexual stages from tease mounts.
5.
Neurospora: Asexual and sexual stage from culture/permanent slides/ photographs.
6.
Peziza: Habit; sectioning through ascocarp, and permanent slides.
7.
Puccinia: Herbarium specimens of Wheat Rusts- (Black, Brown and Yellow) and infected barberry
leaves; section/tease mounts of spores on wheat, and permanent slides of both the hosts.
16 | P a g e
8.
Mushrooms: Specimens of button stage and full-grown mushroom; sectioning of gills of Agaricus,
study of basidiocarp from permanent slides; Photograph of fairy ring, edible and poisonous fungi
(two each), bioluminesecent mushroom to be shown.
9.
Specimens/photographs and tease mounts of Alternaria, and Colletotrichum.
10.
Applied mycology: Photographs of Mycorrhizae, fungi used in medicine (Cylindriocarpon,
Tolyposporium, Ganoderma, Cephalosporium – any one), fungi used as biological control agents
(fungi used in control of seedling, soil borne, post harvest diseases and in control of nematodes,
insects & weeds – any one), photographs / mounts of spores of fungi causing human infections
along with pictures of patients suffering from such infections (Aspergillus, Candida,
Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Microsporum, Trichophyton – any one).
11.
Study of growth forms of lichens (crustose, foliose, fruticose) on different substrata. Study of
thallus and reproductive structures (soredia, apothecium) through permanent slides
SECTION B
12.
White rust of Crucifers, Early & Late blight of potato, Herbarium/museum specimens of the
diseased plants.
Students should submit six specimens of fungal growth at the time of examination.
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Agrios, G.N. 1997 Plant Pathology, 4th edition, Academic Press, U.K.
2.
Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W. and Blackwell, M. 1996 Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, John
Wiley and Sons (Asia) Singapore.
3.
Singh, R.S. 998 Plant Diseases. 7th edition, Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
4.
Webster, J. and Weber, R. 2007 Introduction to Fungi. 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
5.
Wickens, G.E. 2004 Economic Botany: Principles and Practices, Springer. Kuwer Publishers,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands
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Paper 6-BTHT 203: Biodiversity III-ARCHEGONIATAE (BRYOPHYTES,
PTERIDOPHYTES AND GYMNOSPERMS)
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Introduction
(5 Periods)
Characteristic features and life cycle patterns of Bryophytes (Ch 1,10 Parihar); Pteridophytes
(Ch 1, 11 Parihar, Ch 13 Eames); and Gymnosperms (Ch 1 Bhatnagar and Moitra); Classification;
Habit and Habitat; Adaptations to land habit.
Unit 2: Structure and Reproduction in Bryophytes
(Ch2-7, 9 Parihar) (14 Periods)
Comparative account of Morphology and Anatomy of Riccia, Marchantia, Pellia, Porella, Anthoceros,
Sphagnum and Funaria; Reproduction and evolutionary trends in Riccia, Marchantia , Anthoceros and
Funaria (developmental stages not included).
Unit 3: Structure and Reproduction in Pteridophytes
(Ch 2, 4,5 9,10 Parihar) (14 Periods)
Comparative account of Morphology and Anatomy of Rhynia, Psilotum, Selaginella, Equisetum, Pteris,
Marsilea; Reproduction and evolutionary trends in Selaginella; Equisetum; and Pteris (developmental
details not included).
Unit 4: Evolutionary concepts in Pteridophytes
(Ch 11 Parihar) (5 Periods)
Telome theory; Stelar evolution; Heterospory and seed habit Apogamy and Apospory. Unit 5:
Structure of Gymnosperms:
(Ch 6, 13-16, Bhatnagar and Moitra) (9 Periods)
Morphology and anatomy of Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra, Gnetum.
Unit 6: Reproduction in Gymnosperms
(Ch 6, 13-16 Bhatnagar and Moitra) (9 Periods)
Reproduction and evolutionary trends in Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra, Gnetum, (developmental stages and
EM studies not included).
Unit 7: Importance
(Ch 18 Bhatnagar and Moitra) (4 Periods)
Ecological and Economic importance of Bryophytes (Glime and Saxena), Pteridophytes and
Gymnosperms.
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BTHP 203: Biodiversity III-ARCHEGONIATAE (BRYOPHYTES,
PTERIDOPHYTES AND GYMNOSPERMS)
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
Study of habit, Vegetative thallus organization and structure, reproductive structures of the following
taxa: Riccia, Marchantia, Pellia*, Porella*, Anthoceros, Sphagnum*, Funaria, Psilotum, Selaginella,
Equisetum, Marsilea, Pteris, Cycas, Ephedra, Gnetum* and through specimens, temporary mounts and
permanent slides (Fresh material whichever available).
*Only through permanent slides
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Bhatnager, S.P. and Moitra, A. 1996 Gymnospersm. New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers,
New Delhi.
2.
Buchanan, B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R. 2000 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants.
American Society of Plant Biologists.
3.
Raven, P.H., Johnson, G.B., Losos, J.B. and Singer, S.R. 2005 Biology. Tata MC Graw Hill.
4.
Richardson, D.H.S. 1981 The Biology of Mosses. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
5.
Sambamurty 2008 A Textbook of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany. IK
International Publishers.
6.
Shaw, A.J. and Goffinet, B. (2000) Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge University Press.
7.
Vander-Poorteri 2009 Introduction to Bryophytes. COP.
8.
Parihar, N.S. 1991. Bryophytes. Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
9.
Parihar, N.S. 1996. The Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book Depot,
Allahabad.
10.
Bhatnagar S.P. and Mohitra A 1996 Gymnosperms. New Age Publishers, New Delhi
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Paper 7-CHCT 402: CHEMISTRY-II
THEORY
Section A: Basic Organic Chemistry
Marks: 100
(30 Periods)
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
Concept of hybridization of carbon. Cleavage of a covalent bond: homolysis and heterolysis. Electronic
effects and their applications (inductive, electromeric, hyperconjugation and resonance). Structure and
stability of reactive intermediates (carbocations, carbanions and free radicals). Relative strength of
carboxylic acids (aliphatic, aromatic and halo-substituted aliphatic), alcohols, phenols and nitro-phenols.
Relative basic strength of amines (aliphatic and aromatic) Intermolecular and intramolecular forces:
types of intermolecular forces and their characteristics (ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole
and dispersion forces). Intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Effect of intermolecular
and intramolecular forces on properties such as solubility, vapour pressure, melting and boiling points of
organic compounds.
Unit 2: Stereochemistry
Conformations w.r.t. ethane, butane and cyclohexane. Interconversion of Wedge Formula, Newman,
Sawhorse and Fischer representations. Concept of chirality (upto two carbon atoms). Configuration:
Geometrical and Optical isomerism; Enantiomerism, Diastereomerism and Meso compounds) . Threo
and erythro; D and L; cis - trans nomenclature; CIP Rules: R/ S (for upto 2 chiral carbon atoms) and E /
Z Nomenclature (for upto two C=C systems).
Section B: Chemistry of Biomolecules
(30 Periods)
Unit 3: Carbohydrates
Classification, and General Properties, Glucose and Fructose (open chain and cyclic structure),
Determination of configuration of monosaccharides, absolute configuration of Glucose and Fructose,
Mutarotation, ascending and descending in monosaccharides. Structure of disacharrides (sucrose,
cellobiose, maltose, lactose) and polysaccharides (starch and cellulose) excluding their structure
elucidation.
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Unit 4: Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
Preparation of Amino Acids: Strecker synthesis, using Gabriel’s phthalimide synthesis. Zwitter ion,
Isoelectric point and Electrophoresis.
Reactions of Amino acids: ester of –COOH group, acetylation of –NH2 group, complexation with Cu2+
ions, ninhydrin test.
Overview of Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure of proteins. Determination of
Primary structure of Peptides by degradation Edmann degradation (N-terminal) and C–terminal
(thiohydantoin and with carboxypeptidase enzyme). Synthesis of simple peptides (upto dipeptides) by
N-protection (t-butyloxycarbonyl and phthaloyl) & C-activating groups and Merrifield solid-phase
synthesis.
CHCP 402: CHEMISTRY-II
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
Organic Chemistry
1. Detection of extra elements (N,S,Cl,Br,I) in organic compounds (containing up to two extra
elements).
2. Systematic Qualitative Organic Analysis of Organic Compounds possessing monofunctional
groups (-COOH, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, amide, nitro, 1o amines) and preparation of one
derivative.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. T. W. Graham Solomons : Organic Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons.
2. Arun Bahl and B. S. Bahl : Advanced Organic Chemistry, S. Chand.
3. E. L. Eliel: Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, Tata McGraw Hill.
4. I. L. Finar: Organic Chemistry (Vol. I & II), E. L. B. S.
5. R. T. Morrison & R. N. Boyd: Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
6. Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, A.I. Vogel, Prentice Hall, 5th edition.
