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‘Music has learn’d the discords of the state’: The Cultural... British Opposition to Italian Opera, 1706-1711
‘Music has learn’d the discords of the state’: The Cultural Politics of
British Opposition to Italian Opera, 1706-1711
Veronica T. Faust
Haverford College
Advisors: Lisa Jane Graham & Richard Freedman
2
Table of Contents
Introduction
Italian-Style Opera in London Before Handel
Italian Culture in London
The Expanding Print Culture
3
6
8
9
1. John Dennis
13
2. Joseph Addison
26
3. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury
38
4. Handel’s Rinaldo
48
Conclusion
65
Works Cited
Primary Sources
Secondary Sources
69
70
3
Introduction
Music has learn’d the discords of the state,
And concerts jar with Whig and Tory hate…
There fam’d L’Epine does equal skill employ,
While list’ning peers croud to th’ecstatic joy:
Bedford to hear her song his dice forsakes,
And Nottingham is raptur’d when she shakes:
Lull’d statesmen melt away their drowsy cares
Of England’s safety, in Italian airs. ~John Hughes1
In the late seventeenth century, Italian opera began to find its way into the royal court and
public theaters of London. During the first decade of the eighteenth century, Italian opera
successfully penetrated the English theatrical tradition, and by 1711, with the premiere of
Handel’s Rinaldo, the foreign art had conquered its English audience.2 However, this was not a
peaceful conquest. The importation of Italian opera provoked British criticism, censure, and
ridicule as it emerged on the London stage. British authors approached their arguments in
different ways, some verging on or even embracing xenophobia, others attempting to laugh
Italian opera out of the country. This opposition to Italian opera cannot be explained purely on
stylistic grounds.3
Why, then, were British writers so upset about a musical style? An examination of the
political, social, and cultural contexts of early eighteenth-century England is necessary to
understand the anxieties that prompted writers to resist Italian opera. It is my argument that
various political and social fears in this period, from the war with France to the expansion of
wealth, created concerns that crystallized in British arguments against Italian opera. As John
Hughes expressed in the quote that opened this paper, more than music was at stake in opera
1
Charles Burney, A general history of music, from the earliest ages to the present period (London: 1776-89), Vol.
4, p. 218.
2
Curtis A. Price, “The Critical Decade for English Music Drama, 1700-1710,” Harvard Library Bulletin 26, no. 1
(1978): p. 38.
3
Carole Mia Taylor, “Italian operagoing in London, 1700-1745,” Ph.D. diss. (Syracuse University: 1991), p. 50.
4
houses – the florid arias and recitative of Italian singers threatened the safety of the British
nation. The close relationship between culture and politics at this time allowed writers to make
these assertions about the effect that sung music could have on the nation.
While many writers opposed Italian opera, I have chosen to focus on three authors, each
for the different political or social fear that he brought to the argument against opera. I begin
with John Dennis, the vehement and relentless critic of Italian opera. In his aptly titled An Essay
on the Opera’s after the Italian Manner, Which Are About To Be Establish’d on the English
Stage: With Some Reflections on the Damage Which They May Bring to the Publick (1706),
Dennis denounced Italian opera as a foreign invasion in a time of war, and a Roman Catholic
threat to the Protestant nation. Dennis also defended the masculine British republic against the
effeminate and debauched Italian courts, constructing gender difference to stabilize the uncertain
category exposed by Italian castrati singers. His writings exemplify an extreme political
opposition to opera.
Next, I turn to Joseph Addison, editor of the single sheet newspaper the Spectator, which
began its run on March 1, 1711. Addison’s writings reveal the social class struggle that went
along with Italian opera. Members of the elite exploited Italian opera as a luxury import to set
themselves apart from the growing urban middle class. To counter this attempt at social
exclusivity, Addison encouraged his middle-class readers to unite in laughter against the
excesses of the elite-sponsored Italian opera. Addison believed that opera could match the
quality of spoken drama if it was trimmed of its shallow subject matter and excessive staging
effects. To this end, Addison critiqued Italian opera not to condemn, but to reform.
The final author I discuss is Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury.
Shaftesbury’s emphasis on cultural politics allowed him to see a reciprocal relationship between
5
arts and the nation. In a letter written in 1709, Shaftesbury expressed his approval of Italian
opera music. However, he found the spectacle of the genre dangerous to the nation. Spectacle
had once led to the political decline of the Roman empire, and it now threatened to reduce its
British audience to slaves of a monarchy rather than active participants in a republic. Since the
arts only flourished in free nations, not in empires intent on conquest, the British nation
determined what path opera would take on the London stage – if Britain remained a free nation,
opera could develop into a venerable and lofty art form. Shaftesbury’s argument also shows the
influence of the cultural debate between the Ancients and Moderns, which played a large role in
the British response to opera. Shaftesbury combined culture and politics to ultimately vindicate
Italian opera.
In the midst of this debate, Handel arrived in London in late 1710. After only a few
months, his opera Rinaldo, the first Italian opera composed specifically for the London stage,
premiered at the Queen’s Haymarket Theater on February 24, 1711. Despite the heated
arguments against Italian opera, Rinaldo was a resounding success. Handel’s excellent music, the
Italian castrati singers, the spectacular staging effects, and certain elements of English dramatic
tradition appealed to the London audience. Rinaldo verified the taste of the London public for
well-composed Italian opera seria, and also confirmed the fears of Italian opera’s British critics.
Before Handel’s arrival, certain factors favored the establishment of Italian opera in
London and pointed to the later popularity of the genre under the German composer. First,
English fascination with Italian singers, including the famous castrati, led to performances in the
Italian language before Handel arrived. Italian opera was also part of the larger diaspora of
Italian culture to northern Europe in the early eighteenth century. An expanding print culture, as
well, ensured the dissemination of Italian opera music beyond the confines of the opera house.
6
Publishers exploited the British taste for Italian music, making the style more accessible and
well-known. First, let us explore the gradual Italian infiltration of London’s musical culture that
preceded Handel.
Italian-Style Opera in London Before Handel
Italian opera first entered England through the early seventeenth-century Stuart court
masques. These masques combined dance, theater, and music with elaborate scenery, costumes,
and machines to praise the reigning monarch.4 After the Civil War, Charles II revived the
masque tradition in 1661. The first castrato to perform in England, Siface, sang at court during
the reign of James II.5
Italian opera spread to the public theaters in the late seventeenth century. Theatrical
managers capitalized on the English taste for Italian instrumental music and singers; managers
and composers made Italian opera music more palatable to London audiences by inserting opera
arias into the English dramatic tradition, resulting in the half-sung, half-spoken ‘semi-opera’ that
reached its zenith under Henry Purcell in the 1690s.6 Semi-operas, composed and performed in
English, continued the masque tradition of lavish scenery and staging effects. As reworkings of
earlier plays, semi-operas remained focused on spoken drama. This insertion of Italian-style
opera into the framework of English drama was essential to its acceptance in London.7
However, the English taste for their native semi-opera equaled the English fascination
with Italian singers. As Italian singers refused to sing in any language but their native tongue,
early all-sung operas in London were a peculiar mix of English and Italian.8 These operas were
4
Robert D. Hume and Arthur Jacobs, “London: Musical Life 1660-1800,” Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
J. Merrill Knapp, “Eighteenth-Century Opera in London before Handel, 1705-1710,” in British Theatre and the
Other Arts, 1660-1800, ed. Shirley Strum Kenny (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1984), p. 93.
6
Hume and Jacobs, “London: Musical Life.”
7
Price, “Critical Decade,” pp. 39-40.
8
J. Merrill Knapp, “English reactions to Handel and Italian opera in London during 1711-1720,” Göttinger HändelBeiträge 2 (1986): p. 156.
5
7
usually pasticcios, made up of various pieces from different composers and adapted to a new or
existing libretto. The pasticcio arose from practical exigency. Italian operas were almost always
composed for specific singers, so it was easier for English theatrical managers to allow Italian
performers to substitute arias they had sung elsewhere, their “suitcase arias,” than to adjust the
music of another opera or commission a new work.9 The popularity of Italian castrati and other
singers lent popular appeal to the pasticcio; at the same time, the early death of Purcell in 1695,
and a government order separating opera from drama, were unfavorable to the English semiopera.
There were two playhouses in London in the early eighteenth century – the Theatre Royal
in Drury Lane, which had formerly been Purcell’s house, and the recently completed Queen’s
Theatre in the Haymarket. These two rival theaters struggled with each other to mount pasticcios
with famous Italian singers to woo Londoners. In 1705, the Drury Lane manager Christopher
Rich staged Arsinoe, Queen of Cyprus, the first all-sung opera performed in London. The
composer, Thomas Clayton, had intended his English-language pasticcio for the Haymarket, but
the shrewd Rich bribed him to Drury Lane instead.10 The novelty of Arsinoe ensured its success,
and for the next couple years, Drury Lane and the Haymarket continued to compete for the
London public.11 The companies gambled on expensive Italian singers, who sang in increasingly
Italian-language pasticcios that ranged in quality and popularity. In 1707, the Haymarket gained
monopoly over opera through an order from the Lord Chamberlain restricting plays to Drury
Lane and opera to the Haymarket. These developments led to the tradition of performance in
Italian that would flourish under Handel.
9
Curtis A. Price, “Unity, Originality, and the London Pasticcio,” Harvard Library Bulletin 2, no. 4 (1991): p. 17.
Price, “Critical Decade,” pp. 42-4.
11
Knapp, “Eighteenth-Century Opera,” p. 95.
10
8
Italian Culture in London
The British response to Italian opera was also part of the larger relationship between
England and Italy, which in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was tentative. Since Henry
VIII broke with Rome after the pope refused to approve his divorce, Italian culture was the
object of disdain and satire.12 After 1688, British nationalism defined itself in relation to the
continental monarchies of France and Italy – Britain was Protestant, republican, manly, and
rational while Italy was Roman Catholic, debauched, effeminate, and passionate. As Italy was
being politically carved up in a series of succession wars, Grand Tourists poured into its cities,
imposed their own cultural values on local practices, and constructed a persuasive fiction of
Italian society.13
Yet at the same time, Italian culture daunted the British. Familiarity with the Latin
language was an important mark of status, and British writers deemed classical antiquity the
ideal model for humanistic endeavors such as rhetoric and music. Italy’s Renaissance heritage
humbled the British, and Italian cultural influence was strong in early eighteenth-century
England in architecture, painting, poetry, and music.14 The British imported Italian instrumental
music, opera, and singers because their native versions could not match the excellence of Italy.15
The Grand Tour became increasingly requisite for aristocratic young men; each of the three
authors I examine had toured Italy before settling in London to write.16
The mix of suspicion and respect that marked British attitudes towards Italy influenced
British ambivalence towards Italian opera. While Italian music and castrati singers continued to
12
Todd S. Gilman, “Augustan Criticism and Changing Conceptions of English Opera,” Theatre survey 36, no. 2
(1995): p. 1.
13
Shearer West, “Introduction: visual culture, performance culture and the Italian diaspora in the long eighteenth
century,” in Italian Culture in Northern Europe in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Shearer West (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 1.
14
Knapp, “Eighteenth-Century Opera,” p. 93.
15
West, “Introduction,” p. 11.
16
Jeremy Black, Italy and the Grand Tour (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003).
9
fascinate Londoners who flocked to the Haymarket, these elements needed to be inserted into the
British dramatic tradition to appeal to the British public, a practice that, as we shall see,
continued with Handel. Tension between nationalist rhetoric and cultural awe shaded the
discourse of British authors in their critiques of Italian opera.
The Expanding Print Culture
Finally, the expanding print culture in London assisted in the dissemination of Italian
opera music. This expansion resulted from technological advances. First, the extensive
commercial use of engraving began in London and Amsterdam in the late seventeenth century.17
This technique, in which works were printed from engraved copper or pewter plates rather than
from movable type, soon became the usual method of printing music with its considerable
advantages of flexibility and cheapness.18 John Walsh, who dominated early eighteenth-century
music publishing in London, was quick to capitalize on this new method, and he began
publishing engraved music on a scale previously unknown in England.19 Second, Walsh was the
first music publisher to regularly use the passe-partout technique of printing title pages. This
technique involved the creation of title-page plates with a blank area in which title information
was printed from a second plate or written by hand.20 Passe-partout plates were often elaborate,
as more effort could be expended in designing fewer plates. These decorated and ornate title
pages gave music arrangements a cosmopolitan look that distinguished them from previous
publications and underlined London as a major musical center.21
17
D.W. Krummel, “The Age of Engraving, 1700-1860,” in Music Printing and Publishing, ed. Stanley Sadie and
D.W. Krummel (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990), p. 100.
18
D.W. Krummel, English Music Printing 1553-1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 143.
Kathleen Dale and Peter Ward Jones, “London: Commercial Aspects, Music Publishing,” Grove Music Online.
19
David Hunter, Frank Kidson, William C. Smith, and Peter Ward Jones, “Walsh, John (i),” Grove Music Online.
20
Ibid.
21
Dale and Ward Jones, “London: Commercial Aspects, Music Publishing,” Grove Music Online.
10
Shrewd business strategies also created the early eighteenth-century burst of print
activity. London music publishers experimented with new ways of printing and distributing
music. Walsh, in particular, was an excellent, if not always scrupulous, businessman. He
advertised widely; used plates economically; experimented with new methods such as
subscription issues, free copies, and musical periodicals; lowered prices to compete with rival
publishers; printed attractive title pages; and imitated and copied the ideas of others, with or
without their permission.22 Walsh established a rocky business relationship with Estienne Roger,
his Amsterdam counterpart; Walsh occasionally borrowed Roger’s plates, and also issued pirated
copies of Roger’s musical catalogues.23 Musical piracy was a common business practice at the
time, as adequate copyright protection did not exist. Texts could be obtained not only from
composers but also from theater copyists, orchestral musicians, and the first editions of rival
publishers; this continued after the passage of the 1709/10 Copyright Act, and an effective
copyright law did not appear until 1777.24 The interests of composer and publisher were radically
different at this time. Composers, such as Handel, had no more than a limited interest in popular
published music, and publishers like Walsh were only interested in operas if they contained
marketable and commercially viable music.25
Early eighteenth-century England had a wider range of musical publications than any
other country.26 John Walsh had first established himself as a publisher of song sheets around
1700, and then decided to expand into instrumental music. In his instrumental editions, Walsh
22
Hunter, Kidson, Smith, and Ward Jones, “Walsh, John (i),” Grove Music Online.
William C. Smith, A Bibliography of the Musical Works Published by John Walsh during the years 1695-1720
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948), p. xxviii.
23
Samuel F. Pogue and Rudolf A. Rasch, “Roger, Estienne,” Grove Music Online.
