...

LOBSTERS

by user

on
Category: Documents
7

views

Report

Comments

Description

Transcript

LOBSTERS
click for previous page
LOBSTERS
by M. Tavares, Universidade Santa Úrsula, Brazil
294
Lobsters
TECHNICAL TERMS AND MEASUREMENTS
rostrum
lateral
rostral
spines
antennal
peduncle
eye
antennular
flagella
leg 2
leg 1
antennular
peduncle
antennal
spine
postrostral
spines
leg 3
cervical
groove
frontal horn
leg 4
carapace (dorsal view)
eye
antennal
flagellum
length of
carapace
leg 5
I
body
length
II
transverse
grooves
scaphocerite
postorbital spine
abdominal
segments
III
lateral carina
IV
V
VI
length of
tail
median carina
intermediate
carina
tail fan
telson
branchial carina
uropods
general body shape (dorsal view)
transverse grooves
pleura of 2nd
and 3rd
segments
I
II
simple dactyl
III
IV
abdominal
appendages
(pleopods)
V
apparent (false) pincer
VI
slender true pincer
tail
fan
uropods
telson
abdomen (lateral view)
massive true pincer
types of terminal segments in first pair of legs
Technical Terms and Measurements
5th antennal
segment
295
6th antennal segment
tergite
4th antennal segment
antennular
flagella
antennular
peduncle
median carina
pleuron
fused 2nd and 3rd antennal
segments
anterior margin of carapace
antennular somite
rostrum
orbit
rostral tooth
postrostral carina
pregasteric tooth
gastric tooth
postcervical
groove
cervical groove
cardiac tooth
posterior
postrostral carina
sternite
peduncle
endopod pleopod
exopod
anterolateral angle
anterolateral teeth
postorbital tubercle
cervical incision
postcervical
incision
postcervical spine
abdomen (cross-section)
6th abdominal
somite
post-lateral
teeth
peduncle
endopod uropod
exopod
telson
lateral margin
postcervical
groove
intestinal tooth
diaeresis
posterior branchial carina
posterior margin
tail (dorsal)
dorsal view of right half of carapace
rostrum
postrostral carina
postorbital
spine
orbit
stridulating
organ
median carina
subdorsal carina
postorbital
margin
antennular peduncle
intermediate carina
postcervical
spine
antennal spine
lateral
ridge
cervical
groove
branchiostegal spine
antennal
peduncle
frontal
horn
cornea
lateral carina
antennular plate
lateral view of carapace
dorsal view of head
eyestalk
296
Lobsters
GENERAL REMARKS
T
he lobsters include a variety of crustaceans ranging in size from a few centimetres to over 1 m. They are
more or less elongate animals with cylindrical or flattened bodies and a prominent tail or abdomen consisting of 6 movable segments and a terminal fan, which is usually about as long as the rigid and often spiny or tuberculate head or carapace. The eyes are stalked and usually movable in the sockets of the carapace, but
reduced or even absent in some families (i.e., the deepsea Thaumastochelidae). The most conspicuous of the
appendages of the anterior part of the body, under the carapace, are a pair of usually small, slender antennules, a pair of more robust antennae (long and cylindrical in most families, scale-like in the slipper lobsters or
Scyllaridae) and 5 pairs of legs (pereopods or thoracic legs). The first pair of legs is enlarged in certain families
(Nephropidae, Synaxidae) or in certain species of others (Justitia of Palinuridae); the legs may all end in a simple curved dactyl (i.e., Palinuridae, Synaxidae, Scyllaridae) or some of them may terminate in true pincers or
chelae (i.e. the first 3 pairs in Nephropidae, 4 or 5 pairs in Polychelidae). The abdominal appendages are short
and biramous reduced abdominal legs or pleopods.
In the Western Central Atlantic, lobsters are represented by 6 families and 34 species, of which only a few can
be considered to be of interest to fisheries at the present time. Apart from the common Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, no lobster species are caught at present in large quantities within Area 31; the American
lobster (Homarus americanus), which is the most important commercial lobster species on the Atlantic coast
of North America, is mainly fished to the north of Area 31. From 1984 to 1998 the lobster capture production
(Panulirus only, almost entirely Panulirus argus) reported from Area 31 totaled 330 187 t (Anguilla: 1 556 t;
Antigua: 1 597 t; Bahamas: 179 207 t; Belize: 8 752 t; Bermuda: 265 t; Haiti: 240 t; Honduras: 27 721 t; Mexico: 1
424 t; Nicaragua: 488 t; USA: 38 120 t; and Venezuela: 1 179 t).