7. Practical Organic Chemistry, Mann F. G. & Saunders B. C, Orient Longman, 1960.
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Paper 9-BTHT 304: PLANT RESOURCE UTILIZATION
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Origin of Cultivated Plants
(Ch 13&14, Chrispeels & Sadava, Ch 1 Kochhar, Ch 1 Wickens) (6 Periods)
Concept of centres of origin, their importance with reference to Vavilov’s work; examples of major
plant introductions; Crop domestication and loss of genetic diversity; evolution of new crops/varieties,
importance of germplasm diversty.
Unit 2: Cereals
(Ch 3 Kochhar, Chs 6-10 Wickens, Ch 10 Slater et al.) (4 Periods)
Wheat and Rice, Role of dwarf varieties in green revolution; brief account of millets and pseudocereals.
Unit 3: Legumes
(Ch 5 Kochhar)(2 Periods)
General account, importance to man and ecosystem; chief pulses grown in India.
Unit 4: Fruits
(Ch 7 Kochhar) (4 Periods)
Mango, Citrus, Papaya.
Unit 5: Sugars and starches
(Ch 4 Kochhar) (6 Periods)
Ratooning and nobilization of sugarcane, products and by products of sugarcane industry; Potato (Tuber
anatomy and propagation methods) and comparative account with cassava.
Unit 6: Spices
(Ch 9 Kochhar) (6 Periods)
Listing of important spices, their family and part used; with special reference to fennel, saffron, clove,
turmeric and all spices; common adulterants of spices.
Unit 7: Beverages
(Ch 11 Kochhar) (6 Periods)
Tea, coffee and cocoa, their processing and some common adulterants.
Unit 8: Oils and Fats
(Ch 6 Kochhar, Ch 9 Wickens) (8 Periods)
General description with details of groundnut, coconut, linseed and Brassica spp and their use related
health implications.
Unit 9: Essential Oils
(Ch 17 Kochhar) (3 Periods)
General account and comparison with fatty oils.
Unit 10: Natural Rubber
(Ch 14 Kochhar) (3 Periods)
Para Rubber, tapping and processing, Various substitutes of Para Rubber.
Unit 11: Drug Yielding Plants
Ch 15 Kochhar, Ch16 Wickens)
(4 Periods)
Therapeutic and habit forming drugs with special reference to Cinchona, Digitalis, Rauvolfia, Papaver
and Cannabis.
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Unit 12: Masticatories and Fumitories
(3 Periods)
Tobacco and Health hazards. (Ch 10 Kochhar)
Unit 13: Timber plants
(3 Periods)
General account with special reference to teak and pine. (Ch 12 Kochhar, Ch 12 Wickens)
Unit 14: Fibres
(3 Periods)
Classification based on the origin of fibres, Tetraploid cotton and Jute. (Ch 2 Kochhar, Ch 14
Wickens)
BTHP 304: PLANT RESOURCE UTILIZATION
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
Study of the following through habit sketches temporary preparations permanent slides photographs
specimens products microchemical tests etc. to bring out the economic importance: Cereals: Wheat,
Rice, Millets and Pseudo cereals; Legumes: Soyabean, groundnut and gram, Fruits: mango, citrus and
papaya; Sugars and starches: sugarcane, potato, cassava; Spices: black pepper, coriander, fennel;
Beverages: tea, coffee, cocoa; Oils and Fats: Coconut, mustard and linseed Essential-oil yielding
plants: Rosa, Cymbopogon, Vetiveria, Santalum and Eucalyptus; Fiber-yielding plants: Gossypium,
Corchorus, jute;
Woods: Tectona, Pinus Rubber: Hevea brasiliensis; Drug yielding plants:
Cinchona, Digitalis, Rauvolfia, Papaver, Cannabis; Fumitory plants: Tobacco
Each student should submit a theoretical project on any one of the topic pertaining to the course content.
Some of the suggested topics for this purpose are: Biofuels; Biocides; Newer drug plants; Germplasm
conservation; IPR, MTA; Heterosis; Selection methods of breeding; Conventional and non conventional
plant breeding methods, GM crops, Quarantine Practices in a botanical conservation.
In the Practicals, students should also be shown a few standing crops under field conditions wherever
possible and to made aware of constraints faced by the farming community for increasing crop
productivity. This could be integrated with the project reports that students have to submit. Students
should also be made to understand India’s productivity status for various economically important plants
in relation to that of other countries and their economic ramifications.
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SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Kochhar, S.L. 2009 Economic Botany in Tropic. Macmillan and Co. New Delhi.
2.
Wickens, G.E. 2004 Economic Botany: Principles and Practices, Springer. Klwer Publishers,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
3.
Chrispeels, M.J. and Sadava, D. 1977 Plants, Food and People. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman &
Co.
4.
Swaminathan. M and Kochhar, S.L. 1989 Plants and Society. Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
5.
Harlan, J.R. (1992). Crops and Man. 2nd ed. Madison W D: American Society of Agronomy.
6.
Chrispeels, M.J. and Sadava, D.E. 1994 Plants, Genes and Agriculture.
Jones & Bartlett
Publishers.
7.
Slater, A., Scott, N.W. & Fowler, M.R. 2008 Plant Biotechnology: The Genetic Manipulation of
Plants, Oxford University Press.
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Paper 10-MACT 303: MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS
Marks: 100
Unit 1
(24 Periods)
Sets. Functions and their graphs : polynomial, sine, cosine, exponential and logarithmic functions.
Motivation and illustration for these functions through projectile motion, simple pendulum, biological
rhythms, cell division, muscular fibres etc. Simple observations about these functions like increasing,
decreasing and, periodicity. Sequences to be introduced through the examples arising in Science
beginning with finite sequences, followed by concepts of recursion and difference equations. For
instance, the Fibonacci sequence arising from branching habit of trees and breeding habit of rabbits.
Intuitive idea of algebraic relationships and convergence. Infinite Geometric Series. Series formulas for
ex, log (1+x), sin x, cos x. Step function. Intuitive idea of discontinuity, continuity and limits.
Differentiation. Conception to be motivated through simple concrete examples as given above from
Biological and Physical Sciences. Use of methods of differentiation like Chain rule, Product rule and
Quotient rule. Second order derivatives of above functions. Integration as reverse process of
differentiation. Integrals of the functions introduced above.
Unit 2
(14 Periods)
Points in plane and space and coordinate form. Examples of matrices inducing Dilation, Rotation,
Reflection and System of linear equations. Examples of matrices arising in Physical, Biological Sciences
and Biological networks. Sum and Produce of matrices upto order 3.
Unit 3
(20 Periods)
Measures of central tendency. Measures of dispersion; skewness, kurtosis. Elementary Probability and
basic laws. Discrete and Continuous Random variable, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance
of Binomial, Poisson and Normal distribution. Sample mean and Sampling variance. Hypothesis testing
using standard normal variate. Curve Fitting. Correlation and Regression. Emphasis on examples from
Biological Sciences.
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SUGGESTED READINGS
1. H. S. Bear: Understanding Calculus, John Wiley and Sons (Second Edition); 2003.
2. E. Batschelet : Introduction to Mathematics for Life Scientists,Springer Verlag, International Student
Edition, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi (1971, 1975)
3. A. Edmondson and D. Druce : Advanced Biology Statistics, Oxford University Press; 1996.
4. W. Danial : Biostatistics : A foundation for Analysis in Health Sciences, John Wiley and Sons Inc;
2004.
Note: It is desirable that softwares should be used for demonstrating visual, graphical and application
oriented approaches.
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Paper 11-CBHT 301: CELL BIOLOGY-I
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1. An Overview of Cells
(Ch 1 Cooper et al./ Ch 1 Karp)
Overview of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell size and shape, Phages, Viriods, Mycoplasma and
Escherichia coli.
Unit 2. Tools and techniques of Cell Biology (Ch 1 Cooper et al./ Ch 18 Karp/ Ch 3 De Robertis)
Microscopic-Principles of Light microscopy; Phase contrast microscopy; Confocal microscopy;
Electron microscopy (EM)-scanning EM and scanning transmission EM (STEM); Fluorescence
microscopy;
Analytical-Flow cytometry- flurochromes, fluorescent probe and working principle;
Spectrophotometry; Mass spectrometry; X-ray diffraction analysis.
Separation-Sub-cellular fractionation- differential and density gradient centrifugation;
Chromatography- paper, thin-layer, gel-filtration, ion-exchange, affinity and High-Performance
Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Unit 3. Composition of Cells
Molecules of cell, cell membranes and cell Proteins.
(Ch 2 Cooper et al.)
Unit 4. The Nucleus
(Ch 9 Cooper et al.)
Nuclear Envelope- structure of nuclear pore complex, nuclear lamina, Transport across Nuclear
Envelope, Chromatin: molecular organization, Nucleolus and rRNA Processing.
Unit 5. Protein Sorting and Transport
(Ch 10 Cooper et al.)