24
Hunter, Kidson, Smith, and Ward Jones, “Walsh, John (i),” Grove Music Online.
Dale and Ward Jones, “London: Commercial Aspects, Music Publishing,” Grove Music Online.
25
Donald Burrows, “Walsh’s editions of Handel’s Opera 1-5: the texts and their sources,” in Music in EighteenthCentury England: Essays in memory of Charles Cudworth, ed. Christopher Hogwood and Richard Luckett
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 80.
26
Dale and Ward Jones, “London: Commercial Aspects, Music Publishing,” Grove Music Online.
11
included songs, overtures, and dances from the London theater; arias from favorite London
operas; dance collections; instrumental tutors; and sonatas and concertos. In December 1703,
Walsh was able to issue a catalogue with a section of ‘English and Italian Musick for all sorts of
Instruments,’ in which appeared no fewer than sixteen violin and ten flute collections.27
The success of these instrumental arrangements depended on the London public who
eagerly purchased them. The proliferation of musical clubs and societies of amateur musicians
spurred the publication of these various types of instrumental music.28 Musical clubs gathered
every week or month in public rooms of inns and taverns to play, drink, and eat together. Many
of these groups were socially exclusive, barring members of the working class from their
rehearsals, while humbler taverns and ale houses welcomed artisans to their lively musical
societies. Amateur fiddlers, choral groups in churches, and professional musicians staging
occasional concerts and teaching wealthy pupils also required printed sheet music.29
Many amateur pupils were women, as the ability to play the harpsichord or pianoforte
and to sing in tune were increasingly considered essential skills for refined young ladies.30 Music
publishers recognized this large female audience in their marketing. In 1708, for example, Walsh
published “The 3d Book of the Ladys Entertainment or Banquet of Music,” a collection of airs
and duets from the operas Pyrrhus and Demetrius and Clotilda arranged for harpsichord. These
lessons could also be played on the spinet, lute, harp, and organ, all acceptable instruments for
women to play. Various editions and reprints of this collection attested to its popularity.31
27
Krummel, English Music Printing, pp. 169-70.
Dale and Ward Jones, “London: Commercial Aspects, Music Publishing,” Grove Music Online.
29
John Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 1997), p. 366.
30
Ibid., 533.
31
Smith, A Bibliography of the Musical Works Published by John Walsh, p. 85.
28
12
Above all, music publishers catered to English society’s preference for Italian music.
Among the amateur musical clubs, societies, and students, Baroque music from Italy was
popular, especially that of Corelli and Vivaldi.32 In an increasingly competitive climate, where
novelty and variety were prerequisites for commercial success, publishers exploited the English
taste for Italian music in their printing and advertising.33 Title pages declared their inclusion of
“the most celebrated Italian Authors” or “new songs after the Italian manner,” and publishers
sold instrumental arrangements of Italian opera arias for amateur musicians soon after an opera’s
premiere.34 Thus, Italian opera was consumed not only in the Haymarket, nor was it the concern
solely of the nobility and the elite who purchased expensive subscriptions to the Haymarket.
With the song books of Walsh and other publishers, Italian opera music could be enjoyed by the
growing middle class in the privacy of their homes. Any member of the middle class willing to
spend 3 or 4s. for a printed collection of Italian instrumental music, or 1s. 6d. for the cheapest
seats in the Haymarket, could enjoy the music of Italian opera along with the elite.35 The wide
popularity of Italian instrumental music was one of the most important factors in paving the way
for Italian opera in the first decade of the eighteenth century.
32
Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination, p. 366.
Rosamond McGuinness, “Musical Provocation in Eighteenth-Century London: The ‘British Apollo,’” Music &
Letters 68, no. 4 (1987): p. 333.
34
David Hunter, Opera and Song Books Published in England 1703-1726 (London: London Bibliographical
Society, 1997), pp. 108, 194.
35
Smith, A Bibliography of the Musical Works Published by John Walsh, p. xv.
Mark W. Stahura, “Handel’s Haymarket Theater,” in Opera in Context: Essays on Historical Staging from the Late
Renaissance to the Time of Puccini, ed. Mark A. Radice (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1998), p. 98.
33
13
Chapter One
John Dennis
Few British authors opposed Italian opera as harshly as did John Dennis. Dennis’ critical
writings reveal his insecurity with embracing Italian culture at a time when Britain was forging
its national identity in contrast to the monarchical governments of France and Italy. Dennis
relentlessly employed the nationalist rhetoric of Britain as republican, masculine, and rational
versus Italy as debauched, effeminate, and passionate. While Dennis’ writings often smack of
xenophobia, they are not the mere ravings of a disgruntled critic. They are the worries of a
dramatist confronted with a genre that he cannot understand, and of an entertainment that had the
power to fortify or disintegrate the nation.
John Dennis was born in London in 1658, during the final years of the Commonwealth,
to the saddler Francis Dennis and his wife Sarah Dennis. He was educated at Harrow School and
Cambridge; he completed his studies in 1683 and probably remained in Cambridge as a tutor
until 1686. In 1688, the crucial Revolution year of James II’s flight and William’s invasion of
England, Dennis departed on a continental tour. He visited Paris, Lyons, Torino, Rome, and
other European cities, forming opinions that would stay with him for the rest of his life. While in
France, for example, he noted that “the French then are affected and impudent, which are but the
necessary effects of that National Vice, their Vanity.” 36 He also encountered Italian opera for the
first time, writing of the “much fine Musick as I heard in Italy, both in their Churches and
Theatres.” 37 But as Dennis would discover two decades later when Italian opera first appeared in
London, what was fine in Italy was not necessarily good for Britain.
36
Avon Jack Murphy, John Dennis (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984), p. 1-2.
Henrik Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators: Studies in Journals, Opera and the Social Scene in Late Stuart London
(Helsinki: Finnish Historical Society, 1995), p. 86.
37
14
Upon his return to Britain, Dennis became an aspiring writer. He was thirty years old and
had to his credit only one published poem, so he worked throughout the 1690s to forge personal
connections with important British writers of the day and to establish himself as a witty man of
letters. By 1694, for example, he had entered into correspondence with John Dryden, who
encouraged his poetry and received Dennis’ effusive praise.38 Dennis’ early poetry features the
railing tone popular with young gallants, and his letters refer to coffeehouse gossip and boast of
his membership in “the Witty Club.” 39
After a few years, however, Dennis could no longer afford the extravagant life of a
gallant, stumbling instead upon the debt and intermittent poverty that would haunt him for the
rest of his life. Partly as a result of his financial situation, partly because of the trends of the time
and his own character, Dennis turned his talents to the more serious literary mission of moral
reform, particularly on the national level. Like other writers, he set out to reclaim the stage from
the decadent Restoration entertainments of Charles II’s court.40 In his The Usefulness of the
Stage (1698), an early work of Dennis’ new style, Dennis compared literature, and especially
drama, to religion in its ability to move men’s minds. He emphasized the ability of good drama
to support and strengthen government and religion. Tragedy, for example, instilled in men a
desire to serve their country, a theme he would re-visit in his later texts against opera:
Now nothing can be a better Remedy than Tragedy for Inconsiderateness, which reminds
Men of their Duty, and perpetually instructs them, either by its Fable, or by its Sentences,
and shews them the ill and the fatal consequences of irregular Administration; and
nothing is more capable of raising the Soul, and giving it that Greatness, that Courage,
that Force, and that Constancy, which are the Qualifications that make Men deserve to
command others; which is evident from Experience.41
38
Joseph M. Levine, Between the Ancients and the Moderns: Baroque Culture in Restoration England (New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1999), p. 88.
39
Murphy, John Dennis, p. 2.
40
Joanne Altieri, The Theatre of Praise: The Panegyric Tradition in Seventeenth-Century English Drama (Newark:
University of Delaware Press, 1986).
41
John Dennis, Miscellaneous Tracts (London: 1727), p. 341.
15
In his prefaces, plays, and poetry, Dennis continued to insist that he wrote for the good of his
country, seeking to morally improve his readers and his nation.42
The political atmosphere of early eighteenth-century Britain provided Dennis with a rich
context for his emphasis on national reform. England was pursuing an aggressive and
expansionist foreign policy both militarily and economically, and Britons were forging a national
identity in relation to these conquests.43 The early eighteenth century in England was a time of
war; the fall of James II in 1688 inaugurated the longest period of British warfare since the
Middle Ages. From 1689-97 and 1702-13, Britain was at war with France and her allies.44
Internally, the face of the nation altered in 1707 when the Act of Union joined Scotland to
England and Wales.45 Fundamental questions about the proper roles of the monarch, parliament,
the people, and the Church of England continued to spark commentary and controversy in
England’s expanding print culture, and to feed the polemics of political parties.46 Dennis worked
within these debates, serving the Whig cause in the early 1700s with pamphlets such as The
Danger of Priestcraft (1702) and A Proposal for Putting a Speedy End to the War (1703).47
Dennis’ poetry and plays conveyed his nationalist focus as much as his literary criticism
and noncritical prose. His poem Britannia Triumphans: or The Empire Sav’d, and Europe
Deliver’d (1704) celebrated in overtly nationalist terms the Duke of Marlborough’s victory
against French and Bavarian forces in the Battle of Blenheim during the War of Spanish
42
Murphy, John Dennis, pp. 2-3.
Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005).
44
John Brewer, The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1989), p. 27.
45
Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation, p. 11.
46
Nicholas Phillipson, “Politeness and politics in the reigns of Anne and the early Hanoverians,” in The Varieties of
British Political Thought, 1500-1800, ed. J.G.A. Pocock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 211.
Lois G. Schwoerer, “The right to resist: Whig resistance theory, 1688 to 1694,” in Political Discourse in Early
Modern Britain, ed. Nicholas Phillipson and Quentin Skinner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p.
232.
47
Murphy, John Dennis, p. 3.
43
16
Succession. Despite the poem’s verbosity and overwrought language, the grateful Duke of
Marlborough awarded Dennis with a hundred pounds and the post of royal waiter in the London
Custom-House.48 Also in 1704, the most successful of Dennis’ plays premiered at Lincoln’s-InnFields, the tragedy Liberty Asserted, which epitomized Dennis’ conviction that the stage should
benefit the established government.49 Liberty Asserted offered a vehement attack on the French
and on Frenchness, relying on emerging cultural stereotypes for its plot and characterization.
According to Dennis’ eighteenth-century biographer Theophilus Cibber, the popularity of
Liberty Asserted, combined with other derogatory statements Dennis had made concerning the
French, caused Dennis to fear that France would take him hostage and to ask the Duke of
Marlborough to protect his person when the peace treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession
was stipulated.50
Religion was so entwined with politics in Britain at this time that any commentary on
politics subsumed religion as well. Prior to each monarchical succession, fears of the new king or
queen’s embracing Roman Catholicism rather than Protestantism abounded, prompting both the
Exclusion Crisis of 1679 and the Revolution of 1688.51 The Test Act of 1673, reluctantly passed
by Charles II and still in effect in the early 1700s when Dennis wrote his essays against opera,
barred all but Anglicans from holding national office; Roman Catholicism was firmly linked to
absolutism in the public conscience.52
48
Murphy, John Dennis, p. 96.
Ibid., p. 75.
50
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 84.
51
J.C.D. Clark, English Society 1660-1832: Religion, ideology, and politics during the ancien regime (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 66.
Mark Knights, “’Meer religion’ and the ‘church-state’ of Restoration England: the impact and ideology of James II’s
declarations of indulgence,” in A Nation Transformed: England after the Restoration, ed. Alan Houston and Steve
Pincus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 41.
52
J.G.A. Pocock and Gordon J. Schochet, “Interregnum and Restoration,” in The Varieties of British Political
Thought, p. 175.
49
17
In this era of tense relations between church and state, religion played a key role in
Dennis’ writings. He emphasized the importance of passion in poetry, and he believed that
greater passion could be derived from sacred subjects than from profane ones; according to
Dennis, the superiority of the ancient poets rested on their choice of sacred subjects.53 Dennis’
Protestantism played an important role in his writings and in his personal life, exacerbating his
long literary feud with Alexander Pope, a Roman Catholic. At the same time, Dennis’ writings
place him within the tradition of English Protestant dissenters of the Low Church, as he attacked
religious bigotry and a corrupt clergy.54
Dennis’ political and religious concerns crystallized in his denunciations of Italian opera.
Dennis did not object to British semi-opera; he himself wrote a few plays with intermittent song
that he labeled ‘tragedies’ but that were actually in the ‘dramatic opera’ tradition.55 But in 1705,
several events pointed to the establishment of Italian-style opera in Britain – the popularity of
Thomas Clayton’s Arsinoe, the first all-sung opera in the Italian style performed in London; the
opening of the new Haymarket Theatre and its devotion to opera; and the growing public
demand for Italian singers.56 These events prompted Dennis to respond critically, which he did in
1706 in An Essay on the Opera’s after the Italian Manner.
In this essay, Dennis continued to expound his ideological views of cultural aesthetic
forms. His argument illustrates the close relationship he saw between politics and culture –
music and harmony interfered with the moral clarity of the text, thus corrupting the usefulness of
drama to support government and instill nationalism; Italian opera symbolized the infiltration of
foreign influence during a time of war; and opera was the product of a Roman Catholic nation.
53
Murphy, John Dennis, p. 7.
Ibid., p. 125.
Mark Goldie, “Priestcraft and the birth of Whiggism,” in Political Discourse in Early Modern Britain, p. 209.
55
Dennis, Miscellaneous Tracts, p. 200.
56
Murphy, John Dennis, p. 110.
54
18
From the first page of his preface, Dennis describes the stage as a tool of government and
exhorts the British government to monitor the arts and entertainment, repeating arguments he had
made a decade earlier in The Usefulness of the Stage:
That…if the Government does not take care to provide reasonable Diversions for them
[the public], they will not fail to provide such for themselves as are without Reason. That
unreasonable ones are pernicious to Government, and the reasonable ones are
advantageous to it; that pleasure of Sense being too much indulged, makes Reason cease
to be a Pleasure, and by consequence is contrary both to publick and private Duty.57
By “reasonable Diversions,” Dennis means drama, that almost sacred genre with the power to
inspire men to virtue and courage. Dennis continues in his preface to emphasize the entwined
nature of drama and government:
That it [drama] is so very agreeable to good Government, that most of the great Men who
have writ of the Art of Governing, from Plato down to Harrington, have writ either Plays
or Directions, or Rules for the Stage. That some of the greatest Monarchs and greatest
Ministers of State have not only encourag’d Plays, but have writ them themselves…58
By firmly establishing the support that drama gives the British nation, Dennis prepares his
readers for his description of the antithesis of drama: Italian opera. According to Dennis, music
had to be firmly subordinate to text, as passion and sensual delight were subordinate to reason.