GUIDE TO THE FAMILIES OCCURRING IN THE AREA
NEPHROPIDAE
p. 299
True lobsters and lobsterettes
Fourteen species in the area. Body tubular;
carapace with well developed rostrum; first 3
pairs of legs with pincers, first pair much
larger than others; antennae cylindrical, longer than body.
1
2
4
3
5
1st pincer
enlarged
strong rostrum
1st 3 legs
with true
pincers
THAUMASTOCHELIDAE
Pincer lobsters
At least 1 species in the area, on the continental slope between 640 and 1 050 m. Blind
(eyeless), soft-bodied deep sea lobsters; carapace with a rostrum; first 3 pairs of legs with
pincers, first pair enlarged and unequal; antennae cylindrical, longer than body; antennal
scale with spines. No species of interest to
fisheries in Area 31.
1
3
2
4
5
1st pincers
very
unequal
Guide to Families
297
POLYCHELIDAE
1st pincer
enlarged
Blind lobsters
small
pincers
At least 2 species in the area, at depths between 100 and 2 900 m. Eyes small and lacking pigment; soft-bodied deep sea lobsters;
carapace without a rostrum; telson of tail fan
pointed; first 4 or all legs with pincers, first pair
enlarged; antennae cylindrical, shorter than
body. No species of interest to fisheries in
Fishing Area 31.
5
1
3
2
4
antenna
shorter
than body
SYNAXIDAE
p. 311
Furry lobsters
One species in the area, in shallow waters.
Body tubular; carapace with a small rostrum;
legs without pincers, first pair much larger
than others; antennae cylindrical, shorter
than body. A single species, Palinurellus
gundlachi, body without enlarged spines,
hairy, and bright orange.
antenna
short
1
2
3
5
4
all legs without
pincers
PALINURIDAE
all legs without
true pincers
p. 312
3
Spiny lobsters (langoustes)
Six species in the area. Body tubular; carapace without a rostrum; legs without true pincers; first pair not enlarged except in Justitia;
antennae enlarged, cylindrical, longer than
body.
4
5
2
1
frontal
horns
thick, long
antenna
298
Lobsters
SCYLLARIDAE
p. 320
body flat
2
Slipper lobsters
Thirteen species in the area. Body strongly
flattened dorsoventrally; carapace without a
rostrum; legs without pincers, none of them
enlarged; antennae scale-like.
3
4
1
5
antennae
scale-like
distinct
orbs
all legs witout
pincers
KEY TO THE FAMILIES OCCURRING IN THE AREA
(adapted from Holthuis, 1991)
1a. First 3 pairs of pereopods with true chelae, the first pair the largest and most robust . . .
1b. Third pereopod never with a true chela, in most groups chelae also absent from first and
second pereopods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2a. Fourth pereopod, and usually also the fifth, without true chelae; carapace cyclindrical, not
flattened . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2b. All pereiopods, or at least the first 4, with true chelae; carapace flattened; deep sea species
. . . .®2
. . . .®4
. . . .®3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polychelidae
3a. Eyes entirely absent, or strongly reduced, without pigment; telson unarmed; chelipeds very
unequal, the larger with fingers more than four times as long as palm; cutting edges of the
fingers of the larger cheliped with many slender spines; fifth pereopod (at least in the female) with a chela; abdominal pleura short, quadrangular, lateral margin broad, truncate,
not ending in a point; scaphocerite with several very large teeth on the inner margin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thaumastochelidae
3b. Eyes well developed or reduced, always present as movable appendages; telson with lateral and/or postlateral spines; chelipeds equal or unequal, but fingers always considerably
less than twice as long as palm; teeth of the cutting edge placed in the same plane; fifth
pereopod without a true chela; abdominal pleura large, triangular, or ovate, usually ending
in a point; scaphocerite, if present, with the inner margin evenly curved, unarmed . . . Nephropidae
4a. Antennal flagelum reduced to a single broad and flat segment, similar to the other antennal
segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scyllaridae
4b. Antennal flagelum long, multi-articulate, flexible, whip-like, or more rigid . . . . . . . . . . . . ® 5
5a. Carapace with numerous strong and less strong spines and 2 frontal horns over the eyes;
rostrum absent or reduced to a single spine; legs 2 to 4 (usually also 1) without chelae or
subchelae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Palinuridae
5b. Carapace with at most a few spines; no frontal horns; rostrum present even though sometimes small; first pereiopods simple, rostrum flat, broad, and triangular or broadly oval . . . Synaxidae
Nephropidae
299
NEPHROPIDAE
True lobsters and lobsterettes
iagnostic characters: Moderate- to large-sized crustaceans. Carapace (or ‘head’) cylindrical, with a
well-developed median rostrum and variously ornamented with spines or nodules, occasionally
smooth; eyes movable, usually well developed with black pigment, but small and lacking pigment or even absent in some deep water forms. Antennae long and whip-like, antennules slender, ending in 2 long flagella. Tail
powerful, with a well-developed fan; abdominal segments smooth, or with one or more transverse grooves, or
spiny, or granulate. First 3 pairs of walking legs ending in true pincers, the first pair, and especially its
pincers, usually enlarged. Colour: variable, depending on the species; some drab, others marked with pink
or red. Deep sea forms are whitish or pinkish.