The Endoplasmic reticulum, The Golgi Apparatus, Mechanism of Vesicular Transport,
Lysosomes.
Unit 6. Mitochondria, Chloroplasts and Peroxisomes
(Ch 11 Cooper et al.)
Structural organization, Function, Marker enzymes,Mitochondrial biogenesis, Protein import in
mitochondria, Semiautonomous nature of mitochondria and chloroplast, chloroplast DNA,
Peroxisomes’assembly
Unit 7. Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement
(Ch 12 Cooper et al.)
Structure and organization of actin filaments; actin, myosin and cell movement; intermediate
filaments; microtubules.
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CBHP 301: CELL BIOLOGY-I
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. Separation of nucleic acid bases by paper chromatography.
2. Microscopy- Theoretical knowledge of Light and Electron microscope.
3. Study of the following techniques through electron / photo micrographs: Fluorescence
microscopy, autoradiography, positive staining, negative staining, freeze fracture, freeze etching,
shadow casting.
4. Study of structure of cell organelles through electron micrographs.
Permanent slide preparation:
5. Cytochemical staining of DNA-Feulgen.
6. Cytochemical staining of DNA and RNA- Methyl Green Pyronin (MGP).
7. Cytochemical staining of Polysaccharides-Periodic Acid Schiff’s (PAS).
8. Cytochemical staining of Total proteins- Bromophenol blue.
9. Cytochemical staining of Histones -Fast Green.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Karp, G. 2010. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. 6th Edition. John Wiley
& Sons. Inc.
2. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, E.M.F. 2006. Cell and Molecular Biology. 8th edition.
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
3. Cooper, G.M. and Hausman, R.E. 2009. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 5th edition. ASM
Press & Sunderland, Washington, D.C.; Sinauer Associates, MA.
4. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. 2009. The World of the Cell. 7th
edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco.
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Paper 12-MBHT 301: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-I
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1. Nucleic Acids convey Genetic Information
(Ch 2 Watson)
DNA as the carrier of genetic information, Key experiments establishing-The Central Dogma, DNA
Double helix, Genetic code, Direction of Protein Synthesis, Genomics.
Unit 2. The Structures of DNA and RNA / Genetic Material
(Ch 6 Watson/ Ch 18 Becker)
DNA Structure: Miescher to Watson and Crick- historic perspective, DNA structure, Salient features
of double helix, Types of DNA, Types of genetic material, denaturation and renaturation, cot curves.
DNA topology-linking number, topoisomerases; Organization of DNA- Prokaryotes, Viruses,
Eukaryotes.
RNA Structure
Organelle DNA -- mitochondria and chloroplast DNA.
Unit 3. Genome Structure, Chromatin and the Nucleosome
(Ch 7 Watson/ Ch 18 Becker)
Genome Sequence and Chromosome Diversity, Chromosome Duplication and Segregation,
The Nucleosome
Chromatin structure- Euchromatin, Heterochromatin- Constitutive and Facultative heterochromatin.
Regulation of Chromatin Structure and Nucleosome Assembly.
Organization of Chromosomes
Unit 4. The Replication of DNA (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes)
(Ch 8 Watson/ Ch 19 Becker)
Chemistry of DNA synthesis, general principles - bidirectional replication, Semi- conservative, Semi
discontinuous, RNA priming, Various models of DNA replication including rolling circle, D-loop
(mitochondrial), Ө (theta) mode of replication, replication of linear ds-DNA, replicating the 5’end of
linear chromosome. Enzyme involved in DNA replication – DNA polymerases, DNA ligase,
Primase, Telomerase and other accessory proteins
Unit 5. The Mutability and Repair of DNA
Replication Errors, DNA Damage and their repair.
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(Ch 9 Watson)
MBHP 301: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-I
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. Preparation of Polytene chromosome from Chironomous larva/Drosophila larva
2. Demonstration of mammalian sex chromatin.
3. Preparations of temporary mount and study the different stages of Mitosis (Onion root tip).
4. Perform Southern Blot Hybridization (Restrict DNA for Southern Blot electrophoresis, perform
electrophoresis of restricted DNA, perform southern transfer, hybridization and detection of gene
of interest)
5. Demonstration of Northern Blotting.
6. Demonstration of Western Blotting.
7. Perform DNA amplification by PCR.
8. Study of semiconservative replication of DNA through micrographs/schematic representations.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Karp, G. 2010. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. 6th edition. John Wiley
& Sons. Inc.
2. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, E.M.F. 2006. Cell and Molecular Biology. 8th edition.
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
3. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. 2009. The World of the Cell. 7th
edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco.
4. Watson, J. D., Baker T.A., Bell, S. P., Gann, A., Levine, M., and Losick, R., 2008 Molecular
Biology of the Gene 6th edition. Cold Spring Harbour Lab. Press, Pearson Pub.
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Paper 13-BTHT 405: PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND ANATOMY
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Plant Sporophyte:
(Ch 16 Taiz & Zeiger)
A bipolar structure; Onset of polarity; Cytodifferentiation and organogenesis during embryonic
development; physiological and genetic aspects.
Unit 2: Introduction and scope of Plant Anatomy
(Ch 1 Fahn) (2 Periods)
Applications in systematics, forensics and pharmacognosy.
Unit 3: Tissues and Cell Walls
(Ch 1 Dickinson) (12 Periods)
Classification and structure of tissues; cytodifferentiation of tracheary elements and sieve elements; pits
and plasmodesmata; wall ingrowths and transfer cells; adcrustation and incrustation; ergastic substances.
Unit 4: Stem
(Ch 11 Fahn) (8 Periods)
Organization of shoot apex (apical cell theory, histogen theory, tunica corpus theory, plastochrone);
shoot chimeras; types of vascular bundles; primary phloem and primary xylem; terminal, lateral and
adventitious buds; primary thickening meristem.
Unit 5: Leaf
(Ch 12 Fahn) (6 Periods)
Development of leaf, histology of C3 and C4 leaves; stomatal complex and diversity of stomata, scale
leaves.
Unit 6: Root
(Ch 13 Fahn) (7 Periods)
Organization of root apex (apical cell theory, histogen theory, korper-kappe theory); quiescent centre;
root cap; primary root tissue: rhizodermis, cortex, endodermis, exodermis, metacutinization, lateral root
apices; secondary growth in roots.
Unit 7: Vascular Cambium
(Ch 14 Fahn) (6 Periods)
Structure and function; concept of cambial zone; cambial derivatives; seasonal activity of cambium and
unusual cambial activity.
Unit 8: Secondary Growth
(Ch 4 Dickinson) (6 Periods)
Axially and radially oriented xylary and phloic elements, cyclic aspects, juvenile adult and reaction
woods; sap wood and heart wood; Phloem as a dynamic tissue.
Unit 9: Periderm
(Ch 4 Dickinson) (4 Periods)
Development and composition of periderm, rhytidome and lenticels.
Unit 10: Adaptive and Protective Systems
(Ch 8 Dickinson) (5 Periods)
Epidermal tissue system (cuticle, epicuticular waxes, trichomes); Anatomical adaptations in stems,
leaves and roots of xerophytes, hydrophytes and halophytes.
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Unit 11: Secretory and Excretory System
(4 periods)
Hydathodes, salt glands, nectaries; cavities, lithocysts and laticifers. (Ch 11 Dickinson)
BTHP 405: PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND ANATOMY
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1.
Familiarization with techniques: double staining, maceration, peel mount, clearing.
2.
Study of anatomical details through permanent slides/temporary stain mounts/macerations/
Museum specimens with the help of suitable examples.
3.
Apical meristem of root and shoot, vascular cambium and intercalary meristem.
4.
Distribution and types of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
5.
Xylem: Tracheary elements-tracheids, vessel elements; thickenings; perforation plates; xylem fibres;
xylem parenchyma.
6.
Wood: ring porous; diffuse porous; tyloses; heart-and sapwood.
7.
Phloem: Sieve tubes-sieve plates; companion cells; phloem fibres.
8.
Epidermal system: cell types, stomata types; trichomes: non-glandular and glandular.
9.
Root: monocot, dicot, origin of lateral roots; secondary growth; anomalous root structure.
10.
Stem: monocot, dicot - primary and secondary growth; periderm; lenticel; abnormal secondary growth
in dicots and monocots;
11.
Leaf: isobilateral, dorsiventral, C4 leaves (Kranz anatomy); venation patterns.
12.
Adaptive Anatomy: xerophytes, hydrophytes, parasites and epiphytes.
13.
Secretory tissues: ducts and cavities, lithocytes and laticifers.
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Dickinson, W.C. 2000 Integrative Plant Anatomy. Harcourt Academic Press, USA.
2.
Fahn, A. 1974 Plant Anatomy. Pergmon Press, USA and UK.
3.
Mauseth, J.D. 1988 Plant Anatomy. The Benjammin/Cummings Publisher, USA.
4.