Music grew pernicious if it became independent of drama and poetry:
Musick may be made profitable as well as delightful, if it is subordinate to some nobler
Art, and subservient to Reason; but if it presumes not only to degenerate from its ancient
Severity, from its sacred Solemnity; but to set up for itself, and to grow independent, as it
does in our late Opera’s, it becomes a meer sensual Delight, utterly incapable of
informing the Understanding, or of reforming the Will.59
57
John Dennis, An Essay on the Opera’s after the Italian Manner (London: 1706), unpaginated preface.
Ibid.
59
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, p. 2.
58
19
Dennis believed that in any given culture, opera and poetry could not coexist. He supported this
claim with historical evidence, pointing to the supposed disappearance of poets in Italy since the
birth of opera a hundred years earlier.60
Dennis wrote An Essay on the Opera’s in the midst of the War of Spanish Succession, a
time when Continental Europe was politically threatening to England. In this tense international
climate, Dennis preyed on fears of national security by casting his cultural criticism in the
language of military conflict and conquest. For Dennis, the import of foreign Italian opera was a
successful military conquest: “While the English Arms are every where Victorious abroad, the
English Arts may not be vanquish’d and oppress’d at home by the Invasion of Foreign
Luxury.”61 Italian opera was a stealthy foreign invader sneaking through the lines of battle to
destroy Britain from within: “I know not what Whimsey of Fate, while in the Field we have been
knocking their bravest Men on the Head, we have been caressing and hugging the Off-scowring
of them at home.” 62 Dennis drew on England’s diplomatic and military situation to frame his
argument and highlight the danger of Italian opera.
For Dennis, the emergence of Italian opera in England presented a real, not a symbolic,
danger that sapped the moral fiber of the British nation. Whereas drama inspired men with
‘publick spirit’ and with a noble disregard for death in the defense of their native customs and
manners, Italian opera dissolved its listeners in the softness of luscious sounds.63 As Dennis
noted, “We are at present contending for Liberty, and hard is the Contention, and the event
doubtful, and we cannot so much as hope to succeed, but by the Virtue of that magnanimous
60
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, p. 3.
Ibid., p. 2.
62
Ibid., p. 3.
63
Ibid., p. 10.
61
20
Spirit, which Poetry exalts, and which effeminate Musick debases.” 64 Dennis asserted that the
British nation gained its sense of identity, strength, and superiority through its contrast to the
cultural values of Continental Europe. Italian opera provided a means whereby Dennis could
articulate features that constituted a reasonable and masculine British identity in opposition to
the passionate and effeminate Other from Italy.65
As the product of Roman Catholic culture, opera threatened the religious identity of
Britain as well. Dennis noted that drama, not musical entertainment, went hand-in-hand with
British Protestantism. Drama, the Reformation, and liberty had appeared together during the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and Dennis believed they could disappear together as well: “We are
going very bravely to oppress the Drama, in order to establish the luxurious Diversions of those
very Nations, from whose Attempts and Designs both Liberty and the Reformation are in the
utmost Danger.” 66 While drama and liberty were secure under the “Immediate Protestant
Successors” to the throne, Dennis feared a French military victory and the restoration of James
II’s Roman Catholic son to the throne (“such contagious Distempers rage throughout Europe, as
may make a great Alternation in the Line of Succession in a little time”) would upset the
balance.67 During this time when so much was at stake for the British nation, Dennis’ diatribe
against Italian opera crystallized British fears of Roman Catholicism and an absolute monarchy.
Dennis’ argument against Italian opera also provided a forum in which early eighteenthcentury views and anxieties concerning gender were articulated. Authors, including Dennis,
frequently used ‘masculine’ versus ‘effeminate’ vocabulary in their arguments against opera.
Such writers labeled Italian opera ‘effeminate,’ linking effeminacy with passion, sentiment, and
64
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, p. 10.
Thomas McGeary, “Gendering Opera: Italian Opera as the Feminine Other in Britain, 1700-42,” Journal of
Musicological Research 14 (1994): p. 27.
66
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, p. 12.
67
Dennis, An Essay upon Publick Spirit (London: 1711), p. iv.
65
21
luxury. An Essay on the Opera’s contains no explanation of Dennis’ use of these gendered terms
in his argument, and early eighteenth-century readers did not require one. British society was
familiar with the vocabulary and its implications. Dennis’ statement “We could easily make it
appear that Plato and Cicero are of the same Opinion, but what need can there be of Authorities,
when we can shew by experience what Influence the soft and effeminate Measures of the Italian
Opera has upon the Minds and Manners of Men” is only shocking today.68
Gender structures all the opposing categories of Dennis’ essay. ‘Effeminate’ Italian opera
was mindless, luxurious, and sensual sound, while ‘masculine’ British drama was reasonable,
forceful, and inspiring sense. This opposition was dangerous and threatening: “And as soft and
delicious Musick by soothing the Senses, and making a Man too much in Love with himself,
makes him too little fond of the publick, so by emasculating and dissolving the mind, it shakes
the very foundation of Fortitude.”69 Later in the essay, Dennis expanded his use of effeminacy to
encompass the Italian language:
But if any one objects that an Opera may be so contriv’d and Writ, as to inspire us with
an affection for the Publick, and with a generous contempt of Death; to him I answer, that
an Opera so design’d, must be writ with force or without it. If ‘tis writ with force ‘tis
incompatible with Musick, especially in so masculine a Language as ours.70
The inability of music to be forceful and instill in men courage and national ardor supported
Dennis’ assertion that opera undermined patriotic sentiment. Dennis’ claim that effeminacy
opposed nationalism also supports Joan Wallach Scott’s statement that at critical moments in
national histories, “emergent rulers have legitimated domination, strength, central authority, and
68
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, unpaginated preface.
Ibid., p. 9.
70
Ibid.
69
22
ruling power as masculine (enemies, outsiders, subversives, weakness as feminine).” 71 Dennis
labeled the entire nation of Italy ‘effeminate’ near the end of his essay:
An Englishman is deservedly scorned by Englishmen, when he descends so far beneath
himself, as to Sing or to Dance in publick, because by doing so he practices Arts which
Nature has bestow’d upon effeminate Nations, but denied to him, as below the Dignity of
his Country, and the Majesty of the British Genius.72
By labeling both Italian opera and the country in which it was born the ‘feminine Other,’ Dennis
forged masculine British military and republican identity in relation to the debauched and
effeminate monarchies of France and Italy.73
Dennis was part of the eighteenth-century cultural effort to stabilize the uncertain
category of gender and lock the two sexes in difference. Rejecting the older notion of gender as
imperfect variations on a single sex, writers constructed gender as fixed and immutable
difference grounded in nature.74 For Dennis, then, castrati singers threatened the strict opposition
of the sexes with their unnatural and ambiguous sexual identity. On one hand, British writers
labeled the castrati as effeminate as the music they sang and the nation they came from. On the
other hand, the castrati’s reported sexual prowess with women, and their identification as the
ultimate British-woman pleaser, threatened British masculinity.75 Attacks against castrati, then,
embodied a compelling paradox, revealing the British discomfort with the contingent nature of
gender and sexuality that the castrati exposed.76
The castrati reinforced their ambiguous sexual identity through their ability to attract men
as well as women. Dennis recognized the potential of Italian opera to disrupt his idea of gender
71
Joan Wallach Scott, “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” in Oxford Readings in Feminism:
Feminism and History, ed. Joan Wallach Scott (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 172.
72
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, p. 13.
73
McGeary, “Gendering Opera,” p. 27.
74
Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 1990), p. 149.
75
Todd S. Gilman, “The Italian (Castrato) in London,” in The Work of Opera: Genre, Nationhood, and Sexual
Difference, ed. Richard Dellamora and Daniel Fischlin (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p. 58.
76
Ibid., p. 50.
23
difference as fixed and immutable, noting harmful and unnatural changes that had already
occurred: Italian opera had “transform’d our Sexes: We have Men that are more soft, more
languid, and more passive than Women…we have Women, who as it were in Revenge are
Masculine in their Desires, and Masculine in their Practices; yes, we have Vices which we dare
not name.” 77 Dennis came close to naming his fear of homosexuality later in his essay, when he
chided women for supporting opera:
The Ladies, with humblest Submission, seem to mistake their Interest a little in
encouraging Opera’s; for the more the Men are enervated and emasculated by the
Softness of the Italian Musick, the less will they care for them, and the more for one
another…if our Subscriptions go on, at the frantick rate that they have done, I make no
doubt but we shall come to see one Beau take another for Better for Worse.78
For Dennis, the castrati, those “Eunuchs [who] tickle their Ears with a Straw, while they pick
their Pockets,” caused Italian opera to promote homosexual and same-sex desire.79 In this light,
Dennis’ stress on the difference between the sexes can be seen as an attempt to stabilize gender
in the face of the destabilizing effects wrought by the castrati.80
Dennis structured his argument through opposing categories. He put reason in conflict
with passion, text with sound, and drama with music. His argument often proceeds along these
neat oppositions:
If that is truly the most Gothick, which is the most oppos’d to Antick, nothing can be
more Gothick than an Opera, since nothing can be more oppos’d to the ancient Tragedy,
than the modern Tragedy in Musick, because the one is reasonable, the other ridiculous;
the one is artful, the other absurd; the one beneficial, the other pernicious; in short, the
one natural, and the other monstrous.81
The opposition between male and female thus fit nicely into Dennis’ rhetoric. Dennis desperately
wanted his argument to be as simple and self-evident as the many opposites he cited, and he
77
Dennis, Essay upon Publick Spirit, p. 15.
Ibid., p. 25.
79
Ibid., p. 24.
80
Gilman, “The Italian (Castrato) in London,” p. 50.
81
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, pp. 13-4.
78
24
wanted the gender difference of male and female to be clear as well, and to support his argument
against Italian opera.
Dennis’ objection to Italian opera was an extreme one, often metamorphosing into
xenophobia. His contemporaries remarked on his extremism, especially his rival Alexander
Pope, who relished poking fun at Dennis’ notorious vehemence and irascibility. In 1713, Pope
published a humorous satire that purportedly took place in Dennis’ bedchamber, in which a
confused Dennis mistook his caretakers as agents of Louis XIV and raved, “Is all the Town in a
Combination? Shall Poetry fall to the ground? Must our Reputation be lost to all foreign
Countries? O Destruction! Perdition! Opera! Opera! As Poetry once rais’d a City, so when
Poetry fails, Cities are overturn’d, and the World is no more.” 82 Dennis’ belligerent tone
continued to be ridiculed and dismissed by a posterity influenced and convinced by Pope’s
characterization of Dennis.
Avon Jack Murphy, however, advocates a more nuanced appreciation for Dennis’
writings. While Murphy admits that Dennis sometimes offered his conclusions about the
pernicious effects of opera without satisfactorily explaining the causes, as in his An Essay upon
Publick Spirit, Dennis should be admired for wrestling hard with the problem of Italian opera in
An Essay on the Opera’s.83 While modern readers may find Dennis’ argument quaint or
ridiculous, Murphy encourages the analysis of Dennis’ works in their proper historical context.
Dennis was genuinely frustrated that plays, his own included, did not receive proper attention in
the wake of this tremendously popular new art form that introduced novelties never seen in
previous dramas. Dennis was compelled to denounce opera because he could not understand the
ground rules for evaluating the new genre, and his frustration increased by his certainty that
82
83
Murphy, John Dennis, pp. 52-3.
Ibid., p. 111.
25
admirers of opera could not understand why they supported it.84 For Dennis, Italian opera
represented a radical disorder in society, and his beliefs, particularly his belief in the power of
the stage to fortify the nation, compelled him to attack it.85
84
85
Murphy, John Dennis, p. 112.
Ibid., p. 10.
26
Chapter Two
Joseph Addison
Not every British writer wrote in the polemical tone of Dennis. In 1711, nine days after
Rinaldo premiered on the Haymarket stage, Joseph Addison’s newspaper the Spectator made its
first appearance in London coffee houses. While Dennis resorted to xenophobic preaching,
Addison used a civilized tone to reach the middle-class readers of his newspaper. In early
eighteenth-century London, members of the elite valued Italian opera for the cultural and social
distinction from the lower classes that it offered them. To counter this elite attempt at social
exclusivity, and to prevent his middle-class readers from flocking to the opera house as well,
Addison united his readers in laughter at the ridiculous and foolish excesses of the elite and of
the foreign opera that they supported.86 This approach can be seen in Addison’s famous response
to the premiere of Rinaldo:
An opera may be allowed to be extravagantly lavish in its decorations, as its only design
is to gratify the senses, and keep up an indolent attention in the audience. Common sense,
however, requires, that there should be nothing in the scenes and machines which may
appear childish and absurd. How would the wits of King Charles’s time have laughed to
have seen Nicolini exposed to a tempest in robes of ermine, and sailing in an open boat
upon a sea of pasteboard! What a field of raillery would they have been let into, had they
been entertained with painted dragons spitting wildfire, enchanted chariots drawn by
Flanders mares, and real cascades in artificial landscapes!87
While Addison and Dennis shared many concerns about Italian opera, the two authors had
different cultural goals for the musical style. Dennis sought to restore an older socio-political
order through traditional aesthetic rules, while Addison recognized the new style and looked
ahead to a time when it could hold society together rather than dividing it. Addison’s critiques
86
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 37.
Joseph Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Esq. in the Tatler, Spectator, Guardian, and Freeholder
(Edinburgh: 1790), Vol. 1, p. 342.
87
27
were meant to reform, not to condemn. He hoped to revamp Italian opera, transforming it from a
decadent elite pleasure to a purveyor of civic morals.
Most of the Spectator’s arguments against Italian opera came from earlier writers: opera
was sensual, unreasonable, artificial, foreign, and effeminate.88 Yet while these criticisms were
familiar, the style in which Addison presented them was not. Earlier critics like Dennis had
published their ideas in pamphlets, which had emerged as a means of propaganda during the
sixteenth-century and later peaked during the Interregnum. The pamphlet form continued in the
eighteenth century, but with the new century came the gradual shift of critical writing from the
pamphlet to the newspaper.89 The Spectator and its predecessor the Tatler, a newspaper edited by
Addison’s close friend and collaborator Richard Steele, depended on earlier pamphlets for their
arguments, but not for their way of arguing. Whereas the pamphlet projected political agitation
and propaganda, the single sheet papers of the Tatler and Spectator aspired to a more polite and
civilized manner of discourse in their larger circulations, guiding rather than preaching to their
readers.90
Dennis wrote of Italian opera as an idea, an abstract Continental enemy that infiltrated
London cultural life, debauched men’s minds, and threatened the British nation. Addison, on the
other hand, treated Italian opera as a real and living being, a genre that consisted of specific
performances and libretti, prompted dialogue on the streets, and raised concerns of its
ridiculousness. While the political vulnerability of early eighteenth-century England spurred
Dennis to compose his abstract critique of opera, Addison’s argument retained the vitality of the
recent social changes that had accelerated the import of opera. The nobility had first brought
88
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 49.