D
Homarus
Metanephrops
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: This family comprises 12 species in Fishing Area 31 (11 genera worldwide)
ranging in size from 10 to over 120 cm, and occurring in depths ranging from the shoreline to over 1 400 m. All
lobsters and lobsterettes are bottom dwelling species, usually preferring hard and irregular bottoms which offer shelter, although some may also occur on open sand or even mud, digging burrows. The only important
commercial species at this time in the western Atlantic is the American lobster Homarus americanus, but the
fishing grounds for this species lie mostly to the north of Area 31. Other species from deeper waters, caught in
exploratory trawling cruises, might possibly have some potential when fishing operations extend into deeper
water and they are here described on individual sheets to facilitate their identification. In particular, some species of Metanephrops and Nephropsis caught during commercial fishing operations for the Royal red shrimp
(Pleoticus robustus) have entered local markets sporadically. No statistics are available on these landings.
Similar families occurring in the area
Palinuridae: carapace without a median rostrum, but with
strong frontal horns over the eyes; all walking legs without
pincers, first pair not greatly enlarged, except in Justitia.
frontal
horn
Palinuridae
300
Lobsters
Synaxidae (Palinurellus gundiachi): carapace covered with small, rounded nodules but without enlarged
spines; antennae short; walking legs without pincers; entire body hairy and bright orange.
Scyllaridae: body strongly flattened; rostrum rudimentary or absent; no enlarged pincers; antennae scale-like.
no enlarged
spines
body
flat
Scyllaridae
Synaxidae
Polychelidae (no species of interest to fisheries in Area 31): blind, deep -sea lobster with a very soft body; rostrum absent; 4 to 5 pairs of legs with pincers; telson pointed.
Thaumastochelidae (no species of interest to fisheries in Area 31): blind deep sea lobster with a very soft body;
antennal scales with spines (spineless in Nephropidae); fingers of pincers much longer than rest of legs in first
pair.
telson pointed
Polychelidae
body very soft
Thaumastochelidae
Key to the genera of Nephropidae occurring in the area
1a. Rostrum laterally compressed for the
larger part of its length, with dorsal and
ventral, but no lateral teeth (Fig. 1); carapace with branchiostegal spine; body
entirely covered by numerous closely
placed and sharply pointed spinules;
lateral margin of the telson with 6 to 12
spines . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acanthacaris
1b. Rostrum dorsoventrally depressed
with lateral (and sometimes ventral),
but without dorsal teeth; sometimes
without any teeth; carapace without a
branchiostegal spine; body never uniformly covered with spinules, although
granules may be present all over, or
spinules may be placed on the carapace; the lateral margin of the telson
with at most 3 lateral spines, which if
present, area usually small and irregular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ® 2
enlarged antennal scale
numerous sharply
pointed spinules
rostrum laterally
compressed with
dorsal teeth
Fig. 1 lateral view of front of carapace
(Acanthacaris)
Nephropidae
2a. Scaphocerite absent; carapace without postorbital spine; abdominal sternites unarmed in
both sexes; no podobranch on second maxilliped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2b. Scaphocerite present; carapace with a distinct postorbital spine; sternites of second to fifth
abdominal somites in the male with a sharp median spine each; podobranch usually present on the second maxilliped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3a. Pleura of abdominal somites broadly overlapping; exopod of second maxilliped without
flagellum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3b. Pleura of abdominal somites narrow, hardly if at all overlapping; lateral margin of telson unarmed, but for the posterolateral spine; exopod of second maxilliped with a distinct
flagellum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
301
. . . .®3
. . . .®4
. . Thymops
. . . .®5
4a. Eye not pigmented; body granular and hairy, but not covered with evenly placed large
pearly tubercles; pleura of second abdominal somite ending in a long sharp point . . . . Nephropsis
4b. Eye pigmented, although cornea small; body entirely covered by conspicuous rounded