Esau, K. 1977 Anatomy of Seed Plants. Wiley Publishers.
5.
Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. 2006 Plant Physiology. (4th edition) Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland,
M.A.
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Paper 14-BTHT 406: PLANT ECOLOGY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Introduction to the Biosphere
(Odum) (2 Periods)
Inter-relationships between the living world and the environment, the components and dynamism,
homeostasis.
Unit 2: Soil
(Odum)(8 Periods)
Importance, origin, formation, composition; physical, chemical and biological components; soil profile;
role of climate in soil development.
Unit 3: Water
(Odum) (4 Periods)
Importance; states of water in the environment; atmospheric moisture; precipitation types; water in soil,
water table, water bodies: aquifers, water shed.
Unit 4: The Atmosphere
(Odum) (5 Periods)
Composition and stratification; radiation flux; role of electromagnetic radiations, UV, visible spectrum;
variations in temperature; wind as a factor.
Unit 5: The Living World
(Odum) (2 Periods)
Biotic component of environment; types of biotic interactions.
Unit 6: Fire
(Odum) (1 Period)
As an ecological factor.
Unit 7: Levels of Organisation
(Odum) (3 Periods)
Individual, population, community; concepts of autecology, synecology; concept of biological diversity;
habitat and ecological niche.
Unit 8: Population Ecology
(Chapter 8,9, pp 122-165, Singh et al.) (3 Periods)
Distribution and characteristics of population; population dynamics; Ecological Speciation. Unit 9:
Plant Communities
(Chapter 11, pp 166- 219, Singh et al.) (5 Periods)
Community characters (analytical and synthetic), ecotone and edge effect; methods of studying
vegetation; dynamics of communities; plant succession, processes, types; primary and secondary
succession; climax concepts.
Unit 10: Ecosystems
(Chapter 13, pp 238-252, Singh et al.) (8 Periods)
Structure, biotic and the abiotic components; processes within ecosystem; trophic organization, basic
source of energy, autotrophy, heterotrophy, parasitism; food chains and webs; ecological pyramids;
biomass, standing crop.
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Unit 11: Functional aspects of Ecosystem
(Chapter 12, 14- 17, Singh et al.) (10 Periods)
Energy flow; principles, grazing and detritus food chains, models of energy flow; ecosystem
productivity, measurement of productivity; ecological efficiencies and concept of energy subsidy;
biogeochemical cycles; dynamics: hydrologic cycle; gaseous cycles, sedimentary cycles.
Unit 12: Diversity of Ecosystems and Biomes
(Chapter 18, Singh et al.) (4 Periods)
Aquatic: fresh water (lotic and lentic), marine (pelagic and benthic), estuarine; major terrestrial biomes:
tundra, temperate and tropical.
Unit 13: Phytogeogarphy
(5 Periods)
Principles of phytogeography; endemism; hotspots; phytogeogarphical divisions of India: vegetation of
Delhi.
BTHP 406: PLANT ECOLOGY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY
PRACTICALS
1.
Marks: 50
Study of following microclimatic variables in different habitats: soil and air temperature, wind
velocity, relative humidity, rainfall and light intensity.
2.
Permeability (percolation; total capacity as well as rate of movement) of different soil samples.
3.
Saturation capacity and field capacity of different soil samples and rapid test for texture of soils.
4.
Density and porosity and rate of infiltration of water in undisturbed soils.
5.
pH and rapid field tests of soils for carbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, organic matter and
base deficiency.
6.
Soil organic matter in different soil samples by titration method.
7.
Determination of minimal area of quadrat size by species area curve method.
8.
Quantitative analysis of herbaceous vegetation for frequency; density and abundance.
9.
Determination of dissolved oxygen of water samples from polluted and unpolluted sources.
10.
Morphological adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes.
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SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Singh, J.S., Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S. (2006) Ecology Environment and Resource Conservation.
Anamaya Publications, New Delhi
2.
Wilkinson, D.M. (2007). Fundamental Processes in Ecology. An Earth System Approach. Oxford.
3.
Daubenmier, R.F. (1970). Plants and Environment:
A text book of Plant Autoecology, Wiley
Eastern Private Limited
4.
Daubenmier, R.F. (1970), Plant Communities, Wiley Eastern Private Limited
5.
Odum, E. (2008) Ecology. Oxford and IBH Publisher.
6.
Sharma, P.D. (2010) Ecology and Environment, (8th Ed.) Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
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Paper 15-CBHT 402: CELL BIOLOGY-II
THEORY
Unit 1. The Plasma Membrane
Structure; Transport of small molecules, Endocytosis
Marks: 100
(Ch 13 Cooper et al.)
Unit 2. Cell Wall, the Extracellular Matrix and Cell Interactions
(Ch 14 Cooper et al.)
Bacterial and Eukaryotic Cell Wall; the extracellular matrix and cell matrix interactions; cell-cell
interactions.
Unit 3. Cell Signaling
(Ch 15 Cooper et al.)
Signaling molecules and their receptor; functions of cell surface receptors; Intracellular signal
transduction pathway; signaling networks.
Unit 4. The Cell Cycle
(Ch 16 Cooper et al.)
Eukaryotic Cell Cycle, Regulation of Cell cycle progression, Events of Mitotic Phase, Meiosis
and Fertilization.
Unit 5. Cell Death and Cell Renewal
(Ch 17 Cooper et al.)
Programmed Cell Death, Stem Cells and Maintenance of adult tissues, Embryonic Stem Cells
and Therapeutic cloning.
Unit 6. Cancer
(Ch 18 Cooper et al.)
Development and Causes of Cancer, Tumor Viruses, Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor genes,
Cancer Treatment- molecular approach.
36 | P a g e
CBHP 402: CELL BIOLOGY-II
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. To demonstrate the presence of mitochondria in striated muscle cells/ cheek epithelial cell using
vital stain Janus Green B.
2. Study of polyploidy in Onion root tip by colchicine treatment.
3. Preparations of temporary mount of Grasshopper testis / onion flower bud anthers and study the
different stages of Meiosis.
4. Study of mitosis and meiosis from permanent slides.
5. Identification and study of cancer cells- Slides/Photomicrographs.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Karp, G. 2010 Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. 6th edition. John Wiley
& Sons. Inc.
2. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, E.M.F. 2006 Cell and Molecular Biology. 8th edition.
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
3. Cooper, G.M. and Hausman, R.E. 2009 The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 5th edition. ASM
Press & Sunderland, Washington, D.C.; Sinauer Associates, MA.
4. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. 2009 The World of the Cell.
7th edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco.
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Paper 16-MBHT 402: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-II
THEORY
Unit 1. Mechanism of Transcription
RNA Polymerase and the transcription unit
Transcription in Prokaryotes
Transcription in Eukaryotes
Marks: 100
(Ch 12 Watson/ Ch 21 Becker)
Unit 2. RNA Modifications
(Ch 13 Watson)
Split genes, concept of introns and exons, removal of Introns, spliceosome machinery, splicing
pathways, alternative splicing, exon shuffling, RNA editing, and mRNA transport.
Unit 3. Translation (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes)
(Ch 14 Watson/ Ch 22 Becker/ Ch 21
DeRobertis)
Assembly line of polypeptide synthesis - ribosome structure and assembly, various steps in protein
synthesis. Charging of tRNA, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. Proteins involved in initiation, elongation
and termination of polypeptides. Fidelity of translation. Inhibitors of protein synthesis.
Regulation of translation
Translation-dependent regulation of mRNA and Protein Stability.
Unit 4. Transcription Regulation in Prokaryotes
(Ch 16 Watson)
Principles of transcriptional regulation, regulation at initiation with examples from lac and trp operons
Unit 5. Transcription Regulation in Eukaryotes
(Ch 17 Watson)
Conserved mechanism of regulation, Eukaryotic activators, Signal integration, combinatorial control,
transcriptional repressors, signal transduction and control of transcriptional regulator, Gene Silencing
Unit 6. Regulatory RNAs
(Ch 18 Watson)
Riboswitches, RNA interference, miRNA, siRNA, Regulatory RNA and X-inactivation
38 | P a g e
MBHP 402: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-II
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. Preparation of culture medium (LB) for E.coli (both solid and liquid) and raise culture of E.coli.
2. Demonstration of antibiotic resistance. (Culture of E.coli containing plasmid (pUC 18/19) in LB
medium with/without antibiotic pressure and interpretation of results).
3. Isolation and quantitative estimation of salmon sperm / calf thymus DNA using colorimeter
(Diphenylamine reagent) or spectrophotometer (A260 measurement).
4. To perform Ames test in Salmonella / E.coli to study mutagenicity.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Karp, G. 2010 Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. 6th edition. John Wiley
& Sons. Inc.
2. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, E.M.F. 2006 Cell and Molecular Biology. 8th edition.
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
3. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. 2009 The World of the Cell. 7th
edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco.