Ibid., pp. 66-7.
90
Ibid., p. 98.
Bob Clarke, From Grub Street to Fleet Street: An Illustrated History of English Newspapers to 1899 (Burlington,
VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004), p. 44.
89
28
opera to the court of Charles II, and the elite continued as Italian opera’s chief patrons into the
eighteenth century.91 As Addison pointed out in 1711, “It does not want any great measure of
sense to see the ridicule of this monstrous practice; but what makes it the more astonishing, it is
not the taste of the rabble, but of persons of the greatest politeness, which has established it.” 92
The importation of Italian-style opera occurred alongside the loss of the royal court as the
cultural center of England. The elite needed to express their distinction from the lower classes,
and the court had long provided such distinction, both as a space removed from the rest of
society, and as a source of exclusive cultural pursuits. As John Brewer notes, royal courts had
long been the sites for the struggles and alliances between monarchs and nobility. In the court,
the king tried to curtail the martial prowess of the nobility, who in turn came to accept humanist
ideas that valued learning and taste as much as military might, and courts thus became centers of
culture and refinement.93 As a place of elegant dancing, literary composition, and the playing of
music, the court offered social distinction to members of the nobility who sought their
entertainment there. Under Charles I, ritual and art combined and culminated in the court
masque, a mixture of theater, music, and scenery, shaped by classical myth, and praising the
virtues of the monarch.94
But court dynamics changed during the seventeenth century. The regicide of Charles I in
1649 and the Revolution of 1688 dealt serious blows to the idea of the court as a secure and
stable center for art patronage, good taste, and refinement. Court culture further languished under
William and Mary; neither William, the foreign usurper, nor Mary, who had hated the English
91
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 41.
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 1, pp. 331-2.
93
Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination, p. 4.
94
Ibid., p. 6.
92
29
court in her youth, were interested in the lavish courtly pleasures of their predecessors.95 The
elite, then, had to find new venues to distinguish themselves from the rest of society. High
culture, including Italian opera, thus gradually moved out of the narrow confines of the court and
into the galleries and concert halls of London.96 The elite, however, retained their roles as the
chief patrons of opera as it moved from the court to the city.
Within the metropolitan space of London, where more nobles chose to live during the
winter ‘season,’ the elite transferred the exclusivity of the court to scattered social spaces.97
Chocolate houses, for example, were fewer in number and more expensive than coffee houses,
and were thus frequented by the elite. At White’s chocolate house on fashionable St. James’s
Street, members of the elite could purchase tickets for various musical events, including opera.98
The high initial cost of staging an opera required costly subscriptions, which those with enough
wealth could also purchase at White’s.99 There is also evidence that before the premiere of an
opera, the principal singers held dress rehearsals, with limited instrumental accompaniment, in
chocolate houses; the public was invited, but for a fee.100 The exclusive social space of the
chocolate house, then, was connected to the equally exclusive social space of the Italian opera
house.
In 1705, with the opening of John Vanbrugh’s Haymarket Theatre (which the nobility
had funded), members of the elite had a distinct space in which to enjoy the spectacles of Italian
opera…or, more appropriately, to enjoy the spectacles of themselves on display as individuals
who possessed knowledge of a foreign language, wealth to purchase a subscription, and
95
Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 17-8.
Ibid., p. 3.
97
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 199.
98
Ibid., p. 203.
99
Taylor, “Italian operagoing in London, 1700-1745,” p. 35.
100
Richard Leppert, “Imagery, Musical Confrontation and Cultural Difference in Early 18th-Century London,” Early
Music 14, no. 3 (1986): p. 328.
96
30
appreciation for well-composed music and talented singers.101 The hierarchical system that opera
goers valued was embedded in the Haymarket Theatre itself; seating was divided among stage
boxes, front and side boxes, the main-floor pit of semicircular benches, and two galleries.
Different ticket prices for each section illustrated the varying desirability and distinction of each
seat. The stage boxes, in particular, contained the most expensive seats in the house and
displayed their wealthy occupants to the rest of the audience alongside the singers, machines, and
scenery. The worst seats in the house, those in the upper gallery, were a tenth of the price of
stage boxes, and, like other seats in the theater, could be purchased individually rather than
through subscription. 102 Italian opera, then, was not the preoccupation solely of the elite.
Members of the middle class could enjoy Italian opera along with wealthier Londoners, though
in less desirable seats. This reality prompted Addison to remind his readers of the follies of opera
and the reform that it required.
The hierarchy between the singers on the stage, too, reflected the hierarchy of their
audience. The strict conventions of opera seria, though still developing in these years, required
that each singer have a certain number of arias in a specified order (the leading singers having
the most); that each singer wear a costume whose costliness reflected their importance in the
opera; and that each character participated in the staged, hierarchical world of kings, servants,
valiant knights, and noble heroines.103 It is no wonder that a couple decades later Carlo Goldoni
would throw down his pen after his attempt at an opera seria libretto, “horrified by the rules of
the Drama,” and “quite determined never to write one again.” 104 But in early eighteenth-century
London, the postured hierarchy and conventions of the opera singers on the Haymarket stage
101
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, pp. 217-8.
Stahura, “Handel’s Haymarket Theater,” pp. 97-8.
103
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 58.
104
Carlo Goldoni, “The Conventions of the Opera Seria,” in Music in the Western World: A History in Documents,
ed. Richard Taruskin and Piero Weiss (Belmont, CA: Schirmer, 1984), p. 231.
102
31
reflected the hierarchy of their audience, seated according to their wealth and on display as much
as the performance they had purportedly come to see.
With the social distinction conferred by the Haymarket, rising members of London
society used Italian opera as an aesthetic marker to assert their place among the elite. During the
aristocratic move from the court to the city, England was expanding economically – mercantile
interests were growing, and personal commercial wealth was increasing, thus expanding the beau
monde of London to include not only the nobility, but also baronets and professional men and
women.105 In this society where distinctions between aristocracy, gentry, and elite were
collapsing, behavior mattered a great deal.106 James Brydges, for example, who in the first years
of the eighteenth century laid the foundation for his lucrative career as paymaster general under
the Duke of Marlborough, found it compulsory to attend the theater to establish his place among
the wealthy and influential. In his diary, he recorded not what was acted and sung on the stage,
but the names of important people whom he met or spotted in the audience.107 Brydges would
later become a private patron of Handel.108
Alongside the scattered social spaces in London where the elite mingled, a parallel social
space was gradually emerging. The expensive chocolate houses and the costly opera
subscriptions they sold were countered by the plethora of coffee houses and the growing
popularity of the middle-class periodicals they sold, the newspaper. Coffee houses had always
functioned as centers of information, where regular customers gathered to spread, hear, and
discuss the latest news. As a public space that admitted men of any social standing to exchange
105
Hume and Jacobs, “London: Musical Life,” Grove Music Online.
William Weber, “Handel’s London – social, political and intellectual contexts,” in The Cambridge Companion to
Handel, ed. Donald Burrows (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 48-9.
106
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 29.
107
Ibid., p. 212.
108
Donald Burrows, Handel (New York: Schirmer Books, 1994), pp. 79-80.
32
information and opinions, the coffee house had received governmental censure and disapproval
soon after its inception in the 1660s, but it continued to thrive.109 The newspaper press, then,
grew as an integral part of the coffee house culture; papers such as the Tatler and the Spectator
were written, spread, read, and discussed in coffee houses.110
Addison denounced the lavish pursuits of the elite that conflicted with the classconsolidating and patriotic culture of the coffee house and newspaper. For Addison, Italian opera
was another imported luxury item, along with Venetian glass or French painting.111 Both Dennis
and Addison moralized about the evils of luxury. Dennis saw luxury as the vice that had
corrupted the excellent virtue of the ancient Romans:
The Modern Italians have the very same Sun and Soil which the Ancient Romans had, yet
are their Manners directly opposite; their Men are neither Vertuous, nor Wise, nor
Valiant, and they who have reason to know their Woman, never trust them out of their
sight. ‘Tis impossible to give any reason of so great a Difference between the Ancient
Romans, and the Modern Italians but only Luxury, and the Reigning Luxury of Modern
Italy, is that soft and effeminate Musick which abounds in the Italian Opera.112
Addison criticized luxury in a less lofty and presumptuous tone than Dennis. During a coffeehouse conversation with his friends, for example, Addison’s acquaintance supposedly told him
that “if you avoid that foolish beaten road of falling upon aldermen and citizens, and employ
your pen upon the vanity and luxury of courts, your Paper must needs be of general use.”113
Addison took this advice, resolving “to assault the vice without hurting the person” and “to
march on boldly in the cause of virtue and good sense, and to annoy their adversaries in whatever
109
Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination, p. 37.
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 202.
111
J.R. Jones, Country and Court: England, 1658-1714 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978), p. 77.
112
Dennis, An Essay on the Opera’s, unpaginated preface.
113
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 1, p. 360.
110
33
degree or rank of men they may be found.” 114 With this goal, Addison ridiculed the luxuries of
the time, even if – or perhaps especially if – the elite class embraced them.
At the same time, Addison avoided the distant and pretentious tone of Dennis. Addison
assumed the persona of the witty “Spectator,” the social equal to his readers, addressing them as
his peers rather than inferiors. He encouraged his readers to unite in laughter at the absurd
entertainments of the elite, particularly Italian opera. In regard to the opera L’Idaspe fedele
(1710), for example, Addison ridiculed the pleasures of the Italian opera house:
There is nothing that of late years has afforded matter of greater amusement to the town
than Signior Nicolini’s combat with a lion in the Haymarket, which has been very often
exhibited to the general satisfaction of most of the nobility and gentry in the kingdom of
Great Britain…Many likewise were the conjectures of the treatment which this lion was
to meet with from the hands of Signior Nicolini; some supposed that he was to subdue
him in Recitativo, as Orpheus used to serve the wild beasts in his time, and afterwards to
knock him on the head: some fancied that the lion would not pretend to lay his paws upon
the hero, by reason of the received opinion, that a lion will not hurt a virgin.115
In this passage, Addison derided operatic plot and the sexual nature of the castrato Nicolini. By
painting the follies of upper-class amusement, Addison spoke to, and on behalf of, the middleclass Londoners with whom he daily interacted in the coffee house and on the street. He exhorted
them to avoid this ridiculous pastime of the nobility and gentry and to realize its need for reform.
Dennis was more conservative in his social appraisal of the opera house. He saw Italian
opera as anything but laughable, and he took for granted that London cultural pursuits revealed
rifts in society. Indeed, he criticized opera because it did not distinguish between the classes as
English drama did:
Now there are but few judicious Spectators at our Dramatick Representations, since none
can be so, but who with great Endowments of Nature have had a very generous
Education, and the rest are frequently mortify’d by passing foolish Judgments; but in
114
115
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 1, p. 362.
Ibid., p. 365.
34
Musick the Case is vastly different, to judge of that requires only Use and a fine Ear,
which the Footman often has a great deal finer than his Master.116
For Dennis, then, the appreciation and enjoyment of drama required a refined, upper-class
education, whereas opera did not. In his desire to maintain an older social order and traditional
aesthetic rules, Dennis believed it was natural for the elite to set themselves apart from the lower
classes through cultural pursuits. The problem, however, was the quality of such entertainments.
Addison criticized opera in a less purist manner. He did not charge opera with the ruin of
the nation or the overthrow of English Protestantism. For Addison, opera was the sign of a
foolish elite class, and he spoke for middle-class resentment of aristocratic privilege and disdain
by uniting his middle-class readers in laughter against elite follies. For example, in October 1711
Addison appended a letter to the Spectator supposedly written by a country clergyman in need of
advice:
A widow lady, who straggled this summer from London into my parish for the benefit of
the air, as she says, appears every Sunday at church with many fashionable
extravagancies, to the great astonishment of my congregation.
But what gives us the most offence is her theatrical manner of singing the psalms. She
introduces above fifty Italian airs into the hundredth psalm, and whilst we begin ‘All
people’ in the old solemn tune of our forefathers, she in a quite different key runs
divisions on the vowels, and adorns them with the graces of Nicolini…I am very far from
being an enemy to church music; but fear this abuse of it may make my parish
ridiculous…117
In the parish of this fictitious clergyman, luxury and Italian opera combined in the figure of a
wealthy London woman with ridiculous and embarrassing results. Excerpts such as this one
illustrate Addison’s mocking tone towards the frivolities of opera, as well as his writing on
behalf of his imagined and ideal ‘common people,’ who were content wearing simpler clothing
to church and singing the “old solemn tune” of their forefathers.
116
117
Dennis, An Essay on the Opera’s, p. 6.
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 2, pp. 287-8.
35
Yet Addison also presented some serious thoughts on Italian opera in London. Rather
than restricting himself to poking fun at Italian opera and its patrons, Addison crafted serious
criticisms and ways that opera could be reformed. He agreed with Dennis that Italian opera had
broken away from the aesthetic cornerstones of artistic expression: nature, reason, and classical
antiquity.118 He also thought England should follow the lead of France in adapting Italian opera
to their own culture and language, as Lully had skillfully done in France in the seventeenth
century: “He [Lully] did not pretend to extirpate the French music, and plant the Italian in its
stead; but only to cultivate and civilize it with innumerable graces and modulations which he
borrowed from the Italians. By this means the French music is now perfect in its kind…” 119
Addison recommended a similar path for British opera composers.
For Addison, Italian opera was problematic in its subject matter, but not in its music.
Unlike Dennis, Addison did not denounce the singing of text, but rather the shallow and
unbelievable plots. He adopted this view while he was in Venice during his Continental tour in
the early years of the eighteenth century: “Operas are another great entertainment of this season.
The poetry of them is generally as exquisitely ill, as the music is good.” 120 If a libretto consisted
of loftier prose and plot, opera could become a worthy pursuit. To this end, Addison suggested
the mixing of Italian music with English dramatic plots in the pages of the Spectator: “I would
allow the Italian opera to lend our English music as much as may grace and soften it, but never
entirely to annihilate and destroy it. Let the infusion be as strong as you please, but still let the
subject matter of it be English.” 121 Addison even considered all-sung opera, so long as the
subject matter was good, superior to the English semi-opera. For him, the Italian recitative style
118
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 56.