pearly tubercles; pleura of second abdominal somite broadly trapezoid, distal margin
obliquely truncate, ending in a blunt posterior tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nephropides
5a. Left and right first chelipeds unequal, 1 crushing claw, the a other cutting claw; antennal
spines without a strong posterior carina; first abdominal sternite of the male without a median spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5b. Left and right chelipeds of the first pair similar size and in shape; antennal spine in most
species followed by a strong carina; a distinct carina separates the abdominal tergites from
the pleura; first abdominal sternite of the male with a median spine (feature not known from
Thymopides) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . Homarus
. . . .®6
6a. Supraorbital spine followed by a strong toothed ridge which extends almost to the
postcervical groove; posterior part of carapace with several longitudinal carinae . . . . Metanephrops
6b. Supraorbital spine followed by a single post-supraorbital spine, no supraorbital carina is
present; the posterior part of the carapace is evenly granulate, without longitudinal carinae . Eunephrops
List of species occurring in the area
The symbol ( is given when species accounts are included.
( Acanthacaris caeca A. Milne Edwards, 1881.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
Eunephrops bairdii S. I. Smith, 1885.
Eunephrops cadenasi Chace, 1939.
Eunephrops manning Holthuis, 1974.
Eunephrops luckhursti Manning, 1997.
Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837.
Metanephrops binghami (Boone, 1927).
Nephropides caribaeus Manning, 1969.
Nephropsis aculeata S. I. Smith, 1881.
Nephropsis agassizii A. Milne Edwards, 1880.
Nephropsis neglecta Holthuis, 1974.
Nephropsis rosea Bate, 1888.
302
Lobsters
References
Addison, J.T. and R.C.A. Bannister. 1994. Re-stocking and enhancement of clawed lobster stocks: a review. Proceedings of
the Fourth International Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management, 1993. Crustaceana, 67(2):131-155.
Guéguen, F. 2000. Distribution et abondance des crustacés décapodes du talus continental (200-900 m) de Guyane
Française. Crustaceana, 73(6):685-703.
Holthuis, L.B. 1974. The lobsters of the superfamily Nephropidea of the Atlantic ocean (Crustacea: Decapoda). Biological
results of the University of Miami deep-sea expeditions. 106. Bull. Mar. Sci., 24(4):723-884.
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 13. Marine lobsters of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of
species of interest to fisheries known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. 125(13):1-292.
Manning, R.B. 1978. Lobsters. In: FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fisheries Purposes. Western Central Atlantic
(Fishing Area 31) Volume VI, edited by W. Fischer. Rome, FAO (unpaginated).
Poupin, J. 1994. Faune marine profonde des Antilles françaises. Récoltes du navire ‘Polka’faites en 1993. Paris, Études et
Thèses. ORSTOM Éditions., 80 p.
Williams, A.B. 1984. Shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Atlantic coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida.
Smithsonian Institution Press, 550 p.
Williams, A.B. 1986. Lobsters – Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade. Mar. Fish. Rev., 48(2):1-36.
Nephropidae
Acanthacaris caeca (A. Milne Edwards, 1881)
303
NTK
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Atlantic deep-sea lobster; Fr - Langoustine arganelle; Sp - Cigala de fondo.
Diagnostic characters: A moderately large lobster. Body cylindrical, completely covered with small spines
and sharp tubercles; carapace with a well-developed median rostrum. Eyes very small, lacking pigment; antennae long and whip-like; antennal scales well-developed. Tail powerful, with a well-developed fan. First 3
pairs of legs ending in true pincers, the first pair equal, very slender, longer than body, covered with sharp
spinules, and ending in elongate and slender fingers with long teeth on cutting edges, but without
hairs. Colour: uniform pink.
Size: Maximum length: About 400 mm; commonly 250 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: A deep sea lobster living in burrows in soft bottoms between
290 and 878 m, usually between 550 and 830 m.
Not actively fished for at present. This species
has been obtained in sizeable quantities during
exploratory deep trawling operations with oversized bottom trawls in the Caribbean.