4. Watson, J. D., Baker T.A., Bell, S. P., Gann, A., Levine, M., and Losick, R., 2008 Molecular
Biology of the Gene (6th edition.). Cold Spring Harbour Lab. Press, Pearson Pub.
39 | P a g e
Paper 17-BTHT 507: PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION
THEORY
Unit 1: Significance of Plant systematics:
Marks: 100
(Ch 14 Simpson; Ch 4, 5,7 Judd et al.) (18 Periods)
What is systematics; Identification, Classification and Nomenclature of plants; Field inventory,
Herbarium preparation and management; important herbaria and botanical gardens of the world and
India, Documentation: Flora, Monographs, Journals, Online Journals and Keys; Evidences from
morphology, palyonology, cytotaxonomy, chemotaxonomy, serology, and molecular systematics.
Unit 2: Taxonomic hierarchy:
(5 Periods)
Concept of taxa; categories and hierarchy; species concept (taxonomic, biological, evolutionary).
Unit 3: Botanical nomenclature:
(Ch 16 Judd et al.) (10 Periods)
Principles and rules of nomenclature; ranks and names; type method, author citation, valid publication;
rejection of names, principle of priority and its limitation; names of hybrids and cultivars.
Unit 4: Systems of classification:
(Ch 3 Judd et al., Ch 2 Simpson) (9 Periods)
Classification by Bentham and Hooker, Engler and Prantl & Takhtajan; brief reference of Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group (APG) Classification.
Unit 5: Biometrics and numerical taxonomy:
(Ch 7 Stussy) (6 Periods)
Role of Computers in systematics; Characters and attributes; OTUs, character weighing and coding;
cluster analysis, phenograms, cladistics.
Unit 6: Phylogeny of Angiosperms:
(Ch 6, 9 Judd et al.)(12 Periods)
Terms and concepts (homology, analogy, parallelism, convergence, monophyly, polyphyly, clades);
origin & evolution of angiosperms; co-evolution of angiosperms and animals; methods of illustrating
evolutionary relationship (phylogenetic tree, cladogram).
40 | P a g e
BTHP 507: PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION
PRACTICALS
1.
Marks: 50
Study of vegetative and floral characters of the following families: Brassicaceae, Malvaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Lamiaceae,
Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae and Poaceae (families most likely to be available
during July—November).
2.
Study of only characteristic morphological features of the following families:
Capparaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Acanthaceae, and Cannaceae.
3.
Identification of selected taxa using taxonomic keys.
4.
Familiarity with local flora and herbarium techniques.
5.
Use of computers/internet for data collection and identification.
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
classification for the orders and families of the flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the
Linnaean Society 141: 399-436.
2.
Crawford, D.J. (2003). Plant Molecular Systematics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK.
3.
Cronquist, A. (1981). An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia
University Press, New York.
4.
Hollingsworth, P.M., Bateman, R.M. and Gornall, R.J. (1999). Molecular Systematics of Plant
Evolution Taylor and Francis, London.
5.
Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellogg, E.A., Stevens, P.F. and Donoghue, M.J. (2008). Plant
Systematics- A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinaner Associates Inc, Massachusetts, USA.
6.
Simpson, M.C. (2006). Plant Systematics. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
7.
Stussy, T.F. 1990. Plant Taxonomy, Columbia University Press, USA.
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Paper 18-BTHT 508: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
THEORY
Unit 1: Water balance in plant cells
Marks: 100
(Ch 4 Taiz & Zieger, Ch 2 Hopkins & Huner) (10 Periods)
Pathway of water movement; concepts of symplast and apoplast; ascent of sap; transpiration; energy
exchange during transpiration; role of stomata; relationship with photosynthesis; antitranspirants;
guttation; exchange of gases.
Unit 2: Water Stress Physiology
(Ch 26 Taiz & Zieger, Ch 13 Hopkins & Huner) (6 Periods)
Characterization of stress response to water and high and low temperature response to saline soils;
mechanism of response.
(Ch 4 Hopkins & Huner) (6 Periods)
Unit 3: Mineral nutrition
Essential and non-essential elements; criteria for essentiality; macro and micronutrients; roles of
essential elements; mineral deficiency symptoms; ion antagonism and toxicity.
Unit 4: Assimilation of Mineral Nutrients
(Ch 3 Hopkins & Huner) (6 Periods)
Transport of ions across cell membranes, passive absorption, electrochemical gradient, Donnan’s
equilibrium, facilitated diffusion, accumulation against concentration gradient, active absorption, role of
ATP, carrier systems, role of cell membrane, proton pump and ion flux.
Unit 5: Translocation in the phloem
(Ch 10 Taiz & Zeiger, Ch 9 Hopkins & Huner) (6 Periods)
Structure-function relationship for the Translocation of photoassimilates from source to sink cells.
Unit 6: Plant growth substances:
(Chs 18-21 Hopkins & Huner) (8 Periods)
Structure, biosynthesis, analysis, transport, physiological effects and mechanism of action.
Unit 7: Control of flowering
(Ch 25 Taiz & Zieger, Ch 25 Hopkins & Huner) (6 Periods)
Flowering; physiological definition; role of light; photoperiodism – discovery; variation in response;
long day; short day and day neutral plants; inductive and non- inductive cycles; role of dark period; role
of quality and intensity of light; vernalization; mechanism; bolting in long day plants; role of growth
regulators; nutrient status; nature of the flowering stimulus; diffusibility of photoperiodic and
vernalization stimuli; florigen concept.
42 | P a g e
Unit 8: Physiology of fruit ripening
(Ch 25 Hopkins & Huner) (4 Periods)
Physiological and biochemical changes.
Unit 9: Phytochrome and plant development
(Ch 17 Taiz & Zieger, Ch 22 Hopkins & Huner) (8
Periods)
Discovery; chemical nature; mode of action; role of low energy response (LER) and high irradiance
response (HIR); red (R) and far red (FR) light on photomorphogenesis.
BTHP 508: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1.
Preparation of solutions of various concentrations of a few selected solutes.
2.
Determination of osmotic potential of plant cell sap by plasmolytic method.
3.
Determine water potential of given tissue by weight method and falling drop method.
4.
Study of the effect of various environmental factors on transpiration in an excised twig/leaf.
5.
Calculation of the stomatal index, stomatal frequency and percentage of leaf area open through
stomata in a mesophyte and a xerophyte.
6.
Study of the mechanism of stomatal opening and closing
7.
Bolting experiment / Avena coleoptiles bioassay.
Projects: Students are required to perform at least one long-duration experiment as project (a
suggestive list of experiments will be provided).
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Hopkins, W.G. and Huner, P.A. 2008 Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley and Sons.
2.
Nelson, D.L., Cox, M.M. 2004 Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 4th edition, W.H. Freeman
and Company, New York, USA.
3.
Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. 1991 Plant Physiology, Wadsworth Publishing Co. Ltd.
4.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. 2006 Plant Physiology, 4th edition, Sinauer Associates Inc .MA, USA
43 | P a g e
Paper 19a-BTHT 509: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Introduction:
(Ch 1,2 Miller) (4 Periods)
Man as a biological species in the ecosystem; population increase; carrying capacity, exploitation of
resources due to activities like agriculture, horticulture, urbanization and industrialization.
Unit 2: Public awareness of Environment issues:
(State of the World 2003, 2006, 2009) (5 Periods)
Role of Government, NGO’s, International organizations, treaties and conventions. Environmental
movements.
Unit 3: Natural resources:
(4 Periods)
Land, Water, Air, Bioresources and biodiversity.
Unit 4: Effect of human activities:
(Singh et al., MoEF Annual report, 2009) (14 Periods)
Depletion of resources; Generation of waste; types (agricultural, municipal, industrial); management of
wastes and disposal (emphasis on concepts of reduce, reuse and recycle); Pollution of air, water, soil,
noise, and due to radioactive substances; causes and methods of prevention and control; Eutrophication;
bioremediation;
Depletion
of
forests;
threats
Unit 5: Sustainable Development:
to
biodiversity,
extinction
of
species.
(Miller) (5 Periods)
Definition; Brundlandt Report; Threats to sustainable development, green technologies, eco-cities,
Ecological footprint, National Environmental Policy.
Unit 6: Energy:
(6 Periods)
Conventional Fuel – wood, fossil fuels; Non-conventional or alternate sources - sun, wind, bioenergy, geothermal, ocean, hydrogen, nuclear.
Unit 7: Conservation of resources
(Singh et al., Sinha, Ghosh and Singh) (10 Periods)
Soil – Contour farming, afforestation and reforestation; Water – Rainwater harvesting, aquifers ,
groundwater recharge, watershed management; Biodiversity – In-situ conservation (Sanctuaries,
National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, World Heritage Sites), Project Tiger and other conservation efforts.
social forestry and Joint forestry Management; ex-situ conservation (botanical gardens, gene banks,
cryopreservation); role of organizations like NBPGR, BSI, ZSI, WWF, IUCN and conventions like
Convention on Biological diversity; Ramsar Convention, National Action Plan on Conservation of
Biodiversity; Environmental laws and acts.