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 1, p. 354.
120
Addison, The Miscellaneous Works, in verse and prose, of the right honourable Joseph Addison, Esq. (London:
1765), p. 64.
121
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 1, p. 353.
119
36
allowed the dramatic plot to develop more naturally, without interrupting the music with spoken
dialogue; this was less disturbing to reason than the mixing of speaking and singing.122
Addison’s thoughts for reform can be seen in his own attempt at an English-language
opera, Rosamond, in 1707, prior to his commencement of the Spectator four years later. Unlike
British semi-operas, Addison’s Rosamond was all-sung, illustrating his belief that this was more
natural than interrupting song with speech. He took the plot from English medieval history,
writing of King Henry II and his choice between passion for his mistress Rosamond and duty to
his wife Queen Elinor.123 With this plot, Addison attempted to lend dramatic cogency to the
opera stage, and to combine serious and compelling subject matter with well-composed music.124
As Thomas Tickell wrote in his preface to the published libretto of Rosamond in 1713:
The Opera first Italian Masters taught,
Enrich’d with Songs, but Innocent of Thought.
Britannia’s learned Theatre disdains
Melodious Trifles, and enervate Strains;
And blushes on her injur’d Stage to see
Nonsense well-tun’d, and sweet Stupidity.125
Written after Italian opera had a firmer footing in London with the premiere of Handel’s Rinaldo,
Tickell’s verses showed his belief that Addison had improved opera by infusing it with thought
and reason.
Unfortunately for Addison, most Londoners in 1707 did not agree with Tickell’s later
laudatory verses. Rosamond proved a failure that closed after only three nights, apparently
because of its poor music by composer Thomas Clayton.126 While Addison had endeavored to
improve the subject matter of opera, the music had suffered in comparison. Five weeks after
122
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 57.
Ibid., p. 175.
124
Gilman, “Augustan criticism,” p. 23.
125
Thomas Tickell, “A Copy of Verses in the Sixth Miscellany, to the Author of Rosamond,” in Rosamond. An
Opera, Inscribed to Her Grace the Dutchess of Marlborough, ed. Joseph Addison (London: 1713), p. 25.
126
Gilman, “Augustan criticism,” p. 23.
123
37
Rosamond’s failure, Addison vented his frustration at the success of Italian opera: “Our
homespun authors must forsake the field/ And Shakespeare to the soft Scarlatti yield.” 127
Addison had directly experienced the preference of London opera audiences for the foreign,
exclusive, and musically satisfying to the sentimental and moralizing.128 He would never play the
opera librettist again, turning instead to the role of the witty spectator and critic.
Yet Addison retained his belief that Italian opera could be reformed. Far from Dennis’
xenophobic ranting, Addison’s essays expose his more balanced critique – the music and singers
were good while the plots were poor, all-sung opera was preferable to semi-opera, and opera
could be adapted to the language and dramatic strengths of Britain. In June 1712, over a year
after the premiere of Rinaldo, Addison lamented the departure of the castrato Nicolini who,
despite his participation in ridiculous operatic staging effects, contributed true musical talent to
the stage:
I am very sorry to find, by the opera bills for this day, that we are likely to lose the
greatest performer in dramatic music that is now living, or that perhaps ever appeared
upon a stage. I need not acquaint my reader, that I am speaking of Signior Nicolini. The
town is highly obliged to that excellent artist for having shewn us the Italian music in its
perfection…129
Addison sought to unite his middle-class readers against the follies of the gentry by exposing
Italian opera in all its frivolity and senselessness, but he was never staunch or uncompromising
in his criticism. Addison emphasized the ridiculousness of elite Italian opera because he wanted
opera to become an art form that united society in promoting civic virtue rather than foolish
spectacle. His nuanced opinions offer us a valuable look at the cultural debate behind the
importation of Italian opera, and what was at stake for London society in their patronage of this
foreign art.
127
Addison, “Prologue,” in Phaedra & Hippolitus. A Tragedy, ed. Edmund Smith (London: 1777), p. 5.
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 179.
129
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 3, p. 231.
128
38
Chapter Three
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury
Like Addison, the third Earl of Shaftesbury examined the social implications of the
cultural shift from the court to the city. Shaftesbury, however, did not share Addison’s desire for
culture and Italian opera to unite society in civic virtue. Shaftesbury believed that culture should
remain the province of the elite, who, Shaftesbury hoped, would evolve from decadent courtiers
to polite gentlemen of reason and talent in the wake of the 1688 revolution. While Shaftesbury
was socially more conservative than Addison, he did not approach the political conservatism of
Dennis. While Shaftesbury agreed with Dennis that a strong relationship existed between culture
and politics, he did not view culture as the dominant force in the relationship, having the power
to support or undermine government, which could only respond by banishing it. Shaftesbury
believed culture and politics affected each other, and, like Addison, he believed that Italian opera
could be reformed. Shaftesbury’s focus on ‘cultural politics’ locates him between Dennis and
Addison, offering an interesting portrait of a British writer who, despite some reservations about
Italian opera, believed the genre could flourish and prosper in Britain.
The third Earl of Shaftesbury’s grandfather had first gained the title of “earl” for the
family in 1672. Though a parliamentarian during the Civil War, Shaftesbury’s grandfather
adjusted to the Restoration, gaining royal favor and serving as minister to Charles II. However,
the first earl of Shaftesbury gradually became one of the most formidable politicians of the Whig
opposition against the king and his policies. It was the elder Shaftesbury who led the movement
to exclude Charles II’s brother, the Roman Catholic James, from the throne; this act placed him
for a time at the pinnacle of English politics, but also resulted in his fleeing the country and
dying in Amsterdam shortly afterwards. It was also the first earl of Shaftesbury who had taken
39
over the education and upbringing of his grandson, who inherited his grandfather’s Whig beliefs
and was left to vindicate his grandfather’s memory in his own political career.130
Yet the third earl of Shaftesbury did not lead the active political life of his grandfather. In
1690, after his two-year Grand Tour of the Continent, he refused to stand for a seat in
Parliament, expressing his desire to study more before entering public service. Throughout his
life, Shaftesbury alternated between phases of political engagement and seclusion. He entered
Parliament in 1695, but after three years he withdrew due to physical and psychological
exhaustion – poor health would plague him for his entire life, leading to his early death at the age
of 42. Shaftesbury was an active participant in William’s final parliaments, but the king’s sudden
death and the accession of Queen Anne to the throne in 1702 was a setback for the Whigs,
leading to another period of withdrawal and personal reflection for Shaftesbury.131 During these
periods of seclusion in Holland, Shaftesbury wrote his most influential work, Characteristicks of
Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, published in the spring of 1711 in three volumes.132
Historian Lawrence Klein suggests that Shaftesbury’s political interest combined with his
preference for solitary intellectual pursuits to produce his emphasis on cultural politics: a way for
him to achieve a political personality without active participation in political life itself.133 The
shift of cultural authority from the traditional ecclesiastical and courtly institutions to the new
public and gentlemanly culture of criticism and politeness, which occurred in the wake of the
1688 Revolution and the new Whig regime, was at the heart of Shaftesbury’s cultural politics.
For Shaftesbury, the paradigm of politeness offered an alternative to the order provided by the
130
Lawrence E. Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness: Moral discourse and cultural politics in early
eighteenth-century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 14-15.
131
Ibid., pp. 15-18.
132
Ibid., p. 20.
133
Ibid., p. 16.
40
seventeenth-century Church and Court.134 At court, the need to please those in power inhibited
and distorted conversation, and the courtly game of flattery abandoned the directness and
honesty of true politeness.135
For Shaftesbury, the weakening of courtly life offered an opportunity for the elite to turn
to gentlemanly politeness, which rested on philosophy and high culture. Shaftesbury believed
that early eighteenth-century Britain was ready for a cultural take-off that would display and
strengthen the moral and civic virtue of its elite.136 Characteristicks was published within a few
weeks of the influential first run of Addison’s Spectator, another work concerned with civic
politeness. Unlike Addison and Steele, who disseminated public moralism to the middle class,
Shaftesbury crafted his agenda of cultural politics and politeness for the intellectual and social
elite.137 Rather than the class-consolidating cultural goal of Addison, Shaftesbury supported a
reformed elite as the cultural authority. Yet despite Shaftesbury’s elite focus, his work appealed
to members of the urban middle class as well. A 1733 edition of Characteristicks cut
Shaftesbury’s commissioned engravings to render the three-volume work more affordable;
according to advertisements for this more affordable edition, some printers imagined middleclass Shaftesburian readers who counted their pennies and were drawn to Shaftesbury’s message
of moral rather than social elevation.138
Shaftesbury structured his thoughts on philosophy and culture in the larger political
framework of Whiggism. For Shaftesbury, the Revolution had established the dominance of
gentlemen over the traditional English court, and Shaftesbury sought to legitimate the Whig
134
Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness, pp. 8-12.
Ibid., p. 183.
136
Ibid., p. 21.
137
Ibid., p. 2.
138
Klein, “Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times,” The Huntington Library Quarterly 64, no. 3/4
(2001): p. 530.
135
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government by ushering in an era of gentlemanly culture.139 Reacting against those agencies with
which gentlemen had traditionally shared hegemony – the Church and the King – Shaftesbury
advocated a vision of politics and culture that replaced godly and courtly understandings with a
public gentlemanly one.140 For Shaftesbury, the ideal gentleman was a man of politeness, reason,
and education in contrast to the decadent courtier. The Whigs, the party of liberty, promised
political, intellectual, and discursive freedom that, with a society dominated by Shaftesbury’s
gentlemen, would lead to the flourishing of British culture.141
The close connection Shaftesbury drew between culture and politics recalls the writings
of Dennis. However, Dennis had afforded more agency to culture, with its power to support or
undermine government, while Shaftesbury traced a reciprocal relationship between government
and the arts. As we will see in relation with Shaftesbury and opera, he believed that government
and culture could influence each other for the better.
Shaftesbury’s cultural politics, and the publication of Characteristicks within a few
weeks of the premiere of Rinaldo, make him an interesting, though often overlooked, figure in
the British debate over Italian opera. Shaftesbury described his thoughts on Italian opera in a
letter to his friend Pierre Coste in 1709. Coste had sent Shaftesbury a copy of Francois
Raguenet’s notorious pamphlet Paralèle des italiens et des francois, en ce qui regarde la
musique et les opera, originally published in 1702, in which the French author had scandalously
proclaimed the superiority of Italian opera over French opera. For Raguenet, French opera was
too meticulous in its musical expression. Raguenet preferred the reckless and bold music of
Italian opera, which often “seems to be upon the brink of ruin, [when] he immediately reconciles
‘em by such regular cadences that everyone is surprised to see harmony rising again, in a
139
Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness, p. 2.
Ibid., pp. 20-21.
141
Ibid., p. 195.
140
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manner, out of discord itself and owing its greatest beauties to those irregularities which seemed
to threaten it with destruction.” 142 Raguenet also preferred the Italian decorations and machines.
He described spectacular onstage inventions that he had seen in operas: apes that seemed alive,
elephants that disappeared in an instant to reveal an army, the ghost of a woman that transformed
into a palace.
After reading the pamphlet, Shaftesbury thanked Coste for “Your entertaining french
Treatise. I assure You ‘twas extreamly pleasant, and I found it the only just and sensible Work of
this Kind.” 143 However, Shaftesbury objected to Raguenet’s enthusiasm for the Italian stage
effects: “he made me a little Blush for him (for I was mightily in his Interest) when he seemd to
give into the Machine and Decorations of the Theater.” 144 Shaftesbury concluded that the danger
in Italian opera lay in the spectacles that it presented, which were “vulgar, miserable,
barbarouse.” 145
To support these objections, Shaftesbury turned to Horace’s Epistle to Augustus, a work
that was well-known in England at the time. Horace offered a legendary account of the rise and
fall of Roman dramatic poetry. In a primitive period, the rural Roman countryside was the
birthplace of Roman drama, and the conquest of Greece refined Latin poetry, which still retained
much of its earlier rusticity. After the Punic Wars, Roman poets had the leisure to study and
adapt Greek tragedy, but in the end, Roman poets gave in to spectacle and passion (appealing to
the eye) rather than the tragic and reasonable (appealing to the ear) in order to attract audiences,
thus irrevocably corrupting their plays.146 For Shaftesbury, the consequences of dramatists
yielding to spectacle went beyond the mere decline in dramatic standards in the playhouse –
142
Francois Raguenet, A comparison between the French and Italian musick and opera’s (London: 1709), p. 17.
McGeary, “Shaftesbury on Opera, Spectacle and Liberty,” Music & Letters 74, no. 4 (1993): p. 539.
144
Ibid.
145
Ibid.
146
Ibid., p. 532.
143
43
opera corrupted by spectacle led to political decline and moral decay. Shaftesbury saw tragedy as
the natural consequence of liberty, a means of reassuring and encouraging freedom, and an art
suited to maintaining a republic: “Tragedy opens the inward Scene of the Palace, and shews Us
the Misfortunes and Miserys of the Great: by which the People are not only reveng’d, but
comforted and encourag’d to endure their equal plain Rank when they see the Tyranny attended
with such Disasters.”
147
Spectacle, on the other hand, kept a populace amused and contented in
slavery.148 Like the dazzling court ceremonies that blinded onlookers and reduced them to slaves
of the monarchy, operatic spectacle threatened Shaftesbury’s gentlemanly culture of politeness.
For Shaftesbury, though, it was not only the art that shaped the nation, but also the nation
that shaped the art. He noted that poetry, rhetoric, music, and the other arts were exclusive
products of free nations, not empires that dominated other nations. Like other writers at the time,
Shaftesbury saw a clear parallel between Rome’s Punic Wars and England’s Continental war
with France.149 If England pursued the path of conquest, spectacle risked overtaking opera,
leading to the loss of British liberty. Rather than denouncing opera as a pernicious and foreign
influence in Britain, as Dennis did, Shaftesbury emphasized the reciprocal relationship between
government, in its different forms, and the arts. Shaftesbury believed that instead of banishing
Italian opera from the London stage, opera could be tailored to reflect the ancient Greek tragedy;
adopting the simple Italian recitative, as opposed to the florid French recitative, would bring
opera closer to the nature and dignity of spoken drama. Combined with purging opera of
spectacle, this change would reinforce the republican values of liberty and virtue in Britain.150
147
McGeary, “Shaftesbury on Opera, Spectacle and Liberty,” p. 539.
Ibid., pp. 533-4.
149
Ibid., pp. 534-5.
150
Ibid., p. 536.