Distribution: Straits of Florida, Gulf of Mexico,
Caribbean Sea, and Brazil (Amapá and Bahia).
304
Eunephrops bairdii S.I. Smith, 1885
Lobsters
UFJ
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Red lobster; Fr - Langoustine rouge; Sp - Cigala colorada.
Diagnostic characters: A medium sized lobster. Body cylindrical; carapace granular, with a well-developed
median rostrum armed with lateral and ventral teeth, but none on dorsal midline, and without a longitudinal ridge behind cervical groove; a pair of spines dorsally on carapace behind cervical groove. Eyes
well developed and pigmented; antennae long and whip-like; small antennal scales present. Tail powerful
with a well-developed fan, not conspicuously granulate; each abdominal segment with a deep transverse groove; pleura of second segment squarish in side view. First 3 pairs of legs ending in true pincers,
the first pair long and stout with large, flattened, naked fingers. Colour: solid red to orange red; cornea
black.
Size: Maximum length: about 200 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Occurs in soft
substrate (mud or coralline rubble) between 230
and 400 m. Although its large size makes it an attractive fishery subject, this deep-water species
is not actively fished for at present. It has been
taken during exploratory commercial fishing but
is scarce.
Distribution: Southwestern Caribbean, off Panama and Colombia.
Nephropidae
Eunephrops cadenasi Chace, 1939
305
UPC
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Sculptured lobster.
Diagnostic characters: A large lobster. Body cylindrical and smooth; carapace with a well-developed median
rostrum. Antennae long and whip-like. No spines dorsally on carapace behind cervical groove. Tail powerful,
with a well-developed fan. First 3 pairs of walking legs ending in true pincers (or claws), those of enlarged
first pair massive, flattened, unequal and smooth, without ridges, spines, or hairs. Colour: chelipeds
and abdominal ridges primarily beige or yellow; carapace marked with yellow anteriorly; walking legs clear or
beige proximally, red distally.
Size: Maximum length: about 300 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Occurs between 434 and 607 m depth; mostly common between 450 and 550 m. Sizeable quantities of this
species have been reported from Guadeloupe.
Its large size and rather high commercial value
makes it of interest to fisheries. In Guadeloupe
this species is caught with cylindrical traps. Marketed fresh and frozen.
Distribution: Off Bahamas, north of Cuba,
Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique, Jamaica, and off Colombia.
306
Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837
Lobsters
LBA
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - American lobster; Fr - Homard américain; Sp - Bogavante americano.
Diagnostic characters: A large lobster. Body cylindrical and smooth; carapace with a well-developed median
rostrum. Antennae long and whip-like. Tail powerful, with a well-developed fan. First 3 pairs of walking legs
ending in true pincers (or claws), those of enlarged first pair massive, flattened, unequal, and smooth,
without ridges, spines or hairs. Colour: variable, often with a background of yellow or yellowish red, mottled
with green or blue; carapace frequently with a blue stripe laterally, overall appearance dark.
Size: Maximum length: exceptionally over 640 mm; usually around 250 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Found on various kinds of bottoms, especially rocky substrates, from the
shore to depths of 480 m; most common between 4 and 50 m. Ovigerous females are found throughout the
year. Migration does not occur, or occurs only on a limited scale. Feeds chiefly on bottom living fishes and crustaceans, molluscs, and other invertebrates. One of the most important Crustacea fisheries in the northwest Atlantic (Area 21). In that area, the capture production from 1984 to 1998 was 402 785 t (mean capture
production was 26 852 t/year). It has been reported that small quantities may be landed in the
northernmost part of Area 31 but separate statistics are not reported for this species from that
area. American lobsters are traditionally obtained with traps, but in recent years trawling
proved to be commercially feasible, especially in
the southern part of its range. Marketed fresh,
frozen, and alive (Beard and McGregor, 1991).
The meat is also canned.
Distribution: Western Atlantic from Newfoundland (Canada) to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina
(USA).
Nephropidae
Metanephrops binghami (Boone, 1927)
307
MFI
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Caribbean lobster; Fr - Langoustine caraïbe; Sp - Cigala del Caribe.
Diagnostic characters: A small to medium-sized lobster. Body cylindrical; carapace spiny, with a
well-developed median rostrum armed with lateral and ventral teeth only, and supraorbital ridges extending
behind eyes, the spaces between these ridges nearly smooth; longitudinal ridges present behind cervical groove. Eyes well developed and pigmented; antennae long and whip-like; antennal scales present.