44 | P a g e
Unit 8: Global environment change:
(Miller, IPCC Report 2007, State of the World 2009) (8 Periods)
Greenhouse effect and global warming; climate change; shrinking of glaciers and polar ice caps and
consequent effects on river and sea levels; ozone layer depletion; vegetation and biota; international
efforts to control these effects (Vienna Convention, Montreal Protocol, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol,
Copenhagen Summit, etc.); IPCC; Biosafety of GMOs and LMOs
Unit 9: Environmental impact assessment
(2 Periods)
Concept, aim and steps.
BTHP 509: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
Student would be required to submit a detailed project report based on the practical work on any topic
mentioned in the theory paper. Evaluation of the project will be based on the detailed report and
presentation.
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Joseph, B., Environmental studies, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
2.
Mohapatra Textbook of environmental biotechnology IK publication.
3.
Thakur, I S, Environmental Biotechnology, I K Publication.
4.
Divan Rosencraz, Environmental laws and policies in India, Oxford Publication.
5.
Michael Allabay, Basics of environmental science, Routledge Press.
6.
Rana SVS, Environmenta lpollution – health and toxicology, Narosa Publication.
7.
Miller, G.T. 2002. Sustaining the earth, an integrated approach. (5th
edition)
Books/Cole,
Thompson Learning, Inc.
8.
Chapman, J.L., Reiss, M.J. 1999. Ecology: Principles and applications (2nd edition) Cambridge
University Press.
9.
Ghosh, S.K., Singh, R. 2003. Social forestry and forest management. Global Vision
House.
10.
Sinha, S. 2010. Handbook on Wildlife Law Enforsement in India. TRAFFIC, India.
45 | P a g e
Publishing
Paper 19b- LSPT 409: BIOINFORMATICS
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1. Introduction to Bioinformatics
(Ch 1 Ghosh and Mallick / Ch 1 Pevsner)
(5 Periods)
Introduction, Branches of Bioinformatics, Aim, Scope and Research areas of Bioinformatics.
Unit 2. Databases in Bioinformatics
(Ch 3 Ghosh and Mallick / Ch 2 Pevsner)
(5 Periods)
Introduction, Biological Databases, Classification format of Biological Databases, Biological
Database Retrieval System.
Unit 3. Biological Sequence Databases
(Ch 4 Ghosh and Mallick / Ch 4, 5 Pevsner)
(25 Periods)
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI): Tools and Databases of NCBI,
Database Retrieval Tool, Sequence Submission to NCBI, Basic local alignment search tool
(BLAST), Nucleotide Database, Protein Database, Gene Expression Database.
EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (EMBL-Bank): Introduction, Sequence Retrieval,
Sequence Submission to EMBL, Sequence analysis tools.
DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ): Introduction, Resources at DDBJ, Data Submission at
DDBJ.
Protein Information Resource (PIR): About PIR, Resources of PIR, Databases of PIR, Data
Retrieval in PIR.
Swiss-Prot: Introduction and Salient Features.
Unit 4. Sequence Alignments
(Ch 6, 8 Ghosh and Mallick / Ch 6 Pevsner)
(10 Periods)
Introduction, Concept of Alignment, Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA), MSA by
CLUSTALW, Scoring Matrices, Percent Accepted Mutation (PAM), Blocks of Amino Acid
Substitution Matrix (BLOSUM).
46 | P a g e
Unit 5. Molecular Phylogeny
(Ch 8 Ghosh and Mallick / Ch 7 Pevsner)
(8 Periods)
Methods of Phylogeny, Software for Phylogenetic Analyses, Consistency of Molecular
Phylogenetic Prediction.
Unit 6. Applications of Bioinformatics
(Ch 11 Ghosh & Mallick / Ch 20 Pevsner)
(7 Periods)
Structural Bioinformatics in Drug Discovery, Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)
techniques in Drug Design, Microbial genome applications, Crop improvement.
LSPP 409: BIOINFORMATICS
PRACTICALS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Marks: 50
Nucleic acid and protein databases.
Sequence retrieval from databases.
Sequence alignment.
Sequence homology and Gene annotation.
Construction of phylogenetic tree.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Ghosh Z. and Bibekanand M. (2008) Bioinformatics: Principles and Applications. Oxford
University Press.
2. Pevsner J. (2009) Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. II Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
3. Campbell A. M., Heyer L. J. (2006) Discovering Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics.
II Edition. Benjamin Cummings.
47 | P a g e
Paper 20-GGHT 501: GENETICS AND GENOMICS-I
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1. Introduction to Genetics
(Ch 1 Klug and Cummings)
Mendel’s work on transmission of traits, Genetic Variation, Molecular basis of Genetic Information.
Unit 2. Mitosis and Meiosis
(Ch 2 Klug and Cummings)
Interrelation between the cell structure and the genetics function, Mitosis, Meiosis (explaining
Mendel’s ratios).
Unit 3. Mendelian Genetics and its Extension
(Ch 3-4 Klug and Cummings)
Principles of Inheritance, Chromosome theory of inheritance, Laws of Probability, Pedigree analysis
Incomplete dominance and codominance, Multiple alleles, Lethal alleles, Epistasis, Pleiotropy,
Environmental effects on phenotypic expression, sex linked inheritance.
Unit 4. Linkage, Crossing Over and Chromosomal Mapping (Ch 5 Klug and Cummings, Ch 7,
Gardner)
Linkage and crossing over, Cytological basis of crossing over, Molecular mechanism of crossing
over, Recombination frequency as a measure of linkage intensity, two factor and three factor crosses,
Interference and coincidence, Somatic cell genetics – an alternative approach to gene mapping.
Unit 5. Mutations
(Ch 8 Klug and Cummings/ Ch 11 Gardner)
Chromosomal Mutations: Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, Translocation, Aneuploidy and
Polyploidy; Gene mutations: Induced versus Spontaneous mutations, Back versus Suppressor
mutations, Molecular basis of Mutations in relation to UV light and chemical mutagens, Detection of
mutations: CLB method, Attached X method, DNA repair mechanisms.
Unit 6. Sex Determination
(Ch 7 Klug and Cummings)
Chromosomal mechanisms, Environmental factors effecting sex determination, Barr bodies, Dosage
compensation.
Unit 7. Extrachromosomal Inheritance
(Ch 9 Klug and Cummings/ Ch 20 Gardner)
Chloroplast mutation/Variegation in Four o’ clock plant and Chlymodomonas, Mitochondrial
mutations in Neurospora and yeast, Maternal effects, Infective heredity- Kappa particles in
Paramecium.
Unit 8. Quantitative Genetics
(Ch 25 Klug and Cummings/ Ch 21, Gardner)
Quantitative and multifactor inheritance, Transgressive variations, Heterosis.
48 | P a g e
GGHP 501: GENETICS AND GENOMICS-I
PRACTICALS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Marks: 50
Mendelian laws and gene interaction using Drosophila crosses.
Chi-square and probability.
Study of Linkage, recombination, gene mapping using marker based data from Drosophila.
Study of Human and Phlox/ Allium Karyotype (normal and abnormal).
Pedigree analysis of some human inherited traits.
Study of Hardy-Weinberg Law using simulations (seeds).
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J., Snustad, D.P. (2008). VIII ed. Principles of Genetics. Wiley India.
2. Snustad, D.P., Simmons, M.J. (2009). Principles of Genetics. V Edition. John Wiley and Sons
Inc.
3. Klug, W.S., Cummings, M.R., Spencer, C.A. (2009). Concepts of Genetics. XI Edition.
Benjamin Cummings.
4. Russell, P. J. (2009). iGenetics- A Molecular Approach. III Edition. Benjamin Cummings.
5. Glick, B.R., Pasternak, J.J. (2003). Molecular Biotechnology- Principles and Applications of
recombinant DNA. ASM Press, Washington.
6. Pevsner, J. (2009). Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. II Edition. John Wiley & Sons.
7. Griffiths, A.J.F., Wessler, S.R., Lewontin, R.C. and Carroll, S.B. IX Edition. Introduction to
Genetic Analysis. W. H. Freeman and Co.
ADDITIONAL READINGS
Both students as well as teachers of genetics can further benefit from knowledge of following
topics as given below•
Epigenetics- http://www.nature.com/nrg/focus/epigenetics/index.html
•
Tetrad Analysis in fungi
•
Centromere Mapping
•
Cytogenetic Mapping
49 | P a g e
Paper 21- BTHT 610: PLANT METABOLISM AND BIOCHEMISTRY
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Enzymes
(Ch 9 Salisbury & Ross, Ch 6 Nelson & Cox) (6 Periods)
Historical background, classification, nomenclature and importance of enzymes; role of enzymes as
catalysts; physiochemical and biological properties; concept of holoenzymes; coenzyme; apoenzyme
and prosthetic groups; mechanism and kinetics of enzyme action; enzyme inhibitors; isoenzymes;
allosteric enzymes; industrial aspects of enzymology.