148
44
Shaftesbury saw more potential good in Italian opera than harm and, in the midst of British
censure and criticism of opera, ultimately vindicated the genre.
Shaftesbury’s reliance on Horace shows the influence of the cultural debate between the
Ancients and Moderns. This debate was pervasive in late seventeenth-century England, at times
seeming to engage and divide nearly all writers.151 Moderns saw England as superior both to the
ancient Greeks and to England’s eighteenth-century Continental rivals; this superiority derived
from England’s free constitution, commercial economy, and unprecedented circulation of
ideas.152 Ancients, on the other hand, revered the ancient Greeks and Romans, who had set the
ideal models for every endeavor, particularly for politics and the humanistic arts associated with
it (rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy).153 In late seventeenth-century England, every
writer was concerned with the authority of the classical past, and everyone had to craft a position
with respect to antiquity before plunging into modern life. No subject – art, literature,
philosophy, science, politics, or religion – could ignore the burdens of the classical period and its
models.154
Ancients were often critics of Italian opera, who disparaged opera in favor of Greek
tragedy. In the first century AD, Plutarch had mourned the shift of music from a military and
religious to a theatrical context. For Plutarch, this evolution was a sign of decadence, and music
– once strong, masculine, and appealing to the gods – was degraded to an effeminate twittering
in the theaters.155 Ancients in Restoration England echoed Plutarch’s concerns when they
attacked Italian opera. Dennis was one of these Ancients:
151
Levine, Between the Ancients and the Moderns, p. vii.
Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination, p. 95.
153
Levine, Between the Ancients and the Moderns, p. ix.
154
Ibid., p. viii.
155
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, p. 70.
152
45
If these Gentlemen love their Country, why do they sacrifice its Interest and Reputation
for a Song? Why do they sacrifice these noble Arts, which may bring Profit and Renown
to it, to inglorious ones, which threaten it with Danger and Infamy. What Article has
Musick in the Grecian and Roman Greatness?..Now is not the Opera, say they, an
effeminate Trifle? Has it not, where-ever it comes, emasculated the Minds of Men, and
corrupted their Manners? Has it not made good the Accusations of Plato and Cicero?156
For Dennis, Italian opera stood in direct contrast to English drama, which, like venerable Greek
tragedy, promoted the ‘publick spirit’ and willingness to die for one’s country. Dennis feared that
Italian opera and drama could not coexist on the London stage. One would dominate the minds
of the public: “I presume to oppose a popular and prevailing Caprice, and to defend the English
Stage, which together with our English Liberties has descended to us from our Ancestors, to
defend it against that Deluge of Mortal Foes, which have come pouring in from the
Continent.”157 If drama lost the battle with its Italian ‘mortal foe,’ the support that it lent the
government would be gone, and the results would be disastrous for the British nation, for “the
Declension of Poetry in Greece and Ancient Rome was soon follow’d by that of Liberty and
Empire.” 158
Yet, for all his literary gestures to classical authors, Dennis was not a staunch Ancient. In
his younger days, he had deplored the extremes of both Ancients and Moderns. Throughout his
life, he continued the search for a middle way between the two sides, acknowledging ancient
precedence but not placing it so high as to preclude modern excellence. He admitted that the
Moderns had improved many of the arts. He also believed that the excellence of ancient poetry
derived from its moral and religious subjects, and if modern writers drew inspiration from
Christianity, they could match the accomplishments of the classical writers.159 Dennis’ vehement
objection to Italian opera resulted not from a stubborn belief in classical superiority, but from his
156
Dennis, Essay upon Publick Spirit, pp. 21-2.
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s, p. 2.
158
Ibid., p. 10.
159
Levine, Between the Ancients and the Moderns, p. 91.
157
46
belief that the genre of opera, where music and sound reigned, was not suitable for the
expression of sense and reason.160
Addison, despite his frequent forays into humor and satire, also seriously criticized Italian
opera for its straying from the dramatic rules of antiquity. As a student at Oxford, Addison had
earned distinction in Latin verse, and he was thoroughly knowledgeable and appreciative of the
classical authors. He confronted Italian opera with the learning of a trained classicist, and he
criticized opera as the Baroque art form of excesses that, in some ways, it was. Opera had its
roots in the Renaissance and its classical heritage, but a century of performance practice had
added layer upon layer of Baroque extravagance, and classical subjects became popularized
rather than accurate.161 Every operatic reform in the history of opera, from the opera seria to
Gluck, was an attempt to return opera to its classical roots. To this end, Addison suggested the
combining of English dramatic plots with Italian music to improve operatic poetry. Addison was
thus a Modern in his belief that opera could be reformed.
As we have seen, Shaftesbury used ancient Roman history to comment on contemporary
British foreign policy. Shaftesbury, like Addison, was a trained classicist: he inserted Greek and
Latin quotes in his Characteristicks, and assumed that his readers were learned enough in the
classics to understand them.162 Shaftesbury’s cultural politics prompted him to link liberty to arts
and letters; he saw Athenian diversity rather than Spartan uniformity as conducive to cultural
flowering.163 For Shaftesbury, France was the modern analogue of imperial Rome, with its
luxurious courts, slavish hierarchy, and push for a universal monarchy.164 The expensive, false,
magnificent, and deformed courtly heritage of the Baroque era in both France and Britain
160
Levine, Between the Ancients and the Moderns, p. 138.
Knif, Gentlemen and Spectators, pp. 61-2.
162
Klein, “Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times,” p. 533.
163
Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness, p. 148.
164
Ibid., pp. 188-9.
161
47
betrayed classical values.165 Only with the shift of culture and patronage from the court to the
urban elite could the arts hope to regain the moral and civic virtue of antiquity. Like Addison,
Shaftesbury was a Modern; he believed that Italian opera could be improved, and he lauded
Britain’s republican values of liberty and virtue in contrast to France’s debauched monarchy.
It is unknown whether Shaftesbury saw Rinaldo performed in London – his poor health
prompted his move to southern Italy in the summer of 1711, a few months after Rinaldo’s
premiere, where he died two years later. But considering Shaftesbury’s critique of Baroque
culture and the importance of the arts to the nation, his opinion of Rinaldo, if he had seen it, must
have been mixed. While he would have approved of the simpler Italian recitative and musical
idioms, as well as Handel’s careful attention to the drama, the magnificent spectacle and
hierarchical nature of the opera seria would have sparked his criticism. Shaftesbury’s belief in
the nation’s influence over culture was a call to maintain control over opera; if Britain
maintained its liberty and did not copy France’s aspirations for an empire, operatic spectacle
would not overtake the public, and Italian opera could flourish in the excellence of ancient
tragedy.
In respect to Italian opera, then, Shaftesbury occupies a position between Dennis and
Addison. Socially more conservative than Addison, while not approaching the extremism of
Dennis, Shaftesbury’s focus on cultural politics led him to approve of reformed Italian-style
opera. Freed from spectacle and florid music, opera would support the British nation, which
would in turn support opera if it maintained its republican values of liberty and virtue.
165
Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness, p. 193.
48
Chapter Four
Handel’s Rinaldo
After three years of composing and studying opera in Italy, Handel made his way through
Germany and Holland, embarking for England in the autumn of 1710. A year earlier, at the very
successful premiere of his opera Agrippina in Venice, he had received an invitation to London
from the English ambassador there.166 Whether this provided the main impetus for his move to
England is unknown. Handel’s eighteenth-century biographer John Mainwaring explained
Handel’s removal to London by citing “the resolution he had long taken to pass over into
England, for the sake of seeing that of London.” 167 According to Donald Burrows, Handel’s
contacts in Italy had raised his hopes for musical employment in London, a city that attracted
him primarily because of the Italian opera company at the Haymarket.168 For whatever reason,
Handel arrived in London in late November or early December in 1710. Burrows describes
Handel’s arrival in London as propitious – his need for an operatic outlet was matched by
London’s need for an adequate composer of opera.169 Handel’s first London opera, Rinaldo,
which premiered just a few months after his arrival, was also the first Italian opera composed
specifically for the London stage.
Handel arrived in to London amidst upheavals in the city’s operatic management. The
Haymarket Theatre, devoted to the presentation of opera, was in financial trouble; opera was a
costly venture, and subscriptions could not cover the high initial expenses for each premiere. The
Haymarket also had to continue its competition with Drury Lane which, despite the Lord
166
John Walter Hill, Baroque Music: Music in Western Europe 1580-1750 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company,
2005), p. 388.
167
John Mainwaring, Memoirs of the life of the late George Frederic Handel (London: 1760), p. 72.
168
Burrows, Handel, p. 61.
169
Ibid., p. 65.
49
Chamberlain’s order restricting operatic performances to the Haymarket, continued to mount
musical entertainment of all kinds (song, dance, pantomime, masques, instrumental interludes,
and English operas) between the acts of plays.170 The first decade of eighteenth-century musical
life in London was thus marked by opportunistic businessmen, secret deals with the Lord
Chamberlain, the desire of the nobility and elite for the exclusivity of Italian opera, a public
clamoring after the new Italian music, exorbitantly-paid castrati who dazzled audiences, poorlypaid actors and tradesmen filing lawsuits for their money, and the uncertain future of English
semi-opera.171 This volatile atmosphere often erupted, not only in the critiques of pamphlets and
newspapers, but occasionally in rebellious actors breaking into theaters with drawn swords.172
London’s musical culture was volatile indeed when Handel composed Rinaldo in late 1710.
Nonetheless, this ‘critical decade’ witnessed the gradual triumph of Italian opera over the
London stage. Members of all social classes enjoyed Italian opera, which had gained a foothold
in London; these conquests pushed writers like John Dennis and Joseph Addison towards
feverish exhortations against foreign invasions and witty pleas for common sense. Despite this
criticism, Londoners continued to choose between the operatic fare at Drury Lane and the
Haymarket, attending operas in English, Italian, or a mix of both. They flocked to hear the famed
castrati, who refused to sing in any language but their native Italian.173 If well-composed music
could be added to London operas, something they were often lacking, Italian opera would thrive,
despite native criticism and behind-the-scenes managerial upheavals. Handel had the requisite
talent to provide this much-needed fine music upon his arrival in London; his music, combined
170
Judith Milhous and Robert D. Hume, “Handel’s London – the theatres,” in The Cambridge Companion to
Handel, p. 57.
171
Price, “The Critical Decade.”
Judith Milhous and Robert D. Hume, “The Haymarket Opera in 1711,” Early Music 17, no. 4 (1989): p. 526.
172
Price, “The Critical Decade,” p. 70.
173
Knapp, “Eighteenth-Century Opera.”
50
with an excellent cast and spectacular staging effects, ensured a resounding success for
Rinaldo.174
The authorship of Rinaldo involved two writers. Aaron Hill, the ambitious manager of
the Haymarket at the time of Handel’s arrival (theatrical finances would later prove his downfall
when he was fired after the first two performances of Rinaldo), provided the scenario for
Rinaldo.175 Hill based his outline on Tasso’s sixteenth-century epic poem Gerusalemme liberata,
a dramatic elaboration of the history of the First Crusade, in which Christian forces led by
Godfrey of Bouillon captured Jerusalem from the Saracens.176 Giacomo Rossi then used Hill’s
scenario to produce the Italian libretto.177 According to Rossi in the preface to the published
libretto, Handel composed the music for Rinaldo in only two weeks.178 This is probably true, as
Handel borrowed extensively from his earlier works.179
Hill borrowed from Tasso’s poem freely: he added characters to fit opera seria
conventions, emphasized scenic transformations and other stage effects, and inserted fantastic
settings of no specified location.180 The opera opens with Goffredo, captain of the Christian
armies, laying siege to Jerusalem, which is defended by the Saracen king Argante. With
Goffredo are his brother Eustazio and his daughter Almirena, who loves and is loved by the
celebrated Christian knight Rinaldo. Argante’s ally and lover is the formidable sorceress Armida,
Queen of Damascus. Hill divided the opera’s action into three acts. In the first act, Goffredo
anticipates the imminent capture of Jerusalem and confirms his promise to Rinaldo of
Almirena’s hand in marriage if the Christians are victorious. A herald announces the arrival of
174
Burrows, Handel, p. 67.
Milhous and Hume, “Handel’s London – the theatres,” p. 57.
176
Anthony Hicks, “Rinaldo,” Grove Music Online.
177
Winton Dean and J. Merrill Knapp, Handel’s Operas 1704-1726 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), pp. 171-2.
178
Giacomo Rossi, Rinaldo, an opera. As it is perform’d at the Queens Theatre in London (London: 1711),
unpaginated preface.
179
Milhous and Hume, “The Haymarket Opera in 1711,” p. 525.
180
Hicks, “Rinaldo,” Grove Music Online.
175
51
Argante, who emerges from the city to request a three-day truce, which Goffredo grants. Left
alone, Argante summons the aid of Armida, who descends from the sky in a chariot drawn by
dragons. Armida proposes to secure victory by seducing Rinaldo away from the Christian camp.
She proceeds, however, to abduct Almirena from a beautiful grove with singing birds where she
and Rinaldo had been exchanging vows of love. A distraught Rinaldo tells Goffredo and
Eustazio what has happened, and Eustazio advises Rinaldo to seek help from a local Christian
sorcerer. Rinaldo is encouraged and calls on the winds and heavens to help him in his revenge.181
The second act opens on a shore near the Christian sorcerer’s dwelling. Goffredo,
Eustazio, and Rinaldo see mermaids playing in the water and singing of love’s delights, and a
siren tries to lure Rinaldo into her boat. Goffredo and Eustazio try to hold Rinaldo back, but he
breaks free, boards the boat, and sails out of sight. In Armida’s enchanted palace, Almirena
laments her captivity and receives unwanted attentions from Argante. Meanwhile, Armida exults
in Rinaldo’s capture and, captivated by his proud defiance, declares her love for him. Rinaldo
scornfully rejects her, and Armida tries to seduce him by taking the form of Almirena. After
some initial confusion, Rinaldo again spurns her. Argante then resumes his advances to (he
believes) Almirena, promising to free her from Armida’s bondage. Unfortunately, it is the
disguised Armida he is addressing, and the two part in anger. Armida vows to be revenged on
Argante.182
The third act opens outside the cave where the Christian sorcerer dwells, at the foot of the
threatening mountain on which Armida’s palace is situated. The sorcerer tells Goffredo and
Eustazio to ascend the mountain, giving them magic wands to overcome the infernal power of
181
Hicks, “Synopsis,” in Handel: Rinaldo, ed. Christopher Hogwood (New York: Decca Music Group Limited,
2000), p. 19.
Hicks, “Rinaldo,” Grove Music Online.
182
Hicks, “Synopsis,” pp. 19-20.
Hicks, “Rinaldo,” Grove Music Online.