Tail powerful, with a well-developed fan and smooth, shiny abdominal segments without transverse
grooves. First 3 pairs of legs ending in true pincers, the first pair very long and moderately slender, square
in cross-section, with rows of spines along ridges. Colour: pinkish, with lateral stripes of red and white
along body.
Size: Maximum length: 170 mm; usually around 120 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Occurs between 230 and 700 m; most commonly obtained
between 300 and 500 m on sand and mud bottoms. The Caribbean lobster is not actively
fished for at present. In exploratory trawling operations off Nicaragua and Colombia this species
was obtained in commercially attractive quantities (about 10 kg/h). Outside of the area, its
counterpart Metanephrops rubellus is quite
common in the Brazilian markets where it is sold
frozen.
Distribution: From the Bahamas and southern
Florida to French Guiana, including the Gulf of
Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
308
Nephropsis aculeata S.I. Smith, 1881
Lobsters
NFU
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Florida lobsterette; Fr - Langoustine de Floride; Sp - Cigala de Florida.
Diagnostic characters: A small lobster. Body cylindrical; carapace granular, with a well-developed median
rostrum armed with 1 pair of lateral spines; a single spine behind each eye. Eyes very small, lacking
pigment; antennae long and whip-like, antennal scales absent. Tail powerful, with a well-developed fan;
pleura (lateral projections) of second abdominal segment triangular, without spines on front edge.
First 3 pairs of legs ending in true pincers, the first pair stout with short, very hairy (woolly) fingers. Colour:
generally pink or red, variable.
Size: Maximum length: about 140 mm; usually 80 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Occurs between 130 and 830 m, usually between 200 and
6 0 0 m , o n mu d o r f i n e s a n d . Po t e n t i a l
considerable densities of this species (up to 40
kg/h) have been revealed in the Gulf of Mexico
(off the mouth of the Mississippi river and off east
Florida on royal red shrimp grounds) by exploratory trawling operations. Separate statistics are
not reported for this species. Probably marketed
fresh or frozen.
Distribution: From off Massachusetts and Bermuda southward through the Gulf of Mexico and
the Caribbean Sea, including the Antilles, Suriname, French Guiana, to Brazil (from Espírito
Santo to São Paulo).
Nephropidae
Nephropsis agassizii A. Milne Edwards, 1880
309
NFZ
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Prickly lobsterette; Fr - Langoustine épineuse; Sp - Cigala de grano.
Diagnostic characters: A small lobster. Body cylindrical; carapace granular, with a well-developed median
rostrum armed with 2 pairs of lateral spines. Eyes very small, lacking pigment; antennae long and
whip-like, antennal scales absent. Tail powerful, with a well-developed fan; pleura (lateral projections) of
second abdominal segment with 2 spines on front edge. First 3 pairs of legs ending in true pincers, the first
pair moderately stout with short, granular, hairy, but not woolly fingers. Colour: bright red.
Size: Maximum length: about 120 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Found at
depths between 470 and 1 750 m, usually between 900 and 1 400 m, on mud bottoms. Not
fished for at present. Its small size and density
makes it unattractive for fisheries purposes. The
species has been taken sporadically in deep
trawling operations of exploratory fishing vessels
but never in commercial quantities.
Distribution: Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Tobago, and Brazil (Bahia and São
Paulo).
310
Lobsters
Nephropsis rosea Bate, 1888
NFI
Frequent synonyms / misidentifications: None / None.
FAO names: En - Two-toned lobsterette; Fr - Langoustine bicolore.
pincer
abdomen (lateral view)
carapace (dorsal view)
Diagnostic characaters: A small lobster. Body cylindrical; carapace granular with well-developed median
rostrum armed with only 1 lateral spine at either side. Eyes small; antennae long and whip-like, antennal
scales absent. Tail powerful, with a well-developed fan; pleura (lateral projections) of second abdominal segment with no spines on front edge. Colour: upper part of body pale, ventral surface darker, orange or orange-red.
Size: Maximum length: about 130 mm.
Habitat, biology, and fisheries: Found at
depths between 420 and 1 260 m, usually between 500 and 800 m, on muddy and sandy bottoms. Potential interest to fisheries as the species
is not rare. Not fished for at present.
Distribution: From Bermuda to Brazil (Bahia
and Espírito Santo), including the Gulf of Mexico,
Caribbean Sea, and Guyana.
click for next page
Fly UP