Unit 2: Carbon Assimilation
(Ch 6 Hopkins & Huner, Ch 11 Salisbury & Ross) (10 Periods)
Role of chlorophylls and accessory pigments; antennae molecules and active center molecules;
evidences for two photosystems; reduction of NADP; photophosphorylation; reduction of CO2 into
glucose; Benson and Calvin cycle; Hatch and Slack pathway; Crassulacean acid metabolism; energetics
of CO2 reduction; factors affecting CO2 reduction.
Unit 3: Carbohydrate Metabolism
(Ch 7 Nelson & Cox, Ch 13 Buchanan et al.) (6 Periods)
Structure, properties and importance of mono-, di- and polysaccharides; Synthesis of di - (sucrose) and
polysaccharides (starch and cellulose).
Unit 4: Carbon Oxidation:
(Ch 10 Hopkins & Huner, Ch 11 Salisbury & Ross) (10 Periods)
Glycolysis, anaerobic conversion of pyruvate into ethanol or lactate, energy balance, reversibility and
inhibition of glycolysis, Pasteur effect, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate into acetyl CoA, TCA
cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation of RuBP (photorespiration), factors affecting oxidative
processes, regulation of TCA cycle, role of glyoxalate cycle.
Unit 5: Nitrogen and Protein Metabolism
(Ch 3,4, 22 Nelson & Cox, Ch 4 Elliott) (8 Periods)
Biological nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycle, Catabolism of amino acids, ammonia assimilation,
transamination, deanimation, structure and general properties of amino acids and proteins (protein
folding).
Unit 6: Lipid Metabolism
(7 Periods)
Structure, properties, classification and functional significance of fatty acids, triglycerides and steroids;
Synthesis and breakdown, formation of glycerides; oxidation of fatty acids, beta oxidation; energy
balance. (Ch 10 Buchanan et al, Ch 10, 21 Nelson & Cox)
Unit 7: Intermediary Metabolism
(Ch 15 Nelson & Cox), (Ch 11,12,13 Elliott) (4 Periods)
Interrelationship of carbohydrates, lipids and protein metabolism.
50 | P a g e
Unit 8: Regulation of Metabolism
(Ch 6, 18 Nelson & Cox) (4 Periods)
Nature of integrated metabolism, role of acetyl CoA, control at the level of transcription and translation,
control of enzyme action.
Unit 9: Secondary Metabolites and Plant Defense
(Ch27 Hopkins & Huner) (5 Periods)
Introduction to alkaloids, phenolics, plant terpenes, phytoalexins, sesquiterpenes and sterols.
BTHP 610: PLANT METABOLISM AND BIOCHEMISTRY
PRACTICALS
1.
Marks: 50
Detection of the presence of plant enzymes amylase, catalase, nitrate reductase urease (in vivo)] in
various sources.
2.
To study properties (thermolability, proteinaceous nature and specificity) of any one of the
enzymes (catalase/urease).
3.
To study the effect of various factors (concentration, temperature, pH, inhibitor) on the activity of
catalase enzyme.
4.
Demonstration of dye reduction by isolated chloroplasts.
5.
Study the effect of different factors on O2 evolution during photosynthesis and demonstrate the
Law of limiting factors.
6.
Chemical separation of chloroplast pigments and determination of their absorption spectra.
7.
To extract anthocyanin pigments and study the effect of pH on their absorption spectra.
8.
Study of the rate of aerobic respiration and respiratory quotient in different plant parts/materials.
9.
Identification tests for carbohydrates (Fehling’s test, Benedicts test) and proteins (Ninhydrin test,
Xanthoproteic test).
10.
Preparation of standard curve for estimation of proteins and determination of total proteins in
plant tissue extracts for example of control and GA3 treated embryo-less wheat grains.
11.
Separation and identification of amino acids by thin layer chromatography.
51 | P a g e
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Conn, E.E., Stumpf, P.K. and Bruening, G. (2006) Outlines of Biochemistry, 4th Edition, John
Wiley and Sons Inc.
2.
Buchanan, B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R. (2000) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants.
American Society of Plant Biologists.
3.
Elliot (2009) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Oxford Publishers.
4.
Nelson, D.L., Cox, M.M. (2004) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 4th Edition, WH Freeman
and Company, New York, USA.
5.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2006) Plant Physiology, 4th Edition Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers,
Massachusetts, USA
6.
Dennis, D.T., Layzell, D.B., Lefebre, D.D. and Turpin, D.H. (1997) Plant Metabolism. Addison
Wesley Longman.
7.
Hopkins, W.G. and Huner, P.A. (2008) Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley and Sons.
8.
Kaul RP (2009) Plant Metabolism. Swastik Publishers and Distributors.
9.
Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. (1991) Plant Physiology, Wadsworth Publishing Co. Ltd.
52 | P a g e
Paper 22-BTHT 611: REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS
THEORY
Unit 1: Introduction
Marks: 100
(Ch 1 Bhojwani & Bhatnagar) (3 Period)
History and scope.
Unit 2: Anther
(Ch1 Shivanna) (5 Periods)
Structure, ontogeny; tapetum; structure and functions; micro-sporogenesis; callose deposition and its
significance.
Unit 3: Pollen Biology
(8 Periods)
Microgametogenesis, pollen wall development, MGU (male germ unit) structure, NPC system, pollen
wall proteins; pollen viability, storage and germination; pollen tube structure.
(Shivanna, Ch 2-4)
Unit 4: Ovule
(8 Periods)
Structure, ontogeny, types; special structures – endothelium, operculum, obturator, aril, arillode,
caruncle, hypostase, epistase: female gametophyte – megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis:
organization and ultrastructure of mature embryo sac. (Ch 7 Bhojwani & Bhatnagar)
Unit 5: Pollination and Fertilization
(8 Periods)
Pollination types and significance; adaptations; pollination biology; pollen-pistil Interaction; structure of
stigma and style; double fertilization. (Ch 9,11 Raghavan)
Unit 6: Self Incompatibility
(6 Periods)
Basic concepts; methods to overcome self incompatibility. (Ch 9 Shivanna, Ch Raghavan)
Unit 7: Endosperm
(7 Periods)
Types, development and functions; endosperm haustoria. (Ch 11 Bhojwani & Bhatnagar)
Unit 8: Embryogenesis
(6 Periods)
Classification, development, organization and differentiation of crucifer and Najas embryo; embryo –
endosperm relationship; physiological and genetical control. (Raghavan)
Units 9: Polyembryony and Apomixis
Introduction; classification; causes and applications. (Ch 13,14 Bhojwani &Bhatnagar)
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(7 periods)
BTHP 611: REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1.
Photographs of eminent embryologists.
2.
Anther: wall and its ontogeny; tapetum; microsporogenesis, stages; psuedomonads, massulae
(slides and fresh material).
3.
Pollen grains: fresh and acetolysed, ornamentation and aperture; pollen viability: tetrazolium test.
4.
Pollen germination: in different media; calculation of percentage germination; male germ unit
(MGU): through photographs.
5.
Ovule: types; unitegmic, bitegmic; tenuinucellate and crassinucellate; special structuresendothelium, operculum, obturator, hypostase and epistase; caruncle and aril (permanent slides/
specimens/photographs).
6.
Female gametophyte through permanent slides/ photographs: types and ultrastructure of mature
embryo sac.
7.
Style and stigma through suitable preparations: unpollinated and pollinated stigma and style; wet
and dry stigma; hollow and solid styles; tracing and path of pollen tube.
8.
Intra-ovarian pollination; test tube pollination/ fertilization: through photographs.
9.
Endosperm: dissections of developing seeds for free-nuclear endosperm with haustoria; types
(permanent slides).
10.
Embryogenesis: study of development of dicot embryo through permanent slides; dissection of
developing seeds for embryos at various developmental stages; study of suspensor through
electron micrographs.
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Raghavan, V. 2000 Developmental Biology of Flowering plants, Springer, Netherlands.
2.
Raghavan, V. 1997 Molecular embryology of flowering plants. Cambridge, University Press.
3.
Shivanna, K.R. 2003 Pollen Biology and Biotechnology, Science Publishers.
4.
Bhojwani, S.S. and Bhatnagar SP 2004 The Embryology of Angiosperms, Vikas Publishing House
5.
Johri, B.M. l;1984 Embryology of Angiosperms, Springer-Verlag, Netherlands.
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Paper 23-BTHT 612: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1: Plant Tissue Culture
(Ch 1, 3, 5-7,12, 17, 18 Bhojwani & Razdan) (12
Periods)
Historical perspective; composition of media; nutrient and hormone requirement; totipotency;
organization; physic-chemical conditions for propagation of plant cells and tissues; somatic
embryogenesis; protoplast isolation culture and fusion; cybrids micropropogation; androgenesis.