52
Armida. Goffredo and Eustazio defeat the monsters that defend the mountain, and they touch the
palace gate with their wands. At this, the whole mountain vanishes and Goffredo and Eustazio
find themselves clinging to a rock amid a turbulent sea. They climb over the rock, and the scene
changes to a garden in Armida’s palace, where Armida is threatening to kill Almirena to avenge
herself on Rinaldo for his indifference towards her. Goffredo and Eustazio arrive in time to save
Almirena; they touch the garden with their magic wands and it disappears, transforming into
open country outside the walls of Jerusalem. The Christian heroes rejoice at their reunion and
resolve to lead an assault on the city the next morning. The Saracens are also preparing for battle;
Argante and Armida are reconciled and review their troops together. The two armies engage in
battle, and the Christian army, led by Rinaldo, is victorious. Argante and Armida are captured,
and both resolve to embrace the Christian faith and to marry. Goffredo releases them, and
everyone proclaims the supreme value of virtue.183
Handel’s music expresses the drama and emotion of this convoluted plot, and is full of
striking invention.184 Handel had studied opera in Rome as the conventions of Italian opera seria
were first crystallizing. This process had begun with the Arcadian Academy of Rome,
established in 1690, which responded to French criticism of Italian poetry and drama by bringing
the undisciplined and licentious opera librettos of the time into accord with the principles of
classical Greek drama. According to these conventions, the action should be limited to a single
argument involving no more than eight characters, whose entrances and exits were strictly
regulated so that the stage was never empty except during set changes and between acts. The
action should take place within a short period of time, preferably a day, and in locations of close
proximity. Subject matter was taken from myth and ancient history, and characters were kings
183
Hicks, “Synopsis,” pp. 20-1.
Hicks, “Rinaldo,” Grove Music Online.
184
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 173.
53
and nobles embroiled in conflicts of love and duty. Recitative moved the plot forward, while
arias froze time as a character expressed his or her emotions. The ‘exit aria,’ sung at the end of a
scene before the singer left the stage, was gradually becoming the norm.185 Music critics regard
Handel as representative of the first generation of opera seria composers, and his operas are
considered typical opera seria works.186
Hill and Rossi adhered to opera seria conventions in the plot and characters they crafted
for Rinaldo. Handel, within the strict framework of musical opera seria conventions, managed to
compose a score of exuberance and variety to Hill and Rossi’s libretto. An expanded orchestra,
energetic rhythms, and the presence of three duets and six symphonies made up for the clumsy
insertions of music from earlier operas, and for the occasionally weak dramatic elements (i.e.
Eustazio as a superfluous character whose arias hold up the action, inappropriately-placed arias,
and Armida wasting her sensational first entry on her lover, among other dramatically
questionable moments in the opera).187
The emotional depth that Handel’s music brings to the characters is often striking. This is
especially apparent with Armida, the most dramatically powerful character of the opera.188 Her
fiery and passionate opening cavatina, ‘Furie terribili’, is a welcome burst of energy after the
sedate opening scene. In Act II, Armida rises to her full dramatic stature with her aria ‘Ah!
crudel’ after her rejection by Rinaldo. This aria reveals Armida’s anguished heart, torn between
involuntary love and anger, emotions that are presented musically in a G minor lament with solo
oboe, bassoon, and double bass, followed by a highly melismatic presto section.189 After
discovering Argante’s disloyalty, Armida ends Act II with her brilliant vengeance aria, ‘Vo’ far
185
Daniel Heartz and Marita P. McClymonds, “Opera Seria,” Grove Music Online.
Hill, Baroque Music, p. 387.
187
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, pp. 172-4.
188
Burrows, Handel, p. 87.
189
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 174.
186
54
guerra.’ Handel punctuated this aria with electrifying solo harpsichord cadenzas, which he
performed himself.190
Armida is Handel’s most dramatically compelling character, but other characters show
refined emotional depth as well. Almirena’s lament while being held captive, ‘Lascia ch’io
pianga’, conveys intense despair through its simple sarabande tune.191 Rinaldo’s famous lament
‘Cara sposa’, his first music after the shock of Almirena’s abduction, is his finest aria and strikes
the note of high tragedy. For the first twenty-four bars, Rinaldo sings unsupported by the bass
continuo – the ground had literally been cut from beneath him.192 Rinaldo’s imploring melody is
set against a highly chromatic and emotionally compelling string accompaniment, and the two
parts constantly cross.193 A late eighteenth-century music historian called this aria “by many
degrees the most pathetic song, and with the richest accompaniment, which had been then heard
in England.” 194 But this is only one side of Rinaldo’s character – his energy and heroism burst
forth in the final aria of Act 1, ‘Venti, turbini.’ 195
Handel expanded the London orchestra for Rinaldo to fit his creative ideas and the
opera’s dramatic needs. When Handel arrived in London, the opera orchestra consisted of about
ten violins, two violas, between four and seven cello/basses, two oboes, three bassoons, one
trumpet, and one harpsichord. For the premiere of Rinaldo, Handel added three more trumpets,
timpani, and three recorders.196 Handel deployed these forces shrewdly to achieve maximum
sound impact in the theater. For example, after Argante’s first aria near the beginning of Act 1,
the trumpets and drums do not play again until the Christian march in the middle of Act III,
190
Burrows, Handel, pp. 84, 87.
Terence Best, “Handel and the keyboard,” in The Cambridge Companion to Handel, p. 213.
192
.Price, “English Traditions in Handel’s Rinaldo,” in Handel Tercentenary Collection, ed. Anthony Hicks and
Stanley Sadie (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987), p. 129.
193
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 177.
194
Burney, A general history of music, p. 224.
195
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 177.
196
Stahura, “Handel and the orchestra,” in The Cambridge Companion to Handel, pp. 239-40.
191
55
when the sudden entry of four trumpets results in a triumphant feeling of splendor and
exhilaration.197 Almirena’s aria ‘Augelletti’, sung in the first act while she waits for Rinaldo in
the grove of singing birds, features three recorders with a sopranino or flageolet trilling like a
bird above the other instruments.198 The oboe, bassoon, and double bass introduction to Armida’s
‘Ah! crudel’ also shows the shrewdness of Handel’s scoring with its dramatic and plaintive
effect.199
In Handel’s time, the orchestra was merely part of a larger entertainment – it supported
the singers and dramatic action of an opera.200 Handel’s orchestral writing challenged this
tradition; while his orchestra continued to support and augment the onstage spectacle, it
sometimes called attention to itself in ways that other composers would not have dared. The most
stunning example of this is the harpsichord in Armida’s aria ‘Vo’ far guerra.’ Blank spaces in the
score marked the solo and extemporized harpsichord cadenzas played by Handel, who impressed
London audiences with his skillful dexterity and drew their attention to the activity in the
orchestra pit.201
While Handel followed the strict conventions of opera seria, he often stretched these
conventions to fit the dramatic context of the opera. His arias, for example, are often
unconventional in form, with shortened da capo arias, cavatina-cabaletta designs, and throughcomposed pieces.202 Rinaldo’s aria ‘Cara sposa’ shows Handel’s confidence and flexibility in his
treatment of the aria – the slow A section continuously develops for a full 80 bars, while the
quick B section is a mere ten bars, just long enough to establish a contrast before returning to the
197
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 179.
Ibid., p. 178.
199
Ibid., p. 174.
200
Stahura, “Handel and the orchestra,” p. 238.
201
H. Diack Johnstone, “Handel’s London – British musicians and London concert life,” in The Cambridge
Companion to Handel, p. 68.
Best, “Handel and the keyboard,”p. 216.
202
Hill, Baroque Music, p. 389.
198
56
A section. The focus on the slow lament underlines the hero’s despair at the sudden loss of his
beloved, fitting the musical form to the drama.203 Many of Handel’s scenes also include short
aria-style or arioso interjections, choruses, and recitativo accompagnato more frequently than
other operas at the time. Both Handel and his librettists were aware of opera seria conventions,
but they were willing to test these imposed limits for the sake of the dramatic action.204
Handel’s constant attention to the drama raises the question of how John Dennis would
have responded to Rinaldo. According to Dennis, music corrupted words, undermined poetry,
and debased dramatic action; he denied the possibility that all-sung opera could support and
improve drama through its orchestration and musical forms. Unfortunately, no evidence of
Dennis’ response to Rinaldo exists, but his vehement denunciation of opera in An Essay on the
Opera’s after the Italian Manner would almost certainly have led to his condemnation of
Handel’s first London opera, despite Handel’s careful crafting of the music to fit the drama.205
The libretto of Rinaldo alone, however, contained sentiments that would have enflamed
Dennis’ fears that Italian opera weakened masculinity, a resolve for war, and nationalist feeling.
In the first scene of the opera, both Goffredo and Almirena must remind Rinaldo that his focus
should be on war with the Saracen enemies, not on marriage. As Almirena warns her betrothed,
“la face d’Amore spesso gela nel sen marzial ardore” (“Cupid’s flame often cools a passion for
war”).206 Rinaldo marvels at the power that the blindfold archer wields over him – “Quanto
possente sei, bendato arciero!” 207 For Dennis, Italian opera had the same power to sap a man’s
military ardor.
203
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 177.
Hill, Baroque Music, p. 389.
205
Dennis, Essay on the Opera’s.
206
Kenneth Chalmers, “Libretto,” in Handel: Rinaldo, p. 35.
207
Ibid., p. 36.
204
57
The opening of Act II, when the sirens lure Rinaldo into their boat through their seductive
song despite the protests of both Goffredo and Eustazio, would have galled Dennis in its
depiction of musical passion trumping reason. Goffredo and Eustazio have no sway over the
alluring mermaids, whose haunting melody veers seductively between minor and major
tonality.208 Goffredo and Eustazio’s pleas to Rinaldo are futile:
Goffredo: La tua gloria?
Rinaldo: Ne freme.
Eustazio: Il tuo senno?
Rinaldo: Languisce.
(“Your honor?” “It falters.” “Your reason?” “It grows weak.”)209
Dennis feared that Italian opera would have the same effect as the seductive sirens, weakening
and destroying the warrior’s resolve in a critical time of war and nation building.
In the end, Rinaldo appears as an ineffectual hero. He must be reminded of his soldierly
duties, and he disregards these military obligations in the midst of the seductive sirens. He does
not regain his beloved through his own actions, for it is Almirena’s father who secures her
eventual release.210 Rinaldo does not heed Goffredo’s call to war and manly valor until after
Almirena’s rescue: “E tu, Rinaldo, dei, contaminato da tuoi molli amori, col sangue del rubel
purgar la spada” (“And you, Rinaldo, corrupted by languid love, must cleanse your sword in
enemy blood”).211 Rinaldo’s victory over the Saracens finally shows his delayed
acknowledgment of a soldier’s duty. Yet his effeminate weakness in the first two acts could not
have recommended the character of Rinaldo to Dennis, especially in the form of a castrato
singing in Italian.
208
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 178.
Chalmers, “Libretto,” p. 51.
210
Price, “English Traditions in Handel’s Rinaldo,” p. 130.
211
Chalmers, “Libretto,” p. 76.
209
58
The castrati and other Italian singers, however, assured the popular appeal and success of
Rinaldo and of Handel’s subsequent Italian operas. The original cast of Rinaldo included seven
excellent Italian singers: three castrati, three women, and one bass. The Italians performed all the
title roles, while the one English singer, a bass, sang only five lines of recitative as Argante’s
herald.212 In particular, the famous castrato Nicolini drew large audiences in his portrayal of
Rinaldo and fascinated London operagoers. Handel composed Rinaldo’s arias specifically for
Nicolini, giving the versatile singer showy yet effective melodies.213 A year before the premiere
of Rinaldo, Richard Steele had praised Nicolini’s talents in the Tatler:
I was fully satisfied with the Sight of an Actor who, by the Grace and Propriety of his
Action and Gesture, does Honour to an Human Figure…Every one will easily imagine I
mean Signior Nicolini, who sets off the Character he bears in an Opera by his Action, as
much as he does the Words of it by his Voice. Every Limb, and every Finger, contributes
to the Part he acts, insomuch that a deaf Man might go along with him in the Sense of
it.214
Even critics of Italian opera, like Steele and Addison, could not fault Nicolini’s fortuitous
combination of excellent singing with dramatic presence.
The spectacular scenery and machines in Rinaldo were also significant in guaranteeing
the opera’s success. Hill drew on the popularity of machinery in the British semi-opera tradition
to create the most lavish staging effects that Londoners at the time had ever seen.215 As the
hierarchy of audience members was embedded in the design of the Haymarket, so too was the
importance of magnificent staging effects. Between the opening of the Haymarket and the
premiere of Rinaldo there, the theater’s managers had purchased a house adjoining the theater
and opened it to the stage, increasing the stage’s depth by 30 feet. The space reserved for the
212
Lowell Lindgren, “Handel’s London – Italian musicians and librettists,” in The Cambridge Companion to
Handel, p. 83.
213
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 177.
214
Richard Steele, The Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq. (London: 1754), pp. 1-2.
215
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 173.
59
orchestra, actors, and scenery, then, was significantly large in relation to the space reserved for
the audience.216 On this deep stage, characters flew through the air, sailed away on an ocean, and
rose out of the ground; complete scenes were razed within a few minutes; and there was thunder,
lightning, fire, smoke, and waterfalls.217 Anticipation for these elaborate effects had begun two
months before the opera’s premiere (albeit in a periodical edited by Aaron Hill):
Streams from Fountains, which arise,
‘Till they hit the Azure Skies;
Cataract and bright Cascade,
Both the Ears and Eyes invade:
Nor the Land alone, but Ocean,
Will appear in Genuine motion;
Sometimes peaceful Calms, then Storms,
In the most terrific Forms…218
Handel joined the theatrical managers in their preoccupation with scenic design. Unlike
other composers, Handel wrote almost all scene descriptions and stage directions in his
autograph scores; visual images apparently inspired the composer’s musical imagination.219
Throughout Rinaldo, Handel fashioned the music to fit the staging. For example, after the scene
change from the Jerusalem city walls to the grove of singing birds in Act I, Handel extended the
opening ritornello to Almirena’s aria ‘Augelletti’ for a full two minutes to allow the audience to
enjoy the spectacle of tree foliage and real sparrows.220 During Goffredo and Eustazio’s struggle
up the mountain to Armida’s palace, Handel covered the action with a sinfonia and then with an
aria sung by the Christian sorcerer. Handel did not require Goffredo or Eustazio to sing while
216
Lowell Lindgren, “The Staging of Handel’s Operas in London,” in Handel Tercentenary Collection, p. 93.
Ibid., p. 96.
218
Ibid., p. 95.
219
Ibid., p. 94.
220
Stahura, “Handel’s Haymarket Theater,” p. 104.
217
60
they were on the mountain, as singing was generally confined to the front of the stage.221 Handel
thus crafted his music to complement the scenery and staging.
As Hill noted in the preface to the published libretto of Rinaldo, he had “resolv’d to spare
no Pains or Cost, that might be requisite to make those Entertainments [operas] flourish in their
proper Grandeur.” 222 This magnificence applied to the costumes as well as the staging; Judith
Milhous and Robert D. Hume estimate that the costumes for Rinaldo cost approximately 305
pounds. Hill purchased the finest fabrics for these costumes, ordering expensive blue peeling
satin, cherry-colored velvet, white and silver tissue, and black silk plush in the months leading up
to Rinaldo’s premiere.223 Hill’s freedom with the opera finances, while no doubt producing a
magnificent spectacle with first-rate singers, would lead to his downfall as manager and spark
controversy over the method of collecting subscription money in White’s chocolate house.224
While the lavish staging of Rinaldo delighted many Londoners, Steele and Addison were
alarmed by the appeal of the elaborate and extravagant machines and scenery.225 In their attempt
to render Italian opera ridiculous, both writers delighted in pointing out the inconsistencies and
excesses of the production. Addison disparaged the mixing of real with artificial elements on the
stage; this criticism prompted his famous response to the real birds released onstage during
Almirena’s aria ‘Augelletti’ in the grove scene:
As I was walking in the streets about a fortnight ago, I saw an ordinary fellow carrying a
cage full of little birds upon his shoulder; and, as I was wondering with myself what use
he would put them to, he was met very luckily by an acquaintance, who had the same
curiosity. Upon his asking what he had upon his shoulder, he told him that he had been
buying sparrows for the opera. Sparrows for the opera, says his friend, licking his lips;
what, are they to be roasted? No, no, says the other, they are to enter towards the end of
the first act, and to fly about the stage.
221
Stahura, “Handel’s Haymarket Theater,” p. 107.
Rossi, Rinaldo, an opera, unpaginated preface.
223
Milhous and Hume, “The Haymarket Opera in 1711,” pp. 531-2.
224
Ibid., p. 534.
225
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 173.
222
61
This strange dialogue awakened my curiosity so far, that I immediately bought the opera,
by which means I perceived the sparrows were to act the part of singing-birds in a
delightful grove; though upon a nearer enquiry, I found the sparrows put the same trick
upon the audience, that Sir Martin Mar-all practiced upon his mistress: for though they
flew in sight, the music proceeded from a concert of flagelets and bird-calls which were
planted behind the scenes…
…There have been so many flights of them let loose in this opera, that it is feared the
house will never get rid of them; and that in other plays they may make their entrance in
very wrong and improper scenes, so as to be seen flying in a lady’s bed-chamber, or
perching upon a king’s throne; besides the inconveniencies which the heads of the
audience may sometimes suffer from them.226
Addison also drew his readers’ attention to the discrepancies and confused mythological mixing
of the pagan sorceress Armida and the Christian sorcerer in Rinaldo: “I must confess I am very
much puzzled to find how an Amazon should be versed in the black art, or how a good christian,
for such is the part of the magician, should deal with the devil.” 227 Not to mention why both
characters were in Jerusalem during the First Crusade. For Addison, these discrepancies offended
credibility and weakened the plot.
Despite this criticism – perhaps even because of it – Londoners thronged to the
Haymarket to see the much-talked-of castrati and the spectacular staging effects, to hear the
music that offended their ears less than British semi-opera, and to participate as cultured
members of society. Rinaldo was performed fifteen times before the end of the season; the
thirteenth performance was announced as the last, but popular demand required two more.228
Curtis Price suggests that Rinaldo’s success can also be explained by Hill’s inclusion of English
dramatic traditions in the libretto and staging of the opera. While Hill based the opera on Tasso’s
epic poem, he borrowed elements of plot and character from an earlier British semi-opera, The
British Enchanters, which had been performed at the Haymarket in 1706. The outstanding
success of this semi-opera saved the Haymarket from early bankruptcy. The similarities between
226
Addison, The papers of Joseph Addison, Vol. 1, pp. 295-8.
Ibid., p. 297.
228
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 181.
227
62
the two works are striking – in both, a beautiful and vengeful sorceress is at war with a morally
superior order and, through her magic, ensnares an ineffectual hero from the enemy’s side with
whom she falls in love, thus alienating her ally.229
By mixing national musical traditions, Hill made a self-conscious attempt to change the
course of both English and Italian opera in London. Hill dedicated the published libretto to
Queen Anne and urged her to support Rinaldo’s musical endeavor, for “’twere a publick
Misfortune, shou’d Opera’s for want of due Encouragement, grow faint and languish: My little
Fortune and my Application stand devoted to a Trial, whether such a noble Entertainment, in its
due Magnificence, can fail of living, in a City, the most capable of Europe, both to relish and
support it.” Hill underlined the Englishness of Rinaldo: “This Opera is a Native of your
Majesty’s Dominions, and was consequently born your Subject.” Hill even expressed his
endeavor “to see the English Opera more splendid than her Mother, the Italian.” 230 Rinaldo was
an Italian opera seria, performed in Italian by Italian singers, yet Hill saw himself as
contributing to a distinctly English work and promoting a uniquely English style of all-sung
opera. His gamble would fail: his laxity with the opera finances led to his dismissal as
Haymarket manager after Rinaldo’s first two nights, and Handel continued to compose Italian
language opera serie for the Haymarket. However, the English traditions of spectacle, plot, and
character that Hill managed to insert into Rinaldo probably eased Italian opera’s entry into the
musical life of London.231
William Weber suggests that Rinaldo’s success in England also derived from Handel’s
ability to navigate the polarized political culture of London. For example, Handel mingled easily
with both Whigs and Tories; this was a significant accomplishment, as theater managers were
229
Price, “English Traditions in Handel’s Rinaldo,” p. 123.
Rossi, Rinaldo, an opera, unpaginated preface.
231
Price, “English Traditions in Handel’s Rinaldo,” pp. 120-1.
230
63
almost entirely Whigs, while subscribers included prominent Tories.232 Burrows notes that
Handel had a talent for gravitating to the center of power and influence soon after his arrival in a
city. Only a couple of months after his arrival in London, for example, he gave a private court
performance of his music for Queen Anne on her birthday. In front of state officers, foreign
ministers, and the nobility, Nicolini and other Italian singers of the Haymarket sang an Italian
dialogue. Neither this performance nor Hill’s request for the queen’s support resulted in direct
royal patronage; Italian opera remained a commercial enterprise. Nonetheless, according to the
newspapers, Handel’s performance for the queen greatly pleased her, which could only bode
well for the premiere in two-weeks time of his Rinaldo, the first Italian opera composed for the
London stage.233
The queen’s approval, however, did not appease British critics, and it apparently meant
little to Dennis, if he even knew about it. In his An Essay upon Publick Spirit; Being a Satyr in
Prose upon the Manners and Luxury of the Times, published in the year of Rinaldo’s premiere,
Dennis escalated his attacks upon Italian opera and the threat it posed to the nation. As he wrote,
“Why then, if these Gentlemen love their Country, do they encourage that which corrupts their
Country-men, and makes them degenerate from themselves so much? If they are so fond of the
Italian Musick, why do they not take it from the Hay-Market to their Houses, and hug it like
their secret Sins there?” 234 Ironically, with the entrepreneurship of John Walsh, opera lovers
could do exactly that. Two months after the premiere of Rinaldo, Walsh published the first of
many editions of the music in Rinaldo. This first edition was 65 pages long and contained the
232
William Weber, “Handel’s London – social, political and intellectual contexts,” in The Cambridge Companion to
Handel, p. 50.
233
Burrows, Handel, p. 66.
234
Dennis, Essay upon Publick Spirit, p. 22.
64
overture and coro in full score and all the arias in short score.235 There are occasional scoring
indications – ‘Venti, turbini’ contains a four-part ritornello with bassoon, and ‘Lascia ch’io
pianga’ is followed by a flute arrangement. It is unknown whether Handel corrected the proofs,
as Walsh claimed he had, but the comprehensiveness of the publication suggests that Walsh at
least had Handel’s authority.236 Walsh’s later editions of Rinaldo’s music, and his publications of
many of Handel’s future operas, continued his dissemination of Italian opera music to the larger
public, offering audience members the pleasure of prolonging their enjoyment of Handel’s opera
music in the privacy of their homes. Even those who had not attended the Haymarket production
had the opportunity to experience and appreciate Handel’s music through their own amateur
musical talents.
Despite British authors’ attacks on Italian opera in the years leading up to Handel’s
arrival in London, Rinaldo was a success. Its excellent music, stunning visual spectacles, famed
castrati singers, and underlying English traditions ensured its popular appeal and its many
revivals in the years to come. Rinaldo’s success confirmed the fears of London’s literati: a
foreign opera had infiltrated the nation, and its ridiculous excesses did not halt elite patronage or
middle-class fascination. Spurred to critical commentary by the political, social, and cultural
context of early eighteenth-century England, British authors could not stop the continental
deluge that represented debauched monarchs, effeminacy, Roman Catholicism, and senseless
spectacle. Italian-style opera had triumphed over the London stage.
235
236
Smith, A Bibliography of the Musical Works Published by John Walsh, p. 116.
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 203.
65
Conclusion
Although British writers could not stop the influx of Italian opera, their criticism of the
genre did not end with the success of Rinaldo. For example, Aaron Hill, the English co-librettist
of Rinaldo, would later turn against Italian opera and join the ranks of the British critics. In 1724,
less than fifteen years after Hill had employed castrati singers for Rinaldo, he published an attack
on Senesino, the famous castrato who performed in Handel’s operas during the 1720s and 1730s.
Hill’s verses are reminiscent of Steele or Dennis, not of a previous manager of the Haymarket:
O Thou! our Country’s Folly and Expense!
Dull Foe to Tragedy and GOD-like Sense
Too long, mean, mercenary shade, too long
Hast thou these ISLES Inchanted with thy Song.237
In 1725, Hill continued to echo the language of his British critical predecessors and of his 1711
preface to Rinaldo, expressing his desire for an opera in which the “Force of Words and Meaning
were increas’d by Musick; where…our emasculating present Taste, of the Italian Luxury, and
Wantonness of Music, will give way to a more Passionate, and animated Kind of Opera, where
not only the Eye and Ear may expect to be charm’d, but the Heart to be touch’d and
transported.”238 Italian opera had disappointed Hill, who felt that it had not fulfilled its initial
promise or reached British dramatic standards. He believed that Italian opera was not as
passionate as it should be, and that its florid music destroyed the sense of the words.
In 1732, Hill voiced his concerns to Handel, his old operatic colleague. After the success
of Rinaldo, Handel had remained in London and continued composing Italian opera, an activity
that dominated his musical output for the next thirty-five years. His status as London’s most
renowned Italian opera composer was solidified in 1720 with the establishment of the Royal
237
238
Knapp, “Aaron Hill and the London theatre of his time,” Händel-Jahrbuch 37 (1991): p. 180.
Ibid.
66
Academy of Music. While he produced many more works of opera seria for the London stage,
Rinaldo remained the most performed and loved.239 But in 1732, Hill urged Handel to turn his
compositional talents to revitalize English-language opera: “My meaning is, that you would be
resolute enough, to deliver us from our Italian bondage; and demonstrate, that English is soft
enough for Opera, when compos’d by poets, who know how to distinguish the sweetness of our
tongue, from the strength of it...” 240 The tension between English and Italian opera thus
continued.
Four years later, Handel corresponded with another ghost from his past – Shaftesbury’s
son, the fourth Earl of Shaftesbury. The fourth Earl was an ardent admirer of Handel; he
subscribed to publications of his operas and concertos, corresponded with the composer
concerning his health and musical activities, possibly hosted him at the family home, and wrote a
brief memoir of Handel’s activities in London. In 1736, Handel wrote to the fourth Earl,
thanking him for “that Part of My Lord Your Fathers Letter relating to Musick.” Handel wrote
that he found the third Earl’s notions very just, and was “highly delighted with them, and [could]
not enough admire ‘em.” 241 Thomas McGeary suggests that the letter to which Handel was
referring was Shaftesbury’s 1709 letter to Pierre Coste concerning Raguenet. If this is so, it is
perhaps surprising that Handel embraced Shaftesbury’s ideas so wholeheartedly. While
Shaftesbury ultimately vindicated Italian opera, his fears of spectacle probably would not have
led to his appreciation for the spectacularly staged Rinaldo. But the amenability between Handel
and Shaftesbury’s son, side by side with the rift between Handel and his former Italian operapromoting colleague Hill, suggests a posterity that continued British opposition to Italian opera
239
Dean and Knapp, Handel’s Operas, p. 183.
Otto Erich Deutsch, Handel: A Documentary Biography (New York: Da Capo Press, 1974), p. 299.
241
McGeary, “Shaftesbury, Handel, and Italian Opera,” Händel-Jahrbuch 32 (1986): p. 99.
240
67
while finding a place in London musical life for Handel, his Italian operas, and his later English
oratorios.
In the early eighteenth century, Italian opera entered England at a critical time politically,
socially, and culturally. British writers never opposed Italian opera solely for its music, but in
response to its relation to the larger political and cultural context. John Dennis, Joseph Addison,
and the third Earl of Shaftesbury each reveal different fears that crystallized in their arguments
against Italian opera. Dennis, the most vehement of the three critics, resorted to xenophobia in
his extreme political condemnation of foreign opera. Addison encouraged his middle-class
readers to laugh at, rather than attend, the lavish operatic productions sponsored by the elite in
their struggle to distinguish themselves from the lower classes. And Shaftesbury urged the
culturally refined British gentleman to resist operatic spectacle and hoped Britain would remain a
free and republican nation in which opera could develop as a venerable art form. The arguments
of these authors illuminate the political and cultural tension that would come to define emerging
Enlightenment thought.
Italian opera in London would continue to be fashionable and socially exclusive, as well
as expensive and difficult to finance. Yet as operatic elements spread to the popular theaters,
Italian opera would gradually lose its earlier exclusivity. Handel’s turn to the religious oratorio in
the 1740s hastened this trend, and wealthy English men and women searched for other musical
outlets to satisfy their desire for novelty and exclusivity. Beginning in the 1760s, the British elite
began attending costly performances of technically difficult foreign instrumental music, played
by imported professionals. In the cosmopolitan city of London, where elites were constantly
68
searching for new diversions, dawned the age of Haydn and Mozart. The era of Classical music
had begun.242
242
Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 396-7.
69
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