Tissue Culture Applications
Unit 2: Tools and Techniques of Genetic Engineering
(Brown, Sambrook & Russel- “Introduction” section of relevant chapters) (12 periods)
Restriction Endonucleases (history, types and role); Gel Electrophoresis; PCR; Restriction
Mapping; DNA Sequencing (Sanger’s method);
Southern, Northern and Western blotting;
construction of genomic library; DNA Fingerprinting (RAPD, RFLP); FISH.
Unit 3: Plant Transformation Technology
(Ch 3, 4 Slater et al.; Ch 10 Raven) (12 periods)
Obtaining gene of interest by different methods; Gene constructs; Gene transfer – prokaryotic and
eukaryotic vectors; Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; Direct gene transfer methods–
Electroporation, Microinjection, Gene-gun; Selection of transgenics - marker and reporter genes.
Unit 4: Role of Plant Biotechnology in Agriculture, Environment and Industry
(Ch 7 Chrispeel & Sadava, Ch 10 Raven) (18 periods)
Pest resistant plants (Bt-cotton); herbicide resistance; disease and stress resistant plants; transgenic
crops with improved quality traits (Flavr savr tomatoes, Golden rice); Role of transgenics in
degradation of pollutants (Superbug) leaching out of minerals; Application of plant biotechnology
for production of quality oil, industrial enzymes, edible vaccines and planti-bodies.
55 | P a g e
BTHP 612: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1.
Preparation of media MS (1962), Nistch (1969) and White’s medium
2.
Aseptic culture of different explants, methods of in vitro sterilization, inoculation and subculture
methods
3.
Construction of Restriction Map from the data provided.
4.
Study of Genetic engineering Techniques (photographs): FISH , DNA Fingerprinting, DNA
Sequencing , Gene gun, Ti plasmid.
5.
Calculation of percentage similarity between different cultivars of a species using RAPD profile
(by binary method) and study of Dendrogram.
6.
Demonstration of Southern, Northern and Western Blotting
7.
Study of steps of genetic engineering techniques from photographs (Bt cotton, Golden rice, Flavr
savr tomatoes)
SUGGESTED READINGS
1.
Slater, A., Scott, N.W. & Fowler, M.R. 2008 Plant Biotechnology: The Genetic Manipulation of
Plants, Oxford University Press.
2.
Bhojwani, S.S. and Razdan 2004 Plant Tissue Culture and Practice.
3.
Chrispeel, M.J. and Sadava, D.E. 1994 Plants, Genes and Agriculture. Jones and Barlett
Publishers.
4.
Reinert, J. and Bajaj, Y.P.S. 1997 Applied and Fundamental Aspects of Plant Cell, Tissue and
Organ Culture. Narosa Publishing House.
5.
Smith, R. 2000 Plant Tissue Culture: Techniques and Experiments, 2nd edition,
Academic
6.
Gardner, E.J. Simmonns, M.J. Snustad, D.P. 2008 8th edition Principles of Genetics. Wiley India.
7.
Russell, P.J. 2009 Genetics – A Molecular Approach. 3rd edition. Benjamin Co.
8.
Raven, P.H., Johnson, GB., Losos, J.B. and Singer, S.R. 2005 Biology. Tata MC Graw Hill.
9.
Brown, T. A. Gene cloning and DNA analysis: An Introduction. Blackwell Publication.
10.
Sambrook & Russel. Molecular Cloning: A laboratory manual. (3rd edition)
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Paper 24- GGHT 602: GENETICS AND GENOMICS II
THEORY
Marks: 100
Unit 1. Genetic Analysis and Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages
Cummings/ Ch 5, Griffith et al.)
Conjugation; Transformation; Transduction, Recombination.
(Ch 6, Klug and
Unit 2. Genome Dynamics-Transposable genetic elements, Eukaryotic Viruses
(Ch 22, Klug
and Cummings/ Ch 14, Griffith et al.)
Prokaryotic transposable elements- IS elements, Composite transposons, Tn-3 elements; Eukaryotic
transposable elements- Ac-Ds system in maize and P elements in Drosophila; Uses of transposons;
Eukaryotic Viruses.
Unit 3. Developmental Genetics and Model System
(Ch 19, Klug and Cummings)
Study of model systems in developmental genetics- Drosophila melanogaster Sachharomyces
cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Xenopus laevis.
Unit 4. Genomics, Bioinformatics and Proteomics
(Ch 21, Klug and Cummings/Ch 8-9,
Russell/ Ch2, 3, 4 Ghosh, Z. and Mallick,V.)
Genomes of bacteria, Drosophila and Humans; Human genome project; Evolution and Comparative
Genomics.
Introduction to Bioinformatics, Gene and protein databases; Sequence similarity and alignment;
Gene feature identification.
Gene Annotation and analysis of transcription and translation; Post-translational analysis- Protein
interaction.
Unit 5. Genomic Analysis- Dissection of Gene Function
(Ch 23, Klug and Cummings)
Genetic analysis using mutations, forward genetics, genomics, reverse genetics, RNAi, functional
genomics and system biology.
Unit 6. Population Genetics
(Ch 27, Klug and Cummings)
Allele frequencies, Genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg Law, role of natural selection, mutation,
genetic drift.
Unit 7. Evolutionary Genetics
Genetic variation and Speciation.
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(Ch 28, Klug and Cummings)
GGHP 602: GENETICS AND GENOMICS II
PRACTICALS
Marks: 50
1. Genomic DNA isolation from E.coli (without plasmid).
2. Restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA from E.coli.
3. Isolation of plasmid DNA and genomic DNA together from E.coli. and restriction enzyme
digestion.
4. Restriction enzyme digestion (EcoRI) of genomic and plasmid DNA (obtained from Expt.3).
5. Estimation of size of a DNA fragment after electrophoresis using DNA markers.
6. Construction of Restriction digestion maps from data provided.
7. Demonstration of DNA fingerprinting.
SUGGESTED BOOKS
1. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J., Snustad, D.P. 2006 Principles of Genetics. 8th edition John Wiley
& Sons.
2. Snustad, D.P., Simmons, M.J. 2009 Principles of Genetics. 5th edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc.
3. Klug, W.S., Cummings, M.R., Spencer, C.A. 2009 Concepts of Genetics. 9th Edition. Benjamin
Cummings.
4. Russell, P. J. 2009 Genetics- A Molecular Approach. 3rd edition. Benjamin Cummings.
5. Glick, B.R., Pasternak, J.J. 2003 Molecular Biotechnology- Principles and Applications of
recombinant DNA. ASM Press, Washington.
6. Pevsner, J. 2009 Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons.
7. Griffiths, A.J.F., Wessler, S.R., Lewontin, R.C. and Carroll, S.B. 9th Edition. Introduction to
Genetic Analysis.
8. Ghosh, Z. and Mallick,V. 2008 Bioinformatics-Principles and Applications. Oxford Univ. Press
58 | P a g e
Semester System at the undergraduate level
Course of Study
B.Sc (Honours) Botany
Total number of papers: 24
Semester I
Paper 1
Biology-I
(Introduction to
Biology)
Semester II
Paper 2
Biodiversity-I
Algae &
Microbiology
Paper4
Paper 5
Paper 6
Chemistry-I
Technical writing &
Communication in
English/Computatio
nal Skills
Biodiversity- II
Mycology &
Phytopathology
Biodiversity-III
Archegoniatae
BTHT - 203
ENAT-101/
CSAT - 101
BTHT - 202
CHCT - 301
BTHT - 101
LSPT - 101
Semester III
Paper 9
Plant Resource
Utilization
BTHT - 304
Plant Systematics
and Evolution
BTHT-507
Paper 7
Chemistry-II
CHCT - 402
Technical writing &
Communication in
English/Computation
al Skills
ENAT-201/
CSAT - 201
Semester IV
Paper 10
Mathematics
and Statistics
Paper 11
CELL BIOLOGY I
CBHT - 301
MACT - 303
Paper 13
Paper 14
MOLECULAR
BIOLOGY I
Plant
Development &
Anatomy
Plant Ecology &
Phytogeography
MBHT - 301
BTHT-405
Paper 12
Semester V
Paper 17
Paper 8
Paper 3
Paper 15
CELL BIOLOGY
II
CBHT - 402
Paper 16
MOLECULAR
BIOLOGY-II
MBHT-402
BTHT -406
Semester V
Paper 18
Plant Physiology
BTHT-508
Paper 19
Environmental
Management/
Bioinformatics
BTHT-509/
LSPT-409
Paper 20
GENETICS &
Paper 21
Plant Metabolism
& Biochemistry
GENOMICS-I
Paper 22
Reproductive
Biology of
Angiosperms
BTHT-610
GGHT-501
BTHT-611
Paper 24
Paper 23
Plant
Biotechnology
BTHT-612
GENETICS &
GENOMICS-II
GGHT-602